Functions of Gerunds Because gerunds are nouns, they can be used just as nouns are used. HOW ARE NOUNS USED? Gerunds are subjects Example: Skiing is a popular winter sport. Gerunds are objects Example: I love skiing. Gerunds are objects of prepositions Example: I can’t live without skiing! I’m interested in skiing. Let’s talk about skiing. I’m afraid of skiing.
Functions of Gerunds Gerunds are also object complements He spends time reading. She found him working in the kitchen. Don’t waste your time studying this stuff. I caught the students cheating on the exam. Fahad found Abdulrahman smoking outside. Natsume and Paulina saw Mariana chatting with Rena and Celia.
Modifying Gerunds Gerunds can be modified with possessives and negatives. Gerunds can be modified with a noun or object pronoun or the possessive noun or the possessive pronoun.I appreciate YOUR participating in the survey.Hilal doesn’t mind MY reading her letter.I thanked Nayef for HIS coming early to help me.Would you mind NOT BEING late tomorrow?I’m unhappy about the students’ interrupting the lecture.
Modifying Gerunds Use the possessive noun or possessive pronoun with formal English. I’m unhappy with Paulina’s missing class. I’m unhappy with her missing class. I’m upset about your missing class. I’m disappointed with his missing class. Use the noun object or object pronoun with informal English. I’m unhappy with Paulina missing class. I’m unhappy with her missing class. I’m upset about you missing class. I’m disappointed with him missing class.
Gerunds follow certain verbs as objects Enjoy, quit (give up), appreciate, mind, finish, stop (quit), avoid, postpone, delay, keep, keep on, consider, discuss, mention, suggest
Examples Yichen doesn’t enjoy traveling. Fahad wants Abdulaziz to quit smoking. I appreciate the students’ coming on time to class. Would you mind opening the door for me? Would you mind helping me with these bags? You have to finish working by 5 p.m. tonight. Don’t avoid taking the test. Holly suggested my reviewing the material before taking the test. Keep moving! Don’t stop! I kept on speaking even after my mother hung up the phone on me. Would you consider staying for a while?
Go + Gerund Did you go shopping? We went fishing yesterday. Have you ever gone camping? Do you like to go hunting? Let’s go skating this weekend. My kids and I love to go swimming.
Special expressions followed by gerunds Have fun What do you have fun doing? Have a good time I had a good time hanging out with my friends. Spend time Many guys enjoy spending time playing video games. Waste time Let’s not waste time reviewing material that you already know. Have trouble Some people have trouble adapting to new situations.
Special expressions followed by gerunds Have difficulty Are you having difficulty staying awake today? Have a hard time Is anyone having a hard time understanding what I’m saying here? Have a difficult time I hope that nobody has a difficult time passing level 5!
Special expressions followed by gerunds Sit + expression of place+ gerundI was just sitting in my seat minding my own business when the teacher asked me to leave! Stand + expression of place + gerund I’m sorry I’m late. I was standing on line waiting for my name to be called.
Active and Passive Gerunds Active Gerund: Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her part. Passive Gerund: Being invited to her wedding was a great surprise to them.
Active and Passive Gerunds Past Active Gerund: Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good. (She was glad she had invited them to the wedding). I’m happy having been your teacher. (I’m happy now that I was your teacher before now). Past Passive Gerund: They were so happy having been invited to her wedding. (They were so happy that they had been invited). I hope you’re happy having been taught by me. (I hope that you’re happy now that I taught you in the past).
Active and Passive Gerunds You’re probably wondering why you would ever need to use something as complicated as a past passive gerund... It helps us express something that happened one step back in the past (similar to past perfect).EXAMPLE:I hate being ignored (in general).I’m so upset at having been ignored. (I was ignored yesterday at the meeting. It bothers meNOWthat they ignored meTHEN).