“When you see someone putting on hisBig Boots, you can be pretty sure that an Adventure is going to happen.”― A.A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh
Overview of the stucture for today. • Exploring the concept of Inquiry. • Developing Thinking skills and disposi>ons • Developing Ques>oning abili>es (student and teacher) • Use of co-‐opera>ve learning structures • PuFng it all together and playing. • Planning for Inquiry
Mini Myth Buster Do you stay drier if you run or walk in the rain? Why do you think this?http://wallwisher.com/wall/minimythbuster
What ques>ons do you have around Inquiry? Place them on the chart on your table.
Our collec)ve vision and call to ac)on... We are here because we all want our students to become: conﬁdent, connected, ac+vely involved, life-‐long learners We want our students to value: excellence, innova+on, inquiry, and curiosity, diversity, equity, community and par+cipa+on, ecological sustainability, integrity, and respect Don’t we?
What drives inquiry?Learning is the driver – not the modelLet’s hear from Sharon Friesen aboutthis…. Dynamic Cohesive Self direc>ng All players
If not an Inquiry Model… then what? Explore Wonder Create Inves>gate Discover Communicate Share
It’s about investigating anddiscovering and understanding..
Who drives? The student? The teacher? Partnership?
Levels of Inquiry Problem Student generated Procedure student generated and designed. Solu)on not already known/ exis)ng Conﬁrma)on Structured Guided Independent Refer: hRp://edweb.sdsu.edu/wip/four_levels.htm
Myths About Inquiry • The teacher must never tell the students what they know. • Inquiry-‐based teaching absolves the teacher of any responsibility to act on students’ incorrect concep>ons.
Myths • In inquiry-‐based teaching, the teacher is only the facilitator. • In inquiry-‐based teaching the teacher does not need to know anything about the subject maRer, as it is the students who lead the inquiry.
Myths • In inquiry-‐based learning the students must learn everything by themselves • Inquiry-‐based learning means uncontrolled explora>on
Myths • In inquiry-‐based learning all student answers and responses are equally valid • In inquiry-‐based learning students must do all learning coopera>vely in groups.
Myths • Inquiry-‐based learning means lower standards. • Inquiry-‐based learning de-‐emphasizes the ‘basics.’
More true than false, or more false than true? You can’t pre plan an inquiry because you need to involve the students at the beginning of the process and the unit will move where the individual student interest lies.
More true than false, or more false than true? Students need to be immersed in the topic before they write their questions for the inquiry.
More true than false, or more false than true? Inquiry learning requires students to research for all the information they need using a variety of sources.
Inquiry can start from something as simple as …
An example of an Inquiry from my own experiences
“We learn best when we are at the center of our own learning. Inquiry-‐based learning is a learning process through ques+ons generated from the interests, curiosi+es, and perspec+ves/ experiences of the learner. When inves+ga+ons grow from our own ques+ons, curiosi+es, and experiences, learning is an organic and mo+va+ng process that is intrinsically enjoyable.” (Paula Sincero 2005)
Lets not only push the classroom walls out... .... lets take the walls away
Lets not just display the way we think or behave on our walls... ...lets infuse them into our en>re being.
Taking it a step further... Enter “REAL Inquiry”
So what is “Real” Inquiry and how is it diﬀerent from previous forms of inquiry?
What it isn’t ... What it is... Research on Steroids e & m-‐learning infused and supported, asynchronous En)rely teacher driven Student led -‐ teacher facilitated with teaching sessions sprinkled throughout One or two dimensional Mul)-‐dimensional and mul)-‐faceted Surface Skimming A disposi)on that involves deep, dialogue and metacogni)ve skills Going through the mo)ons Vibrant, crea)ve, responsive and challenging. Learning in a social vacuum Seamlessly collabora)ve and inclusive Box )cking Crea)ng posi)ve change, ie: developing a social, environmental, poli)cal diﬀerence.
