Restrictiveclauses
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Restrictiveclauses

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    Restrictiveclauses Restrictiveclauses Presentation Transcript

    • By Holly Cin5EF/Summer 2012
    •  This information identifies the noun and is therefore necessary. Example: The teacher who teaches 5E is an excellent teacher. “who teaches 5E” is essential information; otherwise you don’t know which teacher we are referring to and the sentence isn’t clear. Essential clauses are attached to the antecedent (noun) WITHOUT COMMAS to separate them.
    •  This information does not identify the noun and is therefore EXTRA. You can remove this adjective clause and the sentence will still be clear. Example: Holly Cin, who teaches 5E, is an excellent teacher. “who teaches 5E” is extra information here since you already know who Holly Cin is; she has been identified by name. Therefore, any information you give me about Holly Cin is now EXTRA. NON-Essential clauses are separated from their antecedents (nouns) WITH COMMAS.
    •  When commas are used, the pronoun THAT may not be used (only WHO, WHOM, WHICH, WHOSE, WHERE, and WHEN may be used, and object pronouns cannot be omitted. Ex: My mother, whom I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman. Incorrect: My mother, THAT I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman. Incorrect: My mother, I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman.
    •  Proper names are always followed by non- essential clauses. Ex. Texas, which is the largest state in the continental U.S., is famous for oil, cowboys, and the University of Houston. Since we already know what Texas is, any information that follows it is NON-essential, and therefore, separated by commas. We could remove the non-essential clause and still understand the sentence 100%.
    •  Proper names are always followed by non- essential clauses. Ex. Greg Urquhart, who has been teaching at the LCC since time immemorial, has a great sense of humor. Since we already know who Greg Urquhart is, any information that follows is NON-essential, and therefore, separated by commas. We could remove the non-essential clause ad still understand the sentence 100%.
    •  Once the person or thing has been identified, all information which follows in an adjective clause becomes non-essential. Ex. We had rice and beans for dinner last night. The rice, which was prepared with onions and garlic, tasted delicious. In the above example, you know which rice we’re talking about in the second sentence because it has been identified in the first sentence.
    •  Compare the meaning of the following two sentences. In one case, the information in the adjective clause is essential to the meaning; in the other, it is extra. 1. We took some children on a picnic. The children, who wanted to play soccer, ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park. 2. We took some children on a picnic. The children who wanted to play soccer ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park. The others played baseball.
    •  Compare the meaning of the following two sentences. In one case, the information in the adjective clause is essential to the meaning; in the other, it is extra. 1. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students, who were from 5E, had prepared lots of good questions for me to answer. 2. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students who were from 5E had lots of good questions. The students who were from 5F had nothing at all to say.
    • 1. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students, who were from 5E, had prepared lots of good questions for me to answer.In this case, all of the students were from 5E so the adjective clause “who were from 5E” was not essential to identify them. 2. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students who were from 5E had lots of good questions. The students who were from 5F had nothing at all to say. In this case, some of the students were from 5F and some were from 5E so the adjective clause “who were from 5E” was essential to identify them.