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Nounclauses
 

Nounclauses

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    Nounclauses Nounclauses Presentation Transcript

    • Holly Cin Summer 2013
    •  A noun is a person, place, or thing.  Example: woman, city, shoes  A noun phrase is a noun plus some more words.  Example: a business woman, a small city, my pink shoes.
    •  A noun clause is a dependent clause which behaves as a noun (or a noun phrase).  Noun: shoe  Noun phrase: my pink shoes  Noun clause: what I’m wearing on my feet How is a noun clause made?  It begins with a noun-clause-word (NCW) that introduces the clause and is then followed by a subject and a verb. NC=NCW (noun clause word) + S + V
    • Noun clauses sometimes look like questions, but they are not questions. Just like adjective and adverb clauses, noun clauses are dependent clauses, which means that they cannot exist alone. S + V inside the noun clause MUST AGREE!
    •  There are 3 ways to introduce a noun clause.  A. Question words (Who, whom, what , when, where, why, whose+ noun, how, how + adj., how + adv., how much/many + noun, which + noun, whichever, whatever, whoever, and whomever)  B. Whether or IF  C. That
    •  Q: Where does Yener live?  NC: where Yener lives  Q: What time is it?  NC: what time it is  Q: When will you be home?  NC: when you will be home  Q: Why did you leave?  NC: why you left  Q: What has he accomplished?  NC: what he has accomplished Do you see the difference between a question and a noun clause?
    • There are 5 ways to make a noun clause with whether or if: 1. Whether + S +V I wonder whether Ender is coming to the party 2. Whether or not + S + V I wonder whether or not Ender is coming to the party. 3. Whether + S + V + or not I wonder whether Ender is coming to the party or not. 4. If + S + V I wonder if Ender is coming to the party. 5. If + S + V + or not I wonder if Ender is coming to the party or not They all mean the EXACT SAME THING! NOTE: I wonder if or not Ender is coming to the party.
    • Remember the formula: NC= NCW + S + V  that you understand the problem  that he is here  that Holly is a good teacher  that I have no idea what’s happening today (Insert “It is certain” before each of the above noun clauses.)
    •  1. Subject  2. Object  A. Object of the verb  B. Object of the preposition  3. Complement  A. Subject complement  B. Adjective complement
    • 1. Subject Examples: What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger. Where you’re from doesn’t matter in the USA. Whether you pass (or not)depends on you. That he was late for classdoesn’t bother me. Note: You cannot use “if” to introduce a subject noun clause. If you pass or not depends on you.
    • 2. Object  A. Object of the verb Do you knowwhen class ends? Can you tell me if the bus passes here or not? I don’t understandwhy some students don’t do their homework. Can you seewhat I can see? You can bring/say/askwhatever you want. You can do it however you wish. I don’t carewho you are, where you’re from, what you did (as long as you love me). *Did you hear [that] Cheetah had a car accident? *When that introduces an object clause, it can be omitted with no change in meaning. Did you hear Cheetah had a car accident?
    • 2. Object B. Object of the preposition (*not for “that-clauses”) Let’s talk abouthow much the new car will cost. Catherine is interested inwhat the teacher told the class. Lissi is upset aboutwhat Jennifer said. I’m worried about whether you’ll pass this class or not. *I’m worried aboutthat you’re late. However, we could substitute the fact that and then this will work. I’m worried aboutthe fact that you’re late. I’m impressed bythe fact that you showed up. There are many verb + preposition combinations to learn (talk about, think about, worry about, etc.). There are many adjective + preposition combinations too(happy with, afraid of, sad about, bored with/by, frustrated with/by, angry with, worried about, etc. ).
    • 3. Complement A. Subject complement When we have the verb “be,” there is no object in the sentence. Rather, we have something called a subject complement. Consider the following examples: 1. Zahra is my friend. 2. My friend is Zahra. Zahra and my friend are the same person! We can switch the order of the sentence with no change in meaning. In sentence 1, “Zahra” is the subject and “my friend” is the complement. In sentence 2, “my friend” is the subject and “Zahra” is the complement. 1. This car is what I want. 2. What I want is this car. “This car” and “what I want” are the same thing! We can switch the order of the sentence with no change in meaning. In sentence 1, “this car” is the subject. What I want is the subject complement (not the object because there is no object!). In sentence 2, what I want is the subject. “This car” is the complement.
    • 3. Complement B. Adjective complement (this means that the noun clause follows certain adjectives): 1. I am not surewhat he said. 2. Are you certain [that]he’s coming? 3. Was it clearwhat I meant? 4. Mohammed is excited[that] Saadis coming to visit. 5. It’sobvious [that]I haven’t been understood. 6. It’s notdefinitewhether they understood the lesson (or not). 7. It’s amazinghow much you can learn if you try. 8. My mother was worried [that] my brother hadn’t arrived. 9. Luigi was amazedhow big her kittens were getting. 10. Holly was shocked [that] every student completed the blog work. You notice [ ] around that because that can be removed from the sentence with no change in meaning.
    • When that introduces an object noun clause or an adjective complement clause, it can be omitted with no change in meaning. In this case, that is purely a function word with no actual meaning. Some examples: 1. I’m happy that you’re here. 2. I’m happy you’re here. 1. You told me that you would be here on time. 2. You told me you would be here on time. Both sentences have the same meaning. In spoken English, that is nearly always removed in these two cases. In written English, that may be removed, but it should be kept in the sentence if the meaning without it isn’t clear.
    • When that introduces a subject noun clause, it cannot be omitted. Without it, the sentence won’t make sense. For example: 1. That you’re here makes me happy. 2. You’re here makes me happy. 1. That you’re learning a lot this term impresses me. 2. You’re learning a lot this term impresses me. We sometimes use “the fact that” in place of “that” in subject noun clauses. 1. The fact that you’re here makes me happy. 2. The fact that you’re learning a lot this term impresses me. Note: Subject noun clauses beginning with that are formal.
    • A noun clause which comes from a question is called an embedded question. Embedded questions begin with: 1. ? words (for information questions) 2. whether or if (for yes/no questions) Embedded questions are more polite than direct questions. An embedded question can occur within a question or a statement.
    • Examples: What time is it? (Direct question) Could you tell me what time it is? (More polite) How far is it to the bus stop? (Direct question) Do you know how far it is to the bus stop? (More polite) Is Muteb coming to the party tonight? (Direct question) Do you have any idea whether Muteb is coming to the party (or not)? (More polite)
    •  With the modals can, could, and should inside the noun clause, it is possible to reduce the noun clause to an infinitive phrase if and only if the subject of the sentence is the same as the subject inside the noun clause. I don’t know what I should do about the problem. I don’t know what to do about the problem. Could you tell me where I could get some cash? Could you tell me where to get some cash? She didn’t know where she should go or what she should do. She didn’t know where to go or what to do. Do you know how I can get an A in this class? Do you know how to get an A in this class? Does Alina understand what Ahmed should do? Try to reduce this. You will see that it is impossible. That’s because the subject of the sentence—Alina—is different than the subject of the noun clause—Ahmed.