Chapter 5 Note-taking Guide
Homeostasis and Transport
Types of Transport
Passive transport does not require ____________________ to complete.
Cells move ____________________ across the membrane without
This includes: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and diffusion through ion
______________________ is the movement of materials across a membrane using a
A concentration gradient is the ______________________ between the numbers of
________________________ on each side of the membrane.
Diffusion happens because the molecules wish to be in _______________________ or
be ___________________ on both sides of the membrane.
Even once ______________________ is achieved, molecules still move back and forth
across the membrane __________________________.
______________________ is the diffusion of _____________________ across the cell
Only __________________ is moved in __________________.
The direction of osmosis depends on the ___________________________ of molecules
outside and inside of the cell.
If the concentration of molecules outside the cell is _____________________ than the
concentration inside the cell’s cytoplasm, then the solution is called
Water will move ___________________ the cell to create _______________________.
When the solution ____________________________ the cell has more molecules than
inside the cell, the solution is _______________________.
Water will move ____________________ of the cell to create equilibrium.
Both the solution and the inside of the cell are ___________________.
Water will move both ways ________________________ to maintain
How Cells Deal with Osmosis
Some animals are only single celled organisms like the _________________________.
The paramecium is a _________________________ pond dweller.
These paramecia are functioning in a __________________________ environment all
the time so water is constantly _____________________ into the organism.
Paramecia have ___________________________________ that remove excess water
from their bodies.
Sometimes when too much water is added, cells burst and this is called
How Plants Deal with Osmosis
Since plants have a ____________________, osmosis affects them differently.
When osmosis moves ________________ into plant cells, the cell membrane swells but
stops against the strong cell wall.
This is called _____________________________.
When plants don’t receive enough water, ___________________________ occurs which
makes the plants _________________.
The cell membrane ______________________ away from the cell wall.
This process is used for molecules that can’t move _______________________ through
the cell membrane.
______________________________ help move the molecules.
The molecules still move down the ________________________________ so no energy
Transport of _______________________ is facilitated diffusion.
Diffusion through Ion Channels
Ions such as sodium, potassium and calcium need a
________________________________ because they cannot pass through the membrane
on their own.
Each type of channel is ______________________ to an ion.
Some channels are always open and some have gates that
____________________________________ depending on the need for the ion.
This type of transport goes up or against the
Since that is working uphill, _________________________ is required.
This includes: sodium-potassium pump, endocytosis, and exocytosis
This involves a ____________________________________.
To function normally, animal cells must have a
_______________________________________ of sodium outside their cells and a high
concentration of potassium inside their cells.
The ________________________________________ works to maintain these
As __________________________ comes into the carrier protein and moves outside the
cell, _________________________ comes into the protein and moves inside.
They switch places.
Some substances such as food particles are too ______________________ to move
through the cell membrane.
In endocytosis, the cell encloses external materials in a __________________________
made from the cell membrane and moves them into the cell.
The pouch is called a ______________________.
There are two types of endocytosis:__________________________ involves transport of
fluid and ______________________________ involves transport of solids or whole cells.
Many animals use phagocytosis to ingest ______________________ or
_________________________ that invade the body.
Exocytosis is the reverse.
In exocytosis, molecules or cells are ______________________________ to the outside
of the cell from the inside.
Vesicles are used.
Cells used _____________________________ to release large molecules like
______________________________ into the body from the cell.
Usually the _________________ and the _________________________ are involved in