Chapter 9 And 12 Note Guide
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Chapter 9 And 12 Note Guide






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Chapter 9 And 12 Note Guide Document Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 9 and 12 Notes Name_____________________Mod___________ WHO WAS GREGOR MENDEL?  _______________________monk that studied _________________.  _____________________is the transmission of characteristics from ___________________________to ______________________.  Experimented with ___________________________in his garden to determine what ___________________were passed along.  He discovered the basic rules of ___________________. PEA PLANTS  Mendel studied _____________________ traits.  They were easily __________________________: plant height, flower position, pod color, pod appearance, seed texture, seed color and flower color.  Mendel used _______________________________________ in his studies to make sure each parent was the correct one he wanted.
  • 2. MENDEL’S LAWS • The ____________________________________________ states that paired factors separate during the formation of _________________________ (meiosis) • Each _____________________ only receives one factor or _______________________ from each parent. • The ________________________________ states that factors for different traits distribute to gametes independently regardless of the other trait. • ________________________________ means the organism has two of same _________________________ for a trait. • ___________________________________ means the organism has two __________________________ alleles for a trait. • Heterozygous would automatically have one _________________________ allele and one ___________________________ allele.
  • 3. • Homozygous could have two __________________________ alleles or two ________________________ alleles. LET’S PRACTICE! Cross a homozygous plant with white flowers with a heterozygous plant with purple flowers. If there are 100 plants that grow, how many would you expect to be purple? How many would be white? Cross a two plants that are heterozygous for tall size. If 100 plants grow, how many would be tall? How many would be dwarf?
  • 4. OTHER TYPES OF INHERITANCE Incomplete Dominance or Intermediate Inheritance • When two or more ___________________________ influence the phenotype, both are _____________________ so neither is completely dominant or recessive. • This results in a _________________ phenotype in addition to the originals. • The _________________________ genotype is always the new phenotype. LET’S PRACTICE! Cross a white flower with a red flower. What would be the phenotypes of the offspring? Cross a black mouse with a grey mouse. What would the phenotypes of the offspring be?
  • 5. Codominance • This results when two or more _____________________ are equally dominant and both alleles are expressed in ____________________________ organisms • Both alleles are expressed ____________________. • This is different than incomplete dominance because it isn’t a _________________________ phenotype, both are expressed. • Human_________________ type is an example. LET’S PRACTICE! Cross a person that is heterozygous for blood type A with a person that is heterozygous for blood type B. What would be the percentages of phenotypes in the offspring? Sex-Linked • Some genes are found only on the ____________________________. • Many diseases are X-linked diseases and are more common in ____________________ than in __________________.
  • 6. • Males need only ______________ copy of the bad gene while females need ________________ copies of the bad gene. • Hemophilia, colorblindness and Duchenne muscular dystrophy are human diseases associated with this inheritance. • A _________________________ is __________________________ for a disease but does not have the disease. It can be passed on to their children though. • Sex-influences traits like baldness are influenced by the sex of the person and are __________________________ differently even if the gene is the same. LET’S PRACTICE! Cross a woman that is a carrier for hemophilia with a man that is normal. What percentage of male children would have hemophilia? What percentage of female children would have hemophilia?
  • 7. Cross a man who is colorblind with a normal woman. What percentage of the children (male or female) would be colorblind? What percentage of the children would be carriers for colorblindness? POLYGENIC TRAITS • _____________________________ traits are controlled by more than one gene. • ______________________ is controlled by at least __________________ genes which result is a different amount of pigment produced. • ____________________________ is also polygenic as well as height although _______________________ plays a part in that as well. MUTATIONS • ________________________________ results when the chromosomes don’t split evenly during meiosis resulting in three chromosomes under ____________________________. • ____________________________ also occurs this way and results in one less sex chromosome.
  • 8. • Disorders can also be inherited ______________________or _________________________ or even as a result of chromosome pieces breaking off or “jumping” around. PEDIGREES Pedigrees show how a trait is passed along in a family through many generations. Circles are for females, squares are for males. Fill in the genotypes of each individual under each shape.
  • 9. Sickle- cell anemia is a disease of the blood that causes blood cells which are normally round to become sickle shaped. It is a genetic disease that a person must be born with and inherit from BOTH parents! If sickle-cell is so bad, why is it around so much?
  • 10. Why is sickle-cell anemia so prevalent in African and African American people? Write your explanation below and include a Punnett square!