And who are these “Real” kids? They are... They are also... Eager to come to school The ﬁdgeRers. Ques>on-‐posers The children who don’t listen Self mo>vated and assured The children that cause trouble Able to see links between The children that don’t join in learning The children that are highly emo>onal Crea>ve problem solvers The children who ﬁnish work Able communicators quickly Well-‐rounded in their skills, The children who struggle to knowledge and abili>es ﬁnish work
First things ﬁrst...the children’s ideas were our star)ng point...
This resulted in a mul)-‐faceted vision Video for website Gardens ARract and birdlife Garden Our fencing Shade vision Deal with pest problem Visually appealing signage
We then needed a mul)-‐dimensional approach... Each class We u)lised adopted an area of We u)lised banked staﬃng the school to focus exper)se from and staﬀ on and we Ken of exper)se to arranged for our Mish Mash TV recycling to be create new for our website signage for the dropped into a recycling plant video school
We then enlisted help from our community • Enviro-‐Schools Facilitator • DOC for pest eradica>on ideas • Local people for community history ideas for signage (Capture Kaihere Compe>>on) • Ken from Mish Mash TV for website video • Companies for shade sail designs and cos>ngs. (students measured up) • Parents and people from our community! – gardeners, graphic designers, engineers, farmers, historians, etc, etc.
Where did all that lead us? Art works created and displayed around the school Design for major entrance artwork created. Video created for website Gardens revamped, rabbits eradicated, fences in process of being ﬁnished oﬀ around gardens . Funds for shadesails raised and quota>ons gained.
So what did the students learn? • Ques>oning skills • Use of technologies and ICTs for informa>on gathering and communica>on. • Key Competency development • Design Technology • Literacy and Numeracy skills. • Informa>on literacy skills.
What are some of the e-‐learning resources we used? Createagraph – graph maker for kids Boolify – online searching website for kids Photovisi – photo collage-‐maker EPIC – resource bank Wallwisher – online notes One Mo>on – drawing tool Glogster -‐ posters
Does this type of learning sound familiar??? Been there; done that??
And then it rocketed into another stratosphere!
So what were their speciﬁc problems? • They needed pest traps for stoats, rats and rabbits • They needed animal feeders for speciﬁc animals. • They needed play enhancement toys for the monkeys.
How it all )ed together Bird and animal Video for feeders website Gardens ARract and birdlife Our Garden fencing Enhance School -‐ment toys Enviro-‐ Shade vision Deal with pest problem Visually Pest appealing traps signage
We put the proposal to the children And they said... TOTALLY!
Class Inquiry foci Seniors: Pest eradica>on and pest traps Middle school: Animal and Bird feeders Juniors: Monkey play-‐things/ enhancement toys
So let’s take closer look at Room 3’s journey (Years 3-‐5)
The Process Project Parental involved... managers, help Builder input Ø Informa>on Literacy skills to develop a fact-‐ﬁle on their animal Visi>ng Ø Construc>on of key and the Zoo subsidiary ques>ons in a natural ﬂow throughout the en>re Visit from Feedback process. zookeeper Making from the their animal Zookeepers Ø Understanding and applica>on feeders and use at Design and the zoo. of the design process modelling of their animal Ø Use of tools and materials to feeders create animal feeders. Researching into their Ø Curriculum areas: Numeracy, animal Literacy, Informa>on Literacy, ICT, Technology, Science, Social Science, Visual Art, Careers educa>on
Teaching approaches and points that underpinned the learning ust “pJrocessing • Ques>oning skills • Use of Graphic organisers for an d ” thought ctu hinred g nd • Vocabulary deriva>on, deﬁni>ons a applica>ons tru of m “S skills teac • Communica>on e” m ix ) edA• Informa>on Literacy and lIudskills ... in inc CT h ich • Design Technology wnd Literacy • Numeracy a • Key Competency development • Assessment for Learning Prac>ces
ICTs that supported the learning • LMS – KnowledgeNET • Skype • Gmail • Movie-‐making • Boolify for online searching • Google SketchUp for model-‐making of their designs • Video and voice recordings via cellphones and ﬂipcams • Digital cameras
Back at school, the students then... 1) Reviewed the informa>on collated from their zoo trip 2) Designed their animal feeders 3) Drew up plans and created models from cardboard 4) Redesigned where necessary ajer feedback. 5) And then...
