Unit 4

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Instructional Theories

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Unit 4

  1. 1. Instructional Design Unit 4
  2. 2. Client Surveys <ul><li>Contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of who you will interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of topics for the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A checklist for recording answers </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Your Client Surveys <ul><li>Must be completed today </li></ul><ul><li>Examples on pages 44 and 45 of your text book </li></ul><ul><li>An example on the blog </li></ul>
  4. 4. Unit 4 Learning Theories
  5. 5. Y O U R S E N S E S Short-Term (0.5 - 2.0 sec) Short-Term Store 20 sec. Long-Term Memory Transformed or coded data become part of knowledge system Memory and Information-Processing DATA LOST FROM THE SYSTEM TARGET AUDIENCE
  6. 6. What is learning? <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent change in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Experience + Interactions ( Reiser and Dempsey ) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal - but can be a social process </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Retention
  8. 8. Three Domains in Learning <ul><li>Cognitive: mental skills ( Knowledge ) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas ( Attitude ) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor: manual or physical skills ( Skills ) – not so much in higher ed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Three Learning Theories in ISD <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behaviorism <ul><li>Mental processes are vague </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes can only be inferred </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors can be understood </li></ul>
  11. 11. Behaviorism <ul><li>Effective in training </li></ul><ul><li>Uses immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks, computers, audio-visual devices </li></ul><ul><li>Connections between input and output </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t explain complex human performances </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>how learners acquire knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving processes </li></ul><ul><li>The mind = information processing system </li></ul><ul><li>ISD has adopted strategies from cognitive psychology </li></ul>
  13. 13. Constructivism <ul><li>Knowledge is constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Learning based upon own experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cannot be pre-determined </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the learner in goal-setting and learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in assessment procedures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theory Strengths <ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Real life application </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving skills </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implications of Theories for ISD <ul><li>Behaviorist - easily applied </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology - helps identify the processes of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist - used in the design </li></ul><ul><li>An IS Designer must apply theories to practice. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) <ul><li>Begins with a problem situation </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a problem-based tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Students work in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with a constructivist approach </li></ul><ul><li>Follows systematic design principles </li></ul>
  17. 17. The ISD Paradigm <ul><li>Must we start with new assumptions? </li></ul><ul><li>ADDIE model based on cognitive science? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the Core Process “Behaviorist?” </li></ul><ul><li>ISD “Constructivist?” </li></ul><ul><li>How can we tell? </li></ul><ul><li>What do these terms mean? </li></ul>
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