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Diversity Of Fish And Amphibians
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Diversity Of Fish And Amphibians

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  • 1. Diversity of Fish and Amphibians Jeremiah was a bullfrog…..Joy to the fishes in the deep blue sea……
  • 2. Vertebrates
    • Phylum Chordata-named for a structure that is found in all chordate embryos
  • 3. Characteristics of Vertebrates
    • Notochord
    • Hollow nerve cord along the dorsal (back) side
    • Pharyngeal slits
    • Tail that extends beyond the anus.
  • 4. 4 Characteristics of Vertebrates
    • Notochord-flexible rod that extends through much of the length of the body
    • Hollow nerve chord-develops into the brain and the spinal chord, non-chordates have either no nerve chord or a solid nerve cord along the ventral side (front)
  • 5. Characteristics of Vertebrates
    • Pharyngeal gill slits- some keep them and use them for gills and when they aren’t used, they develop into jaw support, hearing and other functions
  • 6. Two Groups of Invertebrate Chordates
    • Tunicates or sea squirts are marine animals that are sessile and filter seawater through their pharyngeal slits.
    • Adults only have 1 of the 4 chordate features but the larva have all 4 features.
    • Lancelets are blade-like chordates that resemble tunicate larva and have all four characteristics.
  • 7. Tunicates
  • 8. Lancelets
  • 9. Vocab
    • Vertebrae-enclosed nerve cord, composes the backbone
    • Endoskeleton-skeleton inside the body, come are made of bone or cartilage, it has living cells that grow and get larger unlike arthropod skeletons that are molted.
  • 10. Vertebrates
    • Almost all vertebrates have a hinged jaw which enable the vertebrate to capture and eat prey.
    • Hagfish and lampreys are most closely related to ancestral vertebrates because they are aquatic and lack hinged jaws and paired limbs.
    • Hagfish are further primitive because they lack a vertebrae but are supported by an adult version of a notochord.
    • Hinged jaws are believed to involved from skeletal supports of pharyngeal gill slits.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Class Agnatha (Jawless Fishes) Lamprey
  • 13. Class Agnatha (Jawless Fishes) Hagfish
  • 14. Tetrapods
    • Tetrapods-4 footed, 2 sets of paired limbs for support, some tetrapods have no limbs but evolved from limbed ancestors
  • 15. Class Chrondrichthyes
    • Nearly all sharks live I marine habitats except the bull shark which can live in freshwater.
    • Fins are not very movable so sharks aren’t very maneuverable.
    • Continual swimming is necessary to keep from sinking but sometimes they rest on the sea floor and use their jaw muscles to pump water over their gills.
    • Sharks also have a sensitive lateral line system which is a row of sensory organs running along the side of their body.
    • Sharks can also detect electric fields and track prey this way.
    • Sharks also have skin made of denticles which are like small teeth.
  • 16. Class Chondricthyes (cartilaginous fishes) sharks
  • 17. Rays and Skates
    • Rays and skates are closely sharks but are adapted to a very different lifestyle.
    • Rays and skates are bottom dwellers that feed on the ocean floor or cruise the open ocean feeding on plankton.
    • Front fins are enlarged and help the animal “fly” through the water like a bird.
    • Many rays have poisonous barbs on their tails for defense.
    • The largest rays are the manta rays.
  • 18. Class Chondricthyes Rays
  • 19. Class Chondricthyes Skates
  • 20. Class Chondricthyes The chimera, a living fossil!
  • 21. Bony Fishes
    • Bony fish are divided into 3 classes.
    • All bony fish have a relatively stiff skeleton reinforced by hard calcium compounds.
    • On each side of the head of bony fish, a protective flap called the operculum covers a chamber housing the gills and allows water to pump even though the fish isn’t moving.
    • Bony fish also have a lateral line system and flattened stiff scales to cover the skin and glands to secrete a slimy mucus to help fish glide easily through the water.
  • 22. Bony fish
    • There are two key features bony fish have.
