I . S I M P L E P R E S E N TI I . P R E S E N T P R O G R E S S I V EI I I . N O N - A C T I O N V E R B SPresent Tenseby Holly CinSummer 2013
Simple present: When do we use it?A. Facts and laws of nature (because they don’tchange) 1. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius and freezes at 0. 2. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.B. General truths (they’re true now but thesituation can change in the future.)1. I work at the LCC.2. I live in Texas.3. I have three sons.
Simple present: When do we use it? C. Events that happen with frequency 1. Habits Waleed smokes two packs a day. 2. Routines Nimsi wakes up every morning at 7 a.m. 3. Events that happen on a schedule The lecture begins at 8 p.m. The plane departs at 7 a.m. Class ends at noon.
Simple present: When do we use it?D. To narrate events as they happen We see this in stories, novels, songs, and in sports reporting.E. To narrate events of the past We do this to make the story seem more real. It engages thelistener. We often use the simple present when telling jokes.
Present Progressive: When do we use it? 1. Events that are in progress right now. I’m speaking about verbs now. Some of you are not listening to me. A few of you guys are texting your friends. Is anybody paying attention?
Present Progressive: When do we use it?2. Events that are in progress in general, but not rightnow. I’m writing a book about cell phones (but not at this moment). I’m studying at the LCC this year (but I’m not studying rightnow. Right now I’m hanging out with my friends). I’m trying to lose weight (but not right now because it’s mybirthday and I want to eat the cake).
Present Progressive: When do we use it?3. To express general tendencies and trendsSome nations are getting richer while others are getting poorer.Smart phones are becoming ubiquitous.The universe is expanding.The world’s population is increasing.
Present Progressive 4. To express irritation, annoyance, or anger with thefollowing frequency adverbs: always, forever,constantly.The phone is constantly ringing.Her husband is forever forgetting to clean up his mess.The baby is constantly crying.You are forever not listening to what I say!
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs Some verbs are not normally used in the progressiveform. They describe states that stay the same rather thanactions or events that change. These verbs can be categorized into 7 groups: 1. appearances 2. emotions 3. mental states 4. senses and perceptions 5. possession 6. wants and preferences 7. other
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs1. AppearancesAppear, be, concern, look, mean, seem, represent I am the teacher in room 12. Abdullah seems sad right now You look worried. What does that word mean?
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs2. Mental states (know, see (understand), believe, feel(believe), remember, realize, suspect, suppose,understand, think, care, hope, wonder, agree, consider,assume) I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies. Do you believe in miracles? I don’t remember what you told me yesterday! I think that’s a great idea. I wonder what the world will be like in the future.
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs3. Emotions: like, love, hate, trust, doubt, appreciate,admire, envy, fear, regret She doesnt like to admit to mistakes. That husband doesn’t trust his wife. Lissihates sitting in traffic.
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs4. Senses and perception: smell, hear, see, feel, taste,sound, notice, hurt, look I smell something burning. Do you see that fly on the wall? Do you hear that noise? The milk tastes sour. Don’t drink it. Tubing down the Guadalupe River looks and soundslike fun.
State Verbs/Non-Action VerbsLook, sound, feel, smell, and taste use adjectives instead of adverbs.You sound really excited!(not: You sound really excitedly!)The bride looks beautiful.(not: The bride looks beautifully.)(We say “beauty is in the eye of the beholder!”)The soup tastes great.(not: The soup tastes greatly.)This perfume smells intoxicating.(not: This perfume smells intoxicatingly.)Nouf feels bad about what she said.(not: She feels badly.)
State Verbs/Non-Action Verbs5. Possession: belong, have, own, possess(I own a home;Yosefhas3 cars; this ipadbelongs toEnder.)6. Wants and preferences: desire, need, prefer, want,wish7. Other: cost, include, lack, owe, matter, weigh
Non-Action Verb Exceptions When you see non-action verbs used in the progressive form,it is because the verb has a different meaning. 1. McDonald’s slogan “I’m lovin’ it” is not the same love wehave for our parents, spouses, and children. I’m lovin’ itmeans I’m enjoying it. Enjoy is action. 2. Have—when it means possession—is non-progressive.Have—when used in different expressions—can beprogressive. a. I’m having a good time (enjoying). b. I’m having a difficult time/problem/hard time (struggling). c. I’m having a baby (I’m pregnant/the baby is in progress). d. I’m having a heart attack (it’s in progress). e. I’m having a party (hosting). f. I’m having breakfast/lunch/dinner (eating).
Non-Action Verb Exceptions 3. See I’m seeing an eye-doctor about my vision problem (meeting). Joyce has been seeing a really great guy lately (dating). 4. BeWhen we use “be” in the progressive form, it describes a temporary behavior. It meansbehaving or acting. You’re being ridiculous. You’re being foolish. You’re being unreasonable. You’re being silly. 5. Think I think green is a beautiful color (beliefs and opinions are non-action). What are you thinking about right now? I’m thinking about what I’ll eat for lunch (temporary thoughts are progressive because they don’t last).