Chapter 4
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Chapter 4






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    Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function
    • Cell Theory
      • All living things are composed of one or more cells.
      • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.
      • Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.
    • Cell Diversity
      • Cells vary in shape, size and internal organization.
      • All cells have a specific job to do and look and function the best for that job.
    • White blood cells Stem cells
    • Nerve Cells Heart cells
    • Skin cells Plant cells
    • Important Vocabulary
      • Many cells have a variety of internal structures called organelles or mini organs.
      • Most cells are surrounded by a cell membrane.
      • Many cells have a large organelle called the nucleus.
      • Cells that contain organelles and a nucleus are called eukaryotic cells.
      • Cells that DO NOT contain organelles and a nucleus are called prokaryotic cells.
    • What’s the difference here?
      • Let’s compare three items: a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell and a virus.
      • What are the similarities?
      • What are the differences?
    • Flu virus
    • T4 Bacteriophage
    • HIV
    • Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes Vs. Viruses
      • No membrane bound nucleus
      • Has a cell wall
      • Only a few organelles or none at all.
      • Has a capsule surrounding it
      • Three main types.
      • Nucleus with membrane
      • Only plants have cell wall
      • Contains many organelles
      • Has a lipid bi-layer membrane surrounding it.
      • Specialized by thousands of different sizes and shapes.
      • No nucleus
      • No membranes
      • No organelles
      • Cannot reproduce on its own
      • Generally not considered alive by most standards
    • Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell
      • Cell Membrane
      • Cytoplasm (cytosol)
      • Mitochondria
      • Ribosome
      • Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Lysosome
      • Cytoskeleton
      • Cilia and Flagella
      • Nucleus
      • Nucleolus
      • Cell wall
      • Vacuole
      • Chloroplast
    • Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells
      • Contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis
      • Have a cell wall to maintain structure and rigidity
      • Usually do not contain lysosomes and peroxisomes
      • Cells are square and rigid or geometric shaped
      • Limited movement
      • Have one large central vacuole
      • No cell wall
      • No chloroplasts
      • Contain lysosomes and peroxisomes
      • Contain cilia and/or flagella
      • Cells are fluid and flexible, many shapes
      • Cells can move around.
      • Has small vacuoles
    • Parts of Eukaryotic Cell You are required to know the parts, what they look like and their function for the test!
    • Cell Membrane
      • The cell membrane is selectively permeable which means some substances can cross and others cannot cross.
      • Cell membranes are made of primarily lipids and proteins.
      • Cell membranes are made of a lipid bi-layer.
      • A cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic because it behaves more like a liquid than a solid.
      • It is flexible and provides an effective barrier and transport function.
    • DRAW THIS!
    • Cytoplasm
      • This lies between the cell membrane inside of the cell.
      • It is a fluid that all the organelles float in.
      • It is sometimes called the cytosol.
    • Mitochondria
      • Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell.
      • Mitochondria create ATP for the cell to use as energy.
      • One cell many have thousands of mitochondria depending on its function.
      • Mitochondria have two membranes and have their own DNA which only comes from the mother.
    • Ribosomes
      • Ribosomes are the most numerous of the cell’s organelles.
      • Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA.
      • Ribosomes are responsible for creating proteins.
      • Ribosomes are found free in the cytoplasm and also attached to the rough ER. (endoplasmic reticulum)
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • The ER comes in two varieties, the rough ER and the smooth ER.
      • The rough ER contains ribosomes and makes proteins.
      • The smooth ER does not contain ribosomes and makes lipids such as steroids.
      • The rough and smooth ER are sometimes attach to each other.
      • Both ER are involved in cell product transport of proteins and lipids.
    • Ribosomes Nucleus
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • The golgi is the processing, packaging and transport system.
      • It is a system of membranes that work closely with the ER.
      • The golgi modifies the products for transport throughout the cell.
    • Lysosomes
      • Lysosomes contain enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA.
      • These enzymes can also digest old organelles, viruses and bacteria.
      • Lysosomes are rare in plant cells.
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Cytoskeleton’s are made of two parts: the microtubules and the microfilaments.
      • The microtubules assist in cell division by moving the cells apart.
      • Microfilaments are made of protein and help with muscle contractions.
      • Both help support the cell and give structure but do allow for movement.
    • Cilia and Flagella
      • Some cells have flagella. They usually only have one.
      • Many cells have cilia which can number in the thousands.
      • A flagella is like a whip.
      • Cilia are like tiny paddles.
      • Cilia and flagella are made of microtubules.
      Cilia Flagella
    • Nucleus
      • The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope.
      • The nucleus contains all the DNA for the cell.
      • It directs all the activities of the cell.
      • The nuclear envelope contains pores so that RNA can pass into the cytoplasm during protein synthesis.
    • Nucleolus
      • The nucleolus is found inside the nucleus.
      • It is responsible for making the ribosomes.
      • There is usually only one.
    • Cell Wall
      • Found in plant cells and bacteria only.
      • Not found in animal cells.
      • Helps maintain structure and protection.
      • Does contain small pores to move water and oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out.
    • Vacuoles
      • These are fluid filled and store many different things such as water, waste, enzymes and poisons.
      • In plants vacuoles take up 90% of the space.
      • Vacuoles are small in animal cells.
    • Chloroplast
      • This also called a plastid.
      • Chloroplasts have their own membrane and their own DNA.
      • Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells and some protists. (little animals)
      • Chloroplasts do photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll which make them green.
      • Photosynthesis creates sugar from sunlight for the plant to use.