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Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function
  • Cell Theory
    • All living things are composed of one or more cells.
    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.
    • Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.
  • Cell Diversity
    • Cells vary in shape, size and internal organization.
    • All cells have a specific job to do and look and function the best for that job.
  • White blood cells Stem cells
  • Nerve Cells Heart cells
  • Skin cells Plant cells
  •  
  • Important Vocabulary
    • Many cells have a variety of internal structures called organelles or mini organs.
    • Most cells are surrounded by a cell membrane.
    • Many cells have a large organelle called the nucleus.
    • Cells that contain organelles and a nucleus are called eukaryotic cells.
    • Cells that DO NOT contain organelles and a nucleus are called prokaryotic cells.
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  • What’s the difference here?
    • Let’s compare three items: a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell and a virus.
    • What are the similarities?
    • What are the differences?
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  • Flu virus
  • T4 Bacteriophage
  • HIV
  • Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes Vs. Viruses
    • No membrane bound nucleus
    • Has a cell wall
    • Only a few organelles or none at all.
    • Has a capsule surrounding it
    • Three main types.
    • Nucleus with membrane
    • Only plants have cell wall
    • Contains many organelles
    • Has a lipid bi-layer membrane surrounding it.
    • Specialized by thousands of different sizes and shapes.
    • No nucleus
    • No membranes
    • No organelles
    • Cannot reproduce on its own
    • Generally not considered alive by most standards
  • Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell
    • Cell Membrane
    • Cytoplasm (cytosol)
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosome
    • Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Lysosome
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Cilia and Flagella
    • Nucleus
    • Nucleolus
    • Cell wall
    • Vacuole
    • Chloroplast
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  • Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells
    • Contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis
    • Have a cell wall to maintain structure and rigidity
    • Usually do not contain lysosomes and peroxisomes
    • Cells are square and rigid or geometric shaped
    • Limited movement
    • Have one large central vacuole
    • No cell wall
    • No chloroplasts
    • Contain lysosomes and peroxisomes
    • Contain cilia and/or flagella
    • Cells are fluid and flexible, many shapes
    • Cells can move around.
    • Has small vacuoles
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  • Parts of Eukaryotic Cell You are required to know the parts, what they look like and their function for the test!
  • Cell Membrane
    • The cell membrane is selectively permeable which means some substances can cross and others cannot cross.
    • Cell membranes are made of primarily lipids and proteins.
    • Cell membranes are made of a lipid bi-layer.
    • A cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic because it behaves more like a liquid than a solid.
    • It is flexible and provides an effective barrier and transport function.
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  • DRAW THIS!
  • Cytoplasm
    • This lies between the cell membrane inside of the cell.
    • It is a fluid that all the organelles float in.
    • It is sometimes called the cytosol.
  • Mitochondria
    • Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell.
    • Mitochondria create ATP for the cell to use as energy.
    • One cell many have thousands of mitochondria depending on its function.
    • Mitochondria have two membranes and have their own DNA which only comes from the mother.
  •  
  • Ribosomes
    • Ribosomes are the most numerous of the cell’s organelles.
    • Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA.
    • Ribosomes are responsible for creating proteins.
    • Ribosomes are found free in the cytoplasm and also attached to the rough ER. (endoplasmic reticulum)
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  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • The ER comes in two varieties, the rough ER and the smooth ER.
    • The rough ER contains ribosomes and makes proteins.
    • The smooth ER does not contain ribosomes and makes lipids such as steroids.
    • The rough and smooth ER are sometimes attach to each other.
    • Both ER are involved in cell product transport of proteins and lipids.
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  • Ribosomes Nucleus
  • Golgi Apparatus
    • The golgi is the processing, packaging and transport system.
    • It is a system of membranes that work closely with the ER.
    • The golgi modifies the products for transport throughout the cell.
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  • Lysosomes
    • Lysosomes contain enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA.
    • These enzymes can also digest old organelles, viruses and bacteria.
    • Lysosomes are rare in plant cells.
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  • Cytoskeleton
    • Cytoskeleton’s are made of two parts: the microtubules and the microfilaments.
    • The microtubules assist in cell division by moving the cells apart.
    • Microfilaments are made of protein and help with muscle contractions.
    • Both help support the cell and give structure but do allow for movement.
  • Cilia and Flagella
    • Some cells have flagella. They usually only have one.
    • Many cells have cilia which can number in the thousands.
    • A flagella is like a whip.
    • Cilia are like tiny paddles.
    • Cilia and flagella are made of microtubules.
    Cilia Flagella
  • Nucleus
    • The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope.
    • The nucleus contains all the DNA for the cell.
    • It directs all the activities of the cell.
    • The nuclear envelope contains pores so that RNA can pass into the cytoplasm during protein synthesis.
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  • Nucleolus
    • The nucleolus is found inside the nucleus.
    • It is responsible for making the ribosomes.
    • There is usually only one.
  • Cell Wall
    • Found in plant cells and bacteria only.
    • Not found in animal cells.
    • Helps maintain structure and protection.
    • Does contain small pores to move water and oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out.
  • Vacuoles
    • These are fluid filled and store many different things such as water, waste, enzymes and poisons.
    • In plants vacuoles take up 90% of the space.
    • Vacuoles are small in animal cells.
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  • Chloroplast
    • This also called a plastid.
    • Chloroplasts have their own membrane and their own DNA.
    • Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells and some protists. (little animals)
    • Chloroplasts do photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll which make them green.
    • Photosynthesis creates sugar from sunlight for the plant to use.
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