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Chapter 4 Note Taking Guide

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    Chapter 4 Note Taking Guide Chapter 4 Note Taking Guide Document Transcript

    • Chapter 4 Note-taking Guide and Organizer Name__________________________Mod______________ Cell Theory The Cell Theory has three parts. 1. 2. 3. Cell Diversity Cells vary in _______________________, _____________________ and internal ___________________________. All cells have a specific _______________________ to do and look and ____________________________ the best for that job. Important Vocabulary
    • Many cells have a variety of internal structures called ___________________________ or mini organs. Most cells are surrounded by a ___________________________________________. Many cells have a large organelle called the _______________________________. Cells that contain ________________________ and a ____________________________are called _______________________________cells. Cells that DO NOT contain organelles and a nucleus are called __________________________________________ cells. Let’s Compare Three Types of Cells Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Viruses
    • Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell  Cell Membrane  Cytoplasm (cytosol)  Mitochondria  Ribosome  Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)  Golgi apparatus  Lysosome  Cytoskeleton  Cilia and Flagella  Nucleus  Nucleolus  Cell wall  Vacuole  Chloroplast
    • Label the eukaryotic cell. Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells What are the Differences? Plant Cells Animal Cells
    • Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell Most of the test will be on this topic!
    •  Cell Membrane  The cell membrane is selectively permeable which means some substances can cross and others cannot cross.  Cell membranes are made of primarily lipids and proteins.  Cell membranes are made of a lipid bi-layer.  A cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic because it behaves more like a liquid than a solid.  It is flexible and provides an effective barrier and transport function. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Cytoplasm  This lies between the cell membrane inside of the cell.  It is a fluid that all the organelles float in.  It is sometimes called the cytosol. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Mitochondria
    •  Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell.  Mitochondria create ATP for the cell to use as energy.  One cell many have thousands of mitochondria depending on its function.  Mitochondria have two membranes and have their own DNA which only comes from the mother. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Ribosomes  Ribosomes are the most numerous of the cell’s organelles.  Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA.  Ribosomes are responsible for creating proteins.  Ribosomes are found free in the cytoplasm and also attached to the rough ER. (endoplasmic reticulum) Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize.
    •  Endoplasmic Reticulum  The ER comes in two varieties, the rough ER and the smooth ER.  The rough ER contains ribosomes and makes proteins.  The smooth ER does not contain ribosomes and makes lipids such as steroids.  The rough and smooth ER are sometimes attach to each other.  Both ER are involved in cell product transport of proteins and lipids. Name Structure (What does it look Function (What does it do?) like?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus  The golgi is the processing, packaging and transport system.  It is a system of membranes that work closely with the ER.  The golgi modifies the products for transport throughout the cell. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize.
    • Lysosomes  Lysosomes contain enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA.  These enzymes can also digest old organelles, viruses and bacteria.  Lysosomes are rare in plant cells. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Cytoskeleton  Cytoskeleton’s are made of two parts: the microtubules and the microfilaments.  The microtubules assist in cell division by moving the cells apart.  Microfilaments are made of protein and help with muscle contractions.  Both help support the cell and give structure but do allow for movement. Name Structure (What does it look Function (What does it do?) like?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Microtubules Microfilaments Cilia and Flagella
    •  Some cells have flagella. They usually only have one.  Many cells have cilia which can number in the thousands.  A flagella is like a whip.  Cilia are like tiny paddles.  Cilia and flagella are made of microtubules. Name Structure (What does it look Function (What does it do?) like?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Cilia Flagella Nucleus  The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope.  The nucleus contains all the DNA for the cell.  It directs all the activities of the cell.  The nuclear envelope contains pores so that RNA can pass into the cytoplasm during protein synthesis. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Nucleolus  The nucleolus is found inside the nucleus.
    •  It is responsible for making the ribosomes.  There is usually only one. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Cell Wall  Found in plant cells and bacteria only.  Not found in animal cells.  Helps maintain structure and protection.  Does contain small pores to move water and oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize.
    • Vacuoles  These are fluid filled and store many different things such as water, waste, enzymes and poisons.  In plants vacuoles take up 90% of the space.  Vacuoles are small in animal cells. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize. Chloroplast  This also called a plastid.  Chloroplasts have their own membrane and their own DNA.  Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells and some protists. (little animals)  Chloroplasts do photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll which make them green.  Photosynthesis creates sugar from sunlight for the plant to use. Structure (Looks like) Function (What does it do?) Draw a picture. Summarize.