Good Morning Everyone.Shall we get started? Let me introduce myself. My name is Holley Klein and I am a student at Devry University Online. I am obtaining a Bachelor’s degree in Technical Business Management with a concentration on technical writing.Today we will be looking at the correlation between poverty and obesity in the United States. Through extensive academic research I have identified a trend between poverty and obesity in children. We will look at three problem areas of this growing epidemic, including three solutions that should be implemented right away. Otherwise,this dilemma will produce a whole generation of people that are obese, have health related issues, and a high mortality rate if we, as a nation, do not take action immediately.
Here is the perfect video to showcase some of the points I will be making today. This is only a 1 minute and a few seconds so, don’t worry, we won’t be here all day watching a long video. But this is an important topic and deserves to be given all of our attention as the future generations of this country WILL suffer tremendously if we don’t do something now. Dim the lights, please. Thank you. And we will begin now.
I will be speaking on several areas today. We will look at three problem areas in the subject of how poverty and obesity in this country and then three solutions to defeat the epidemic of poverty and obesitybefore it takes our children from us. This is an overviewof what I plan to cover in my presentation. If there are any questions at any time, please feel free to ask. You may have already read or heard about the poverty level in the United States over the past few years. What you may not have realized is how the poverty level affects obesity, especially in children. I will illustrate how the two are related and areas of Americans lives that are affected. We will discover some ways that parents, the public school system, and the government can make a difference to make sure that our children grow up healthy, happy and content adults.
As you can see from this chart taken from the U.S. Census Bureau that the rates of poverty in America over the last four years are steadily increasing. To think that in this day and age, here, in our own country, there is 46.2 MILLION people (including children) that live below the poverty lines is a dangerous and horrid thought. This graph demonstrates the growing concerns that this country needs to address. The President’s wife has put childhood obesity as a major concern in this country and has stated that the President’s office has taken notice and are putting this issue as a priority to battle this problem. The statistics speak for themselves as they show a steady and substantial increase since 2007. This co-insides with the collapsing housing market and loss of good jobs; thereby, forcing people into poverty level. Now, I want you to remember these numbers in the back of your mind as I present this important message. Remember that what I am talking about is affecting MILLIONS of Americans, including children. Okay, let’s move on to the first problem area I researched.
The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) is the USDA’s recommended diet for a family of four on a modest income or by a family on food stamps. There was a study completed to determine whether healthier foods were more expensive than their cheaper counterparts. If you please notice that the TFP does not list all healthy choices as demonstrated in this study where the nutritional values were documented for nutritional value to include fat type and content, fiber, and sugar contents. The Healthier food basket made substitutions for dairy, meats, canned foods, fats, bread, and grain products. By devising the Healthier food basket, it should be noted that the fiber content is four times more than the TFP as well as only 1/5 of the total grams of total fat. Everything else stayed the same such as fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, beans, etc. The Healthier food basket was more in price due to the whole wheat breads and whole grains, low fat ground meats and skinless poultry. So, as you can see, even the USDA is savvy when it comes to cost and substitutes food that are not as healthy into its suggested Thrifty Food Plan. Now, let’s move on to the second problem regarding poverty and obesity.
Here we will take a look at the common framework for Food Insecurity. The are these three proponents that make up food insecurity. Now, looking at these definitions, we can conclude a few things. First, is that in America, there is no shortage of food as in other countries. Supply of food is everywhere from the farms in Nebraska to the big cities like New York and Hollywood. The second component in food insecurity is how we use the food for nutrients. That is not an issue in America either as in other foreign countries where food is contaminated and causes gastrointestinal infections. Sanitation is not an issue for Americans. Thirdly, in this framework, is access. In other words, how are Americans “ATTAINING” the supply of food needed to feed their families? This is an illustration of where the breakdown is in the poverty issue for the low income population. There are not supermarkets that carry healthy foods nearby and one study found that fast food restaurants are on every corner in low income neighborhoods. Supermarkets that carry healthier food are not easily accessible for lack of transportation, age, or disability (Larson, Story, & Nelson, 2009).
Now, let’s talk about the last problem we will be reviewing today, which is how is exercise effected by poverty and obesity. A study named Safe Neighborhoods Keep Kids Leaner: New research shows that families who live in unsafe areas have fatter kids, probably because they keep them inside more often. This study showed that when parents perceive their neighborhoods as unsafe, full of crime and drugs, that they keep their children inside more (Gardner, 2006). In yet another study done by several doctors called Neighborhood Safety and Overweight Status in Children, there is substantial evidence that when parents view their homes as unsafe outside, they are unknowingly subjecting their children to an inactive lifestyle which keeps their children in front of the television and feeding their faces full of snack food (Lumeng, Appuliese, Cabral, Bradley, & Zuckerman, 2006). The Center for Disease Control conducted a national survey of all children ages 9-13 which showed that physical activity has been reduced to only six percent of children being involved in spontaneous exercise. This is a serious problem. Anna Galas who is a nutritionist and an education program faculty member with OSU’s Lane County Extension states “There [are] no sidewalks or parks nearby, and bus lines aren’t easily accessible” (Drewnowski & Hoisington, 2005).