We then took the animal feeders to the zoo for their feedback and use.
So our Inquiry was... • e & m-‐learning infused and supported; asynchronous • Student led -‐ teacher facilitated with teaching sessions sprinkled throughout • Mul)-‐dimensional and mul)-‐faceted • Deep, dialogic, metacogni)ve • Vibrant, crea)ve, responsive and challenging. • Seamlessly collabora)ve and inclusive • Crea)ng posi)ve change, ie: developing a social, emo)onal and environmental diﬀerence. AND REAL!
“If I could go through this experience again, Iwould. I loved the challenge. The cool thing wasthat sometimes no one knew the answer so wehad to fight hard together to get one. Then whenwe got the answer it was our own, and we haddiscovered it. So why not go through theexperience when you love what you do and feellike it is your very own?” (Student)
Back to our Mini Myth BusterDo you stay drier ifyou run or walk in the rain?Why do you think this?
Inquiring MindsIts not only what you know, buthow you learn that will set youapart in tomorrows world.Because what you know todaywill be out of date sooner thanyou think”Thomas Freidman, The World is Flat, 2006.
Thinking: a Key Competency Thinking is about using crea)ve, cri)cal and metacogni)ve processes to make sense of informa.on, experiences, and ideas. These processes can be applied to purposes such as developing understanding, making decisions, shaping ac>ons, or construc>ng knowledge. Intellectual curiosity is at the heart of this competency. Students who are competent thinkers and problem solvers ac.vely seek, use and create knowledge. They reﬂect on their own learning, draw on personal knowledge and intui.ons, ask ques.ons, and challenge the basis of assump.ons and percep.ons. Pg 12 NZC
Major parts of the brain. Cortex: Upper part of brain. Thinking, logic, reasoning, cause and eﬀect. Limbic System: Primi+ve brain. Source of emo+ons and mo+va+ons such as fear, anger, pleasure and sexuality. Brainstem: Connects brain and spinal cord. Basic func+ons such as heart-‐rate, ea+ng, breathing and sleeping Cerebellum: Back of brain. Balance, posture, movement.
Crea)ng neural pathways Neurons in Neurons in cerebral cortex cerebral cortex of a newborn of a two year old
Teen brains At about 10 in girls (11 in boys), the exuberance/ﬂourish of neural pathway connec>ons gives way to “pruning”. Neural connec>ons that are used remain intact and strengthen, whilst those connec>ons that are not used are “pruned”. The phrase “use it-‐ or lose it” is par>cularly applicable to the adolescent brain. hRp://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/r4/index.php?page=r4-‐adolescent-‐brain
Blooms demonstration verbsKnowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis EvaluationOutcomes Outcomes involve the Outcomes deal Outcomes involve Outcomes relate Outcomes askdeal with the ability to manipulate with the ability to separating, to creative students toability to previously learned apply rules, revealing thinking, make andrecognize, material. principles, and structure, causes production of supportrecall and concepts to new and supporting or original works, reasonedremember situations. refuting classifying or judgements. positions. planning.Describe Clarify Translate Apply Categorize Add to AssessDefine Conclude Calculate Classify Alter Vary ConcludeDiscover Connect Code Compare Compose CritiqueIdentify Convert Collect Contrast Create DebateLabel Describe Compute Deduce Design DecideList Distinguish Construct Determine Dramatize DefendLocate Explain Demonstrate Dissect Estimate DetectMatch Express Discover Distinguish Extend DetermineName Generalize Manipulate Divide Hypothesise EditorializeObserve Give examples Model Isolate Infer EvaluateOutline Illustrate Operate Order Invent InterpretRecall Interpret Order Reduce Predict JudgeRecognize Match Organize Relate Reconstruct JustifyReproduce Paraphrase Relate Role Play Rename RecommendSelect Restate Report Separate Reorganise solveState Rewrite Show Simplify ReviseTell Select Survey SubstituteUncover Show Translate
Let’s put two thinking tools together in an exercise –thinking hats and bubble maps… 1. At your tables, delegate a thinking hat to each person (don’t worry about double-‐ups). Your task is to listen to the story and be ready to give informa>on in rela>on to your hat. 2. Listen to the story of “The Flood” hRp://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/EBooks/Flood/index.html Note your informa>on into a bubble map (for those capable of wri>ng independently). 3. Share your informa>on with your group so you get a full understanding of the text .
