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# Chapter 9 note taking guide

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### Chapter 9 note taking guide

1. 1. Chapter 9 Note-taking Guide Name________________________________________________ Monoatomic Ions  Mono means ________________.  When the metals in groups 1A, 2A and 3A lose electrons, they form _________________ with positive charges _________________ to their _________________________.  They keep their names and just put the word _____________________ after it.  ____________________ tend to gain electrons to form _____________________.  The charge of any anion is determined by _____________________ 8 from their group number.  Elements in group _____________ have a -1 charge and so on.  Their names will have the ending ___________________  For example, oxide, nitride, phosphide….etc Ions of Transition Metals  The metals of groups 1B-8B form more than one _________________ with different charges.  The charges of the cations of many ________________________ metal ions must be determined from the number of electrons lost.  To name these ions, a ____________________________ is used in parentheses after the name of the element.  For example, Fe+3 would be called iron(III).
2. 2. Polyatomic Ions  Some ions, called ________________________________, are composed of more than one atom.  The names of polyatomic ions end in _________________ or _________________.  There are three other ions that have different endings ___________________, _________________________ and _________________________.  All ions with ______________________ in them end with an –ite or an –ate.  Refer to your polyatomic table for the names and charges. Let’s Practice!  Write the name for the following:  Ca+2  Fe+2  Cu+1  Li2CO3  NH4+
3. 3.  NO3-  Br-  NH4NO3 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds  A __________________________________ is composed of _____________________ elements and can be either ionic or molecular.  To name any binary ionic compound, place the __________________ first and then the ____________________ name.  To write a formula for a binary compound, write the symbol of the cation and then the anion.  Add whatever ___________________ are needed to ________________________ the charges.  BALANCING THE CHARGES IS IMPORTANT!!!! Balancing Charges Using the Crossdown Method  Write the ________________ first with its ________________.  Then write the _________________ with its ________________.
4. 4.  The ________________ of one ion becomes the __________________ for the other ion.  You __________________ them down.  If the charges _____________________, then no numbers are needed.  Remember, each compound wants to have a ________________ charge of _______________. Let’s Practice!  Write the formulas for the following binary compounds.  Barium sulfide  Calcium nitride  Lithium oxide  Copper(II) iodide  Iron(III) oxide Compounds with Polyatomic Ions  Write the ________________ and charge for the cation.
5. 5.  Write the _____________________________ and the charge.  _____________________ the charges.  Remember, they must balance to _______________.  Pretend the polyatomic ion is ________________ atom.  If more than one polyatomic ion is needed, put _____________________ around the polyatomic formula.  REMEMBER TO REDUCE ALL FORMULAS IF THEY CAN BE REDUCED! Let’s Practice!  Write the formulas for the following:  Calcium nitrate  Sodium carbonate  Calcium phosphate Naming and Writing Formulas for Covalent (Molecular) Compounds  The ____________________ in the name of the binary compound tells how many atoms of each element are present in the molecule. (see table 9.4)  The _____________________ for all the compounds is _________________.
6. 6.  Use the ______________________ in the name to tell you the ___________________ of each element in the formula.  Write the correct symbols and the appropriate _____________________.
7. 7. LET’S PRACTICE!  Write the names/formulas of the following compounds.  CS2  Cl2O7  NI3  Carbon tetrabromide  Diphosphorus trioxide Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids  An ___________________ is a compound that contains one or more _____________________ atoms and produces hydrogen ______________ when dissolved in water.  When the name of the anion ends in ____________________, the acid name begins with the prefix _____________________ and has the suffix ___________________ and ends in acid.
8. 8.  When the anion name ends in ___________________ the acid name ends in ___________________ followed by acid.  When the anion name ends in ___________________, the acid name ends in __________________ followed by acid. LET’S PRACTICE!  Write the name/formula for the following acids:  HBr  H2SO4  Hydrochloric acid  Carbonic acid  HNO2 The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions  The _________________________________________________________ states that in any sample of a chemical compound, the _______________________ of the elements are always in the same __________________________.
9. 9.  They will always _______________________ in simple __________________________ ratios.  The _________________________________ states that whenever two elements form more than one compound, they will be in simple ________________________________ ratios. Word Equations  Symbols to remember:  _____________________ means yield or produces or makes, it’s like an =sign in math  _____________________ means add the compounds together  A ______________________ above the arrow, means ____________________ is added.  ___________ means solid or precipitate, _______________ means aqueous or dissolved in water, ________________ means gas, ______________________ means liquid.  Reactants must __________________ the products. No random compounds!! LET’S PRACTICE!  1. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas combine to form liquid water.  2. Methane gas (CH4) and oxygen gas combine to form carbon dioxide gas and liquid water.
10. 10.  3. Solid Ammonium carbonate and dissolved calcium nitrate are mixed together. Dissolved Ammonium nitrate and solid calcium carbonate are made.