The Promise of a Job is a concept that was in response to the 1996 Welfare Reform Act, which was put in place to get people off welfare. Still, since Bill Clinton signed this Act in 1996, our welfare system has not gotten better, but worse. Studies show that more people were taken off of welfare but within one year where living in poverty again and thus, back on welfare (Mallon & Stevens, 2010). This solution changes the way that people are taken off welfare. It is staged into 6 phases as you can see above. Their proposal uses a model to give Americans skills with which to obtain and keep a full time job as well as follows these families to make sure there is retention of work and that children in the families are not suffering. The main premise of this proposed solution is that not only are the welfare recipients responsible but that the welfare system is to be held accountable to track, monitor, and assist with job retention and children’s well-being. There are 4 skills to this solution which are show here on the screen. The first is recruitment/referral which assists those on welfare that aren’t able to keep a steady full time job. These individuals would be referred to the program. Phase II is assessing the employee and giving them job readiness training, job development, help with searching and placing the individual. Phase III consists of the job and would require at least 30 hours of work each week at which time the program would pay up to 10 hours per week covered by public funds. The 4th Phase is monitoring, mediation, retention and entry into “Open Market” employment where the individual is not left within any further assistance.
Another study done show that neighborhoods in low income areas do not have access to supermarkets but instead, have a large selection of fast food establishments that all seem to have “dollar menus” (Larson, Story, & Nelson, 2009). The authors theorize that is the changes listed here as you see them, were implemented, that there would be a change in the obesity range in these areas. Finding fresh fruits at a farmers market that is in your neighborhood would increase the instances of low income households going without these nutritious edibles. The study also showed that the supermarkets available in low income neighborhoods were also inadequate in proper and nutritious food. These supermarkets are small and have foods that are not adequate to sustain a well balanced household, especially children. The author’s recommendations would mean educating the people who live in these neighborhoods with proper diet and exercise material and then encourage them to use their rights as voters to make the proper changes where they live.
The roles that the public schools can play into reaching goals to reduce obesity in children have been well thought out and implemented in many areas. The Centers for Disease Control have an entire booklet on 10 different strategies that schools can use (all for free). “Since 1980 the % of 6-11 year old children have doubled and the % of adolescents aged 12 – 19 has tripled.” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). According to the CDC, 61% of obese 5-10 year olds already have risk factors for such ailments as heart disease and 26% had 2 or more risk factors for heart disease. These numbers are disappointing and astronomical. They need to be addressed and the CDC have an entire booklet and links to websites that will help each school meet goals to decrease the chances that children have with obesity. The roles of the schools would introduce long term well coordinated approaches to reach our children in all areas of their lives. The school plays such an important role as 95% of children are enrolled in school and 2 of 3 meals can potentially be eaten at school. PE has been removed from programs based on budgets and now our children are the ones who are suffering. Next, you will see the recommendations and programs that the CDC came up with to assist the school systems in making these changes.
Schools can build a strong foundation that will enable them to help the children of this generation to live long, happy, AND healthy lives.The 1st strategy listed in this slide “Read from slide” consists of 8 components that can strongly influence our children. This part of the solution consists of 1. Health Education. 2. Physical Education. 3. Health Services. 4. Counseling, Psychological and Social Services. 5. Healthy School Environments 6. Health Promotion for Staff. 7. Nutrition Services. 8. Parent/Community Involvement.The 2nd strategy listed in here is “Read from slide” helps schools establish a school health council (SHC) which helps schools meet the federal law passed in 2004 that requires all public school districts participate in federally funded school meal programs and to establish a school wellness policy. The 3rd strategy listed is “Read from slide” and the CDC has a self assessment planning guide to help the school structure a coordinated school health program that will show where the school is now and where it should be and the way to get there. The 4th strategy listed is “Read from slide” is a program which tells students how often they have to attend PE and has school health policy guide, a wellness policy guide and a wellness policy development tool to add schools in reaching this strategic way of approaching the ever expanding epidemic of childhood obesity.
Taking action is the second set of strategies that the CDC came up with to get the staff more involved with health education and physical activity. The notion is if staff model these good habits, that students will model those ways of the teacher’s. The 1st strategy is “Read from slide” is a school employee guidebook to have staff members take classes in nutrition and physical activity programs, and other health promoting activities. The 2nd strategy is “Read from slide” is a state of the art education program with state and national standards with highly trained staff. They include the Health Education Curriculum Analyses Tool which allows the schools to choose the education curriculum they believe is best for them. There are also resources on line to help. The 3rd strategy “Read from slide” states that all students should participate in a quality physical education program as well as time during the time to get activity; and this strategy comes with a tool book for the school to review. The 4th strategy is “Read from slide” is to increase the time given in schools to students for physical activities that are outside of the already programmed PE. The 5th strategy “Read from slide” is for the schools to realize that 2 out of 3 meals are offered at school and improving school nutrition should become a priority. The last strategy “Read from slide” is for the school to offer foods and beverages through other vehicles besides the cafeteria such as vending machines, after school programs, school stores, concession stands and class parties. With this strategy the CDC has several tool books to help implement these changes.
