Chapter 23 note-taking guide
A Global Connection
Groups of convection cells form the system of
_____________________________________ that helps determine _______________.
In the southern Pacific Ocean, the usual pattern of ______________________ creates a
___________________ that blows from _______________________ and pushes
____________________ surface water from South America toward Australia.
Along the South American coast, ___________________water rises from
_____________________ in the ocean and replaces the _____________________ water.
This rising current is called an _______________________ and it brings with it
________________________ material and ________________________ that support an
abundance of __________________________.
The _______________________ in turn supports an abundance of
The ____________________ economy along with ________________________ depends
on normal atmospheric conditions.
But sometimes, usually in December, the normal ______________________ winds do not
form over the ________________________.
Instead, winds push _____________________ water eastwards toward the coast ofSouth
When these conditions occur, the _____________________ surface water cuts off the
____________________ of _________________________.
The event is called _____________________.
Consequences of El Nino
The ____________________ populations ___________________ and Peruvian anchovy
exports ____________________ because of the halted _____________________.
Fewer _____________________ mean fewer ______________________ and reduced
Peruvians need guano for ___________________.
Northeastern _______________________ can suffer summer ______________________
leading to reduced ____________________ production there.
The southeastern United States gets higher _______________________ in El Nino years,
boosting ______________________ while also decreasing _____________________.
__________________ is a naturally occurring ________________ in the upper
____________________ that is vital to life on Earth.
_______________ protects life from deadly __________________________ rays.
Humans, if exposed to _________________ light can suffer ________________________
Several kinds of human-made ________________________ are diminishing the
A major __________________________ that destroys the _________________________
is chlorofluorocarbons or ______________________.
_____________________ are used in coolants in ____________________,
____________________________ and in __________________________.
Consequences of Ozone Depletion
Due to the ___________________ depletion, __________________ rays are negatively
affecting life on Earth.
________________ and _________________ are also damaged by _________________
The rise in ___________________ indicates the ______________________ is still
A __________________ agreement has been reached that has cut ___________________
Hopefully, the ____________________ will recover within ______________________
Increasing Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide or _________________, is a naturally occurring ___________________
that is the raw material of __________________ and a byproduct of
It is released when _____________________ are ____________________.
This includes: ___________________, ___________________ and
Around the middle of the ________________ century, humans began to use
_______________________ more frequently.
______________________________ levels and global _________________________
have risen as a result of the increased use of _________________________.
Effects of Rising CO2 Levels
There is a ____________________ or __________________________ relationship exists between
_______________________________________ and ______________________________ levels.
As carbon dioxide levels ___________________________ due to increased use of fossil fuels, global
temperatures will ___________________ causing drastic changes to our environment.
Future Population Growth
The _______________________ population is currently just above
_________________________ and growing at a rate of about
_____________________________ per year.
The United Nations estimates that by the year_____________________the world’s
population could be more than _________________________.
How would the doubling of the human population affect the environment?
The Biodiversity Crisis
Species richness is
Genetic diversity is an important measure of _____________________.
Measuring Earth’s Biodiversity
Biologists estimate that there are at least _______________________ species on Earth and
possibly as much as ________________________.
_______________________ are actually a small portion of the Earth’s
Most species are ____________________, _____________________ and
Biologists estimate that up to _______________ of existing species may become extinct by
the year _________________.
There have been ____________ major ___________________ in the past and the
_________________ is currently happening.
The ___________________ is different in that it is being caused by _________________
instead of natural causes.
The greatest threat to ___________________ is
Since the discovery of agriculture ______________________ years ago, more than
___________________ of the world’s ____________________________________ have
Rainforests contain the most _____________________________ so their destruction is
especially damaging to the world.
Ways to Save Biodiversity
Many countries that have _________________________________ are some of the
economically ____________________ nations on Earth.
In a process called ____________________________________, richer countries or private
conservation organizations pay off some of the _____________________ of a developing
country in _______________________ for the country to protect their
This could be setting up a ________________________, launching educational programs,
or promoting _______________________.
Importance of Biodiversity
Some species are valuable as sources of _______________________.
Many people have both reasons to preserve______________________.
Why is the upwelling on the coast of Peru important to that country?
Describe the consequences of El Nino?
How have CFC’s affected the atmosphere? How might