    • Bony fish have air sacs and a 2 chambered heart.
    • A swim bladder is an air sac that functions in making the fish more buoyant and aids in hearing.
    • The 2 chambered heart is not very efficient but works for fish because they have a slow metabolism.
    • It is a single circuit pathway for blood flow that delivers oxygen to tissues very slowly.
  • 23. Strange fish from the ray-finned fish family
  • 24. Ray-finned fish
    • There are more than 20,000 species of these fish.
    • They are named for the thin flexible fins supported by bony rays or spines and these fish also have a swim bladder.
  • 25. Lobe-finned fish: The coelacanth
  • 26. Lobe-finned fishes
    • Have muscular fins supported by stout bones and are not common today and are known mainly from the fossil record.
    • The only surviving group is the coelacanths of Madagascar and Indonesia. (Once believed to be extinct.)
  • 27. Lungfish
  • 28. Lungfish
    • Lungfishes are found on continents in the southern hemisphere.
    • The air bladder functions as a lung so it can breathe out of water.
    • Lungfish also have gills to take oxygen from water.
    • Current research indicates the lungfish may be closely related to tetrapods.
  • 29. Origin of Tetrapods
    • Amphibians are tetrapods and were the first vertebrates with adaptations for living on land.
    • The earliest tetrapods lived in shallow, aquatic habitats about 400-350 million years ago during the Devonian period.
    • Acanthostega was an early tetrapod that had limbs like those found in reptiles and mammals including humans.
  • 30.  
  • 31. The Origin of Tetrapods
    • Amphibians live part of their life cycle in water and part on land.
    • The larval stage is in water while the adult stage is terrestrial.
    • Many adults have lungs, smooth moist skin and lack scales.
    • Tadpoles are legless larva that have gills, a lateral line system and a long finned tail like fish.
    • There is great diversity and some amphibians have poison glands that aid in defense.
    • An amphibian heart has a 3 chambered which is more efficient than a 2 chambered heart of a fish.
  • 32.  
  • 33. Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)
    • 4,200 known species
    • Bulging eyes
    • Pair of external eardrum called a typanum
    • Webbed feet
    • No tail
    • Strong hind legs
    • Smooth moist skin
    • Loud mating calls
    • Toad is a term generally used for frogs that have rough skin and live in terrestrial environments
  • 34. Frogs and Toads
  • 35.  
  • 36. Salamanders and Newts (Order Urodela)
    • 500 species
    • Have a tail
    • Closely related to each other
    • Bodies are long and slender
    • Resembled early tetrapods
    • Some terrestrial species do not have lungs but exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through their skin and mouth lining
  • 37. Salamanders and Newts
  • 38. Salamanders and Newts American Hellbender Japanese Giant Salamander
  • 39. Caecilians (Order Apoda)
    • 150 species
    • Legless
    • Nearly blind
    • Inhabit burrows
    • Evolved from a legged ancestor
    • A few South American species have adapted to freshwater ponds and streams
  • 40. Caecilians
  • 41. Chordates Vertebrate Invertebrate 4 characteristics Tunicates Lancelets larva notochord Hollow nerve cord dorsal side Pharyngeal slits Tail that extend beyond the anus
  • 42. Fish Class Chondrichthyes Bony fish Skeleton hardened With calcium
  • 43. Class Chondrichthyes Sharks and rays Cartilaginous skeleton
  • 44. Bony fish Ray-finned fish Lobe-finned fish Lungfish Class Actinopterygii Class Actinista Class Dipnoi Most fish types coelocanths Ancestors to tetrapods Can breathe air
  • 45. Amphibians Order Anura Order Urodela Order Apoda
  • 46. Order Anura Frogs Toads jump walk Moist skin Rough, dry skin Partially aquatic Usually terrestrial Poison glands
  • 47. Order Urodela salamanders Newts terrestrial aquatic tail tail Sometimes have External gills
  • 48. Order Apoda caecilians legless tropical

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