Thank you all for coming today and allowing me to share this presentation. I hope it is as helpful to you as it has been for me. I have learned a tremendous amount of great information during my research to which I plan to utilize in my own home.Any questions? Suggestions? Comments?
Childhood Obesity Epidemic Lack of Nutritious Food and Obesity In-Text Cite for YouTube Video
Contents 1. Healthy Foods Are More Expensive 2. Access To Healthy Foods Are Limited 3. Lack Of Exercise – unsafe neighborhoods 4. The Promise Of A Job – Government Program 5. Community Involvement and Help 6. Getting The Schools Involved
Poverty Totals in America Poverty Rates in Percentage and Millions from 2007 – 2010 2007 – 12.5% or 37.3 Million 2009 – 14.3% or 43.6 Million 2008 – 13.2% or 39.8 Million 2010 – 15.1% or 46.2 Million
Three Problems of Poverty and Obesity 1 Healthy Foods Are More Expensive 2 Access Is Limited For Low Income Families 3 There Is A Lack Of Exercise
Thrifty Food Plan vs. Healthier • Average Thrifty Food Plan basket cost is $194 for 2 weeks.• Average Healthier Food basket cost is $230 for 2 weeks. • A 35% - 40% higher cost between the two plans. (Jetter & Cassady, 2006)
Limited Access To Food Food Insecurity in the United States “Supply of food to a given Availability community or geographic region” “Refers to the physiological Utilization process of converting food to nutrients” “Describes the ability of Access individuals or households to acquire or produce food” (Rutten Finney, Taroch, Colon-Ramos, Johnson-Askew, 2010)
Neighborhood Safety & Exercise A Survey done of parents living in poverty to demonstrate the percentage of obese children in the safest to least safest neighborhood (Gardner, 2006). 4% 10% 13% 17% (Gardner, 2006)
Three Solutions to Poverty and Obesity 1 The Promise Of A Job 2 Change dynamics of the neighborhood 3 Getting the public schools involved
The Promise Of A Job Phase II – Assessment,Phase I – Recruitment Job Readiness Training, and/or Referral Job Development, Search, and Placement The Promise of a Job Phase IV – Monitoring, Phase III – Mediation, Retention, and The Job Entry into “open market” Employment (Mallon & Stevens, 2010)
Improve Poor Neighborhoods Reduce the Have Farmers Attract Better Amount of Markets Supermarkets Fast Food In Low Income to Establishments Neighborhoods Underserved in Areas Low Income Areas (Larson, Story, & Nelson, 2009)
Building The Foundation 1. Address physical activity and nutrition through a Coordinated School Health Program also known as (CSHP) 1 2. Maintain an active school health 2 council and designate a school health coordinator. 3 3. Assess the school’s health policies and programs and develop a plan for improvement. 4 4. Strengthen the school’s nutrition and physical activity policies. (Center for Disease Control, 2011)
Taking Action Programs that serve both students but staff as well as children tend to model behavior. Teachers lead…Students follow. Increase opportunities for Implement a high quality health students to engage in promotion program for school physical activity staff Taking Implement a quality Action school meals program Implement a high quality Plancourse of study in health education Ensure that students have appealing, healthy choices Implement a high quality in foods and beverages course of study in outside of the school meals program physical education
References• Make a difference at your school. (2008). Retrieved October 2, 2011, from Centers for Disease and Control: www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/KeyStratgies• Drewnowski, A., & Hoisington, A. (2005, September 8). Poverty Linked to Obesity. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 22(15), 16.• Gardner, A. (2006, January 3). Safe neighborhoods keep kids leaner. Health Day Consumer News Service.• Jetter, K. M., & Cassady, D. L. (2006). The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(1), 38-44.
References• Larson, N. I., Story, M. T., & Nelson, M. C. (2009). Neighborhood environments disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36((1)), 74-81.e10.• Lumeng, J. C., Appugliese, D., Cabral, H. J., Bradley, R. H., & Zuckerman, B. (2006). Neighborhood safety and overweight status in children. American Medical Association, 160, 25- 31.• Mallon, A. J., & Stevens, G. V. (2010). Making the 1996 welfare reform work: the promise of a job. Working paper, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series.• Rutten Finney, L. J., Taroch, A. L., Colon-Ramos, U., Johnson-Askew, W., & Story, M. (2010). Poverty, food insecurity, and obesity: a conceptual framework for research, practice, and policy. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 5, 403-415.