“Once you have learned how to askrelevant and appropriate questions,you have learned how to learn and noone can keep you from learningwhatever you want or need to know”.Neil PostmanTeaching as a subversive activity
Teacher:Student QuestioningStudent as Questioner Teacher as QuestionerHow might you like this to look?
What are the attributes of an effective questioner?• Is aware of a need for information.• Able to clarify what information is needed.• Has a base set of vocabulary that is relevant to the context or issue.• Is able to ask a range of relevant questions.• Takes that range of relevant questions to a range of appropriate resources.• Persists in their search for the answer/s.• Edits their questions as necessaryhttp://ictnz.com/Questioningskills.htm
What are the components of a “good” question?Discuss in pairs, then share your ideas with another pair.
Questioning Rubric for creating and evaluating “Effective Questions” Trevor Bond, 2008Stage Question Type Used multiple question words to create a probing question when7 interviewing an “expert”. Used relevant synonyms to edit questions.6 Used the seven servants and relevant key words and phrases to create5 questions. (Which, could, might, can, will) Used the seven servants to write/ask open thick questions (who, when,4 what, where, how, which, why) Asked a relevant yes/no/maybe question. Closed / Open, thin (is, can, does,3 could, may) Any non-relevant question (does not contain contextual key words, or2 phrases) Created statements, rather than questions1
Without strong questioning skills, you are just a passenger on someone else’s bus tour. You may be on the highway, but someone is doing the driving. Jamie Mc KenzieBut how do we get our students there???
Questioning within an Inquiry modelMark Treadwell. “Whatever Next?” 2009
Question Matrix Is Did Can Would Will MightWhoWhatWhereWhenHowWhy
Questioning types and examples Source: L. Watchcorn & Gail Cochrane, NZNL service. Type of question Type of thinking Type of response ExampleClosed Convergent Single answer or How old are you? limited number of What is 6 X 6? answers How did you travel to Eg: Yes/No school? (Factual answers) How high is Mt Cook?Open Divergent Many possible How would the story be answers. Not only one different if it was set in correct answer. the future? (Creative and Critical thinking)Skinny Simple response Little explanation What is the name our required. Requires Prime Minister? recall, knowledge, comprehensionFat Complex response Requires a degree of What would you do to explanation and conserve the wetlands? interpretation.
Lets put all this into a context using a mini inquiry…
Experiment time!Concept: ChangeConcepetual understanding: Things canchange from one state to another whencombined.Context: Kitchen Mythbusters.
Mini Myth Buster… Free Powerpoint Templates Page 139
Before we start …• What do you predict will happen when we drop a mentos into the coke? (Prediction Key & Red Hat (gut/hunch)• What could go wrong? (Black hat & Brick Wall Key)• What questions do you have?• What information/do you know already from your past experiences? (White Hat & Brainstorming Key) Record your ideas on the handout
Record Key words to build a “word wall”.Either the teacher can list these, or thestudents, or a mix of the two approaches.In your groups, create a “word wall” of keywords that relate to your discussions on thetopic. Start to add some now. Eg: investigate
Record student questions on a “Wonder Wall”Either the teacher can list these, or thestudents, or a mix of the two approaches.
ReflectionsLets now consider the following thinkerskeys to expand your thinking…u What if?u The variations?u The picture?u The interpretations?u The forced relationships
How might we go about usingour key words or questions to help search on the internet?
