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    Gerunds5 cde Gerunds5 cde Presentation Transcript

    • Gerunds Holly Cin Summer 2013
    • Functions of Gerunds  Because gerunds are nouns, they can be used just as nouns are used. HOW AREGERUNDSUSED? 1. Gerunds are subjects Skiingis a popular winter sport. 2. Gerunds are objects of verbs I love skiing. 3. Gerunds are objects of prepositions I can’t live without skiing! I’m interested in skiing. Let’s talk about skiing. I’m afraid of skiing.
    • Functions of Gerunds 4. Gerunds are object complements  He spends timereading.  She found himworking in the kitchen.  Don’t waste your timestudying this stuff.  I caught the studentscheating on the exam.  Saad found Ahmedsmoking outside.  Zahra and Nimsi saw Joycechatting with Rena and Olivia.  Don’t waste timestudying gerunds.  Some students spend a lot of timetexting.
    • Functions of Gerunds 5. Gerunds are subject complements With the verb “be,” if the gerund is at the beginning of the sentence, it’s the subject; if it’s after the verb “be,” it’s the subject complement. With a subject complement, we can reverse the subject and the subject complement with no change in meaning. Example: His passion is kayaking. In this sentence, his passion is the subject, and kayaking is the subject complement. Kayaking is his passion. In this sentence, kayaking is the subject, and his passion is the subject complement.
    • Modifying Gerunds  Gerunds can be modified with possessives (my, your, his, her, it’s, our, their, Holly’s, the students’)and negatives (not).  Gerunds can be modified with a noun or object pronoun (me, you, him, her, our, their, Holly, the students)or the possessive noun or the possessive pronoun (above). I appreciate YOUR participating in the survey. Nouf doesn’t mind MY reading her letter. I thanked Nouri for HIS coming early to help me. Would you mind NOT BEING late tomorrow? I’m unhappy about the students’ interrupting the lecture.
    • Modifying Gerunds  Use the possessive noun or possessive pronoun with formal English.  I’m unhappy with Lissi’smissing class.  I’m unhappy with her missing class.  I’m upset about your missing class.  I’m disappointed with hismissing class.  Use the noun object or object pronoun with informal English.  I’m unhappy with Lissi missing class.  I’m unhappy with hermissing class.  I’m upset about you missing class.  I’m disappointed with him missing class.
    • Gerunds follow certain verbs as objects  Enjoy,  Quit (give up)  Appreciate  Mind (object)  Finish  Stop (quit)  Avoid  Postpone  Delay  Keep  Keep on  Consider  Discuss  Mention  Suggest  Acknowledge  Admit  Advise  Allow  Anticipate  Be worth  Can’t help  Celebrate  Confess  Defend  Deny  Detest  Dislike  Dispute  Dread  Endure  Escape  Evade  Explain  Fear  Feel like  Forgive  Imagine  Omit  Permit  Prevent  Recall  Resist  Resume  Risk  Understand
    • Examples  Muteb doesn’t enjoytraveling.  Ameed wants Faisal to quitsmoking.  I appreciatethe students’ coming on time to class.  Would you mindopening the door for me?  Would you mindhelping me with these bags?  You have to finishworking by 5 p.m. tonight.  Don’t avoidtaking the test.  Holly suggestedmy reviewing the material before taking the test.  Keepmoving! Don’t stopmoving!  I kept on speaking even after my mother hung up the phone on me.  Would you considerstaying for a while?
    • Go + Gerund  Did you go shopping?  We went fishingyesterday.  Have you ever gone camping?  Do you like to go hunting?  Let’s go skatingthis weekend.  My kids and I love to go swimming.  I will go kayakingnext month with my friends.
    • Special expressions followed by gerunds  Have fun  What do you have fun doing?  Have a good time  I had a good time hanging out with my friends.  Spend time  Many guys enjoy spending time playing video games.  Waste time  Let’s not waste time reviewing material that you already know.  Have trouble  Some people have trouble adapting to new situations.
    • Special expressions followed by gerunds  Have difficulty  Are you having difficulty staying awake today?  Have a hard time  Is anyone having a hard time understanding what I’m saying here?  Have a difficult time  I hope that nobody has a difficult time passing level 5!  Be busy  I didn’t answer the phone because I was busy doing my homework last night.  Can’t help  She couldn’t help laughing when he walked into the room.  It’s no use  It’s no use telling me how to lose weight. I don’t want to go on a diet!  It’s not worth  Don’t waste your time. It’s not worth watching that movie.
    • Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds  Be excited about  Complain about  Talk about  Think about  Worry about  Apologize for  Blame for  Famous for  Believe in  Interested in  Succeed in  Take care of  Instead of  Be accused of  Insist on  Count on  Concentrate on  Keep from  Prevent from  Profit from  In addition to  Look forward to  Be used to
    • Special expressions followed by gerunds  Sit + expression of place+ gerund I was just sitting in my seat minding my own business when the teacher asked me to leave!  Stand + expression of place + gerund I’m sorry I’m late. I was standing on line waiting for my name to be called.
    • Active and Passive Gerunds  Active Gerund:  Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her part.  Passive Gerund:  Being invited to her wedding was a great surprise to them.
    • Past Active and Past Passive Gerunds  Past Active Gerund (Having + past participle):  Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good. (She was glad she had invited them to the wedding).  Past Passive Gerund (Having + been + past participle):  They were so happy having been invited to her wedding. (They were so happy that they had been invited).
    • Active and Passive Gerunds  You’re probably wondering why you would ever need to use something as complicated as a past passive gerund...  It helps us express something that happened one step back in the past (similar to past perfect). EXAMPLE: I hate being ignored (in general). I’m so upset at having been ignored. (I was ignored yesterday at the meeting. It bothers me NOW that they ignored me THEN).