Chapter 3 Note Taking guide and organizer
Water has 4 important properties.
Many of water’s _____________________ functions stem from its
The _________________ and ____________________ in water
__________________________ with ___________________ bonds.
These atoms do not share the __________________ equally.
Since the ________________ atom is bigger than the _______________________ atoms,
the electrons tend to hang around the _______________________ atom more often.
This gives oxygen a small _______________________ charge and the hydrogen a small
______________________ charge. A _______________________ molecule is when
__________________________ have ________________________ charges. Not charges
like ionic bonds but smaller attractions that sometimes only water has.
Being polar leads to other things like………
This occurs when the slightly _____________________ hydrogen atom is
________________________ to a slightly ______________________ oxygen atom of
another water molecule, it is a very ___________________attraction.
Draw a hydrogen bond below.
This occurs when ________________________ of the same ____________________
stick to one another.
What are some examples of cohesion in daily life?
This is when ___________________ that are not alike are _____________________,
example, water to walls of a test tube, or plant walls
When you see adhesion, think ___________________, sticky.
What are some examples of adhesion?
This is when __________________ goes up a small, narrow tube like a plant stem or
_________________ makes this possible.
Both adhesion and cohesion can be combined to let water do some amazing things!
Density of Water is Special!
Water is one of the only substances on Earth in which the _____________________
phase is less ____________________ than the ____________________phase!
Because of this, life can ___________________ in many places.
What would happen is this was not true? Describe.
Water must ________________ or _____________________ a relatively large amount
of ____________________ for its temperature to change.
When water is ________________________, most of the ________________________
energy that the water initially absorbs breaks the ___________________________
between the molecules.
When the _______________________ are broken, the thermal energy is
_______________________ and increases the _____________________ of the
Water’s ability to ______________________ large amounts of _____________________
helps keep cells at an even ________________________ despite temperature changes in
Fill in the blanks above to show what happens when water changes phases. Is energy
released or absorbed? Are hydrogen bonds broken or formed?
A _________________ atom has ___________________electrons in its outer level
which means it can create ___________________ bonds with any other atoms including
This makes carbon an excellent _____________________ for many
Carbon can even form ____________________ and double and triple bonds!
A _______________________ is a group of atoms that _______________________ the
properties of the molecules they compose.
_________________ is a functional group that has _________________ and
Alcohols can cause blindness or even _____________________ when consumed.
Some alcohols are important to assemble certain ______________________ in the body.
Large Carbon Molecules
In large _____________________ compounds, the molecules are built up from smaller,
simpler molecules called ____________________.
______________________ can bind together to create larger, more complex molecules
Large ___________________ are called ___________________.
How are polymers made and broken?
______________________ link together in a _____________________________
When two _______________________ combine, ______________________ is released.
When ____________________ are broken, it is called a __________________________
Water is broken into two parts and breaks the __________________ that hold the
Draw an example of a condensation reaction and a hydrolysis reaction below.
Life processes require __________________.
This energy is available to life in the form of a compound called ___________________.
ATP has ____________________ phosphates on the molecule and when one phosphate
is broken off,___________________ is released.
Draw an ATP molecule below.
A _________________________ of a _______________________ is called
A monosaccharide is a ________________________ sugar.
Two ___________________________ form a ___________________________.
A ____________________________ is a complex molecule composed of three or more
What are some carbs?
_____________________ are _______________________ compounds made from
monomers called __________________________.
There are _________________________ different amino acids.
The differences between the amino acids are their ___________________ groups.
Two amino acids bond to form a _________________________.
In a __________________________ reaction, two amino acids form a
________________________ bond called a _______________________ bond.
Long chains of amino acids are called ___________________________.
What are some proteins?
Enzymes are a special kind of protein.
______________________ are proteins that are important
__________________________for chemical reactions.
Enzyme reactions depend on the __________________________ between the
___________________and the _____________________________.
The _________________________ is the reactant being catalyzed.
Enzymes may fail to work when the _________________________ isn’t correct.
Other _________________ and ____________________ are also a factor.
Label the steps above.
Affects on Enzymes
A change in ___________________ can decrease the ability of an enzyme to function.
A ___________________________________ or ______________________ can
decrease the ability of an enzyme to function.
___________________ are large, non polar molecules that do not
______________________ in water.
Fatty acids are _____________________ carbon chains that make up most lipids.
Types of Lipids
A ________________________ is composed of ____________________ molecules of
fatty acids joined to an alcohol called glycerol.
______________________ have two fatty acids joined with glycerol.
Phospholipids are contained in the ___________________________ and form a
___________________ layer to create a barrier between the inside and outside of cell.
A wax is a type of _____________________ lipid.
A steroid has ___________________ carbon rings. _________________________ is an
example. _____________________ are also ________________________ and very
important for life.
Label the head and the tail of the molecule. Also label which is hydrophobic and
which is hydrophilic.
Types of Fats(Lipids)
A _________________________ has all available bonds used by
Saturated fats are _________________ at room temperature and are all single bonded,
__________________________________ have a _______________________ bond
which means not all available bonds are taken by hydrogen.
_________________________ are generally _________________________ at room
temperature and are healthier.
____________________________________ are large and complex organic molecules
that store important _______________________ in the cell.
_________________________ stores and transfers information to make
______________________________ contains information that is essential for cell
Both ____________________ and ________________________ are composed of
____________________________ called __________________________.
A nucleotide has _________________________components: a
_____________________________ group, a _________________________ and a
1. Describe the structure of the water molecule.
2. What are two properties of water that are caused by hydrogen bonding?
3. What is an organic compound?
4. Define functional group and give an example.
5. How does a polymer form?
6. How does a polymer break down?
7. What are the 4 classes of organic compounds? Give an example of each.
8. Explain the relationship between enzyme and substrate.
9. What affects the ability of enzymes to work?