Boolify Visual search engine that helps students understand the concept of Boolean searching
Search words in your ques>ons Underline the key words (nouns & verbs), in two of your ques>ons. Write synonyms for each of these words (or as many as possible). Another technique: “The ques>on is the answer” Eg: What is causing Arc>c ice to melt? “Arc>c ice is mel>ng because…”
Revisi>ng ques>ons… Learners will re-visit this step for 3 differentpossible reasons:• To compose new search questions using newly acquired key words or phrases.• To re-write search questions using synonyms of key words (nouns and verbs) or phrases earlier.• To alter or modify search questions which may have been poorly phrased.
What makes ques>oning eﬀec>ve? 1. Prepare key ques)ons to ask 2. Ask fewer and beler ques)ons 3. Use appropriate language and content 4. Distribute ques)ons around the class 5. Thinking )me and pauses between ques)ons 6. Use ques)ons to make progressive cogni)ve demands 7. Prompt pupils, give clues 8. Use pupils’ responses, even incorrect ones 9. Encourage pupils to ask ques)ons 10. Listen and acknowledge pupils’ responses posi)vely
Exploring your “handout” • Get into 10 home groups. Assign one aspect per person. • Divide into 10 “Expert” groups • Make meaning of your reading. • Go back to your home group and explain to them the concept of your reading.
Prepare key ques)ons I Iden>fy the key ques>ons in rela>on to the learning inten>ons. D Decide on the level and order (>ming) of the ques>ons. E Extend the key ques>ons with subsidiary ques>ons to ask. A Analyse the answers you are given and decide on ‘follow – up’responses.
Pausing to wait for an answer provides vital )me in which thoughts ﬂow and get processed. Studies indicate that increasing this ‘wait )me’ (from around 3 – 7secs), can result in signiﬁcant changes for the beler. For example: v pupils give extended answers; v more pupils are likely to oﬀer an answer; v the number of ‘I don’t know’ responses decreases v the responses that are given are more thoughvul and crea>ve; v the number of hypothe>cal answers increases signiﬁcantly; v the frequency of ques>ons raised by the pupils increases; v the frequency of responses from less able pupils increases.
Lower Order Higher Order 1.Recall/Knowledge 4. Analysis “Who was…” “What evidence can you ﬁnd?” “What is…?” “What are the features of?” “Where is?” “What informaiton will you need? When is..” “What might this mean?” “How would you describe?” “What conclusions can you draw? 2. Comprehension 5. Synthesis “What do we mean by…? “Could you design something to…?” “Can you explain what is happening?” “How could we solve…?” “Can you think of…?” “What do you think is likely?” What can you say about?” “How ould you test?” “Suppose you could… what would you do? 3. Applica)on 6. Evalua)on “How could we use…?” “What do you think about…?” “What other examples can you ﬁnd to/…?” “How else was that…?” “What would happen if…?” “Which is beRer and why? “What other wayy could you plan to…?” “What is your opinion of…?” “What facts would you select to show…?” “Why do you think…?”
1. Gathering/Recall: • What were Cinderella’s slippers made of? • How did Cinderella get to the ball? 2. Processing:/Analysis/Inference: • Why does Cinderella’s stepmother care whether or not she goes to the ball? • Why did everything turn back the way it was except the glass slipper? • Why don’t the step sisters like Cinderella? 3. Applying/Synthesis: • Does good always overcome evil?
Take a look at question starters in the handout
Take a look at 3 level questioning in action• Consider the Mythbuster experiment we did. In your groups, write 2 questions for each of the three levels.• Place your questions up for display
Why co-‐opera)ve learning? The primary architects of knowledge and learning are the knowers and learners themselves. Stephen Downes “Designing Learning Objects” 2003
Linking to the Key Competencies “Opportuni)es to develop the competencies occur in social contexts”. Pg 12 NZC • Thinking • Using Language, symbols and texts • Managing Self • Rela>ng to others • Par>cipa>ng and Contribu>ng
At your tables, take a look through the co-‐opera)ve strategies in your handouts. Clarify then consider which would be “workable” within your own situa)ons.