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Unit 4

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Instructional Theories

Instructional Theories

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  • 1. Instructional Design Unit 4
  • 2. Client Surveys
    • Contains:
      • List of objectives
      • Identification of who you will interview
      • A list of topics for the interview
      • A list of questions
      • A checklist for recording answers
  • 3. Your Client Surveys
    • Must be completed today
    • Examples on pages 44 and 45 of your text book
    • An example on the blog
  • 4. Unit 4 Learning Theories
  • 5. Y O U R S E N S E S Short-Term (0.5 - 2.0 sec) Short-Term Store 20 sec. Long-Term Memory Transformed or coded data become part of knowledge system Memory and Information-Processing DATA LOST FROM THE SYSTEM TARGET AUDIENCE
  • 6. What is learning?
    • Active
    • Persistent change in behavior
    • Experience + Interactions ( Reiser and Dempsey )
    • Personal - but can be a social process
  • 7. Learning Retention
  • 8. Three Domains in Learning
    • Cognitive: mental skills ( Knowledge )
    • Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas ( Attitude )
    • Psychomotor: manual or physical skills ( Skills ) – not so much in higher ed.
  • 9. Three Learning Theories in ISD
    • Behaviorism
    • Cognitive Psychology
    • Constructivism
  • 10. Behaviorism
    • Mental processes are vague
    • Mental processes can only be inferred
    • Behaviors can be understood
  • 11. Behaviorism
    • Effective in training
    • Uses immediate feedback
    • Textbooks, computers, audio-visual devices
    • Connections between input and output
    • Can’t explain complex human performances
  • 12. Cognitive Psychology
    • how learners acquire knowledge and skills
    • Problem-solving processes
    • The mind = information processing system
    • ISD has adopted strategies from cognitive psychology
  • 13. Constructivism
    • Knowledge is constructed
    • Learning based upon own experiences
    • Learning cannot be pre-determined
    • Involves the learner in goal-setting and learning experiences
    • Difficulties in assessment procedures
  • 14. Theory Strengths
    • Behaviorist
    • Cognitive
    • Constructivist
    • Real life application
    • Develop Concepts
    • Problem-solving skills
  • 15. Implications of Theories for ISD
    • Behaviorist - easily applied
    • Cognitive Psychology - helps identify the processes of learning
    • Constructivist - used in the design
    • An IS Designer must apply theories to practice.
  • 16. Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
    • Begins with a problem situation
    • Uses a problem-based tutorial
    • Students work in small groups
    • Compatible with a constructivist approach
    • Follows systematic design principles
  • 17. The ISD Paradigm
    • Must we start with new assumptions?
    • ADDIE model based on cognitive science?
    • Is the Core Process “Behaviorist?”
    • ISD “Constructivist?”
    • How can we tell?
    • What do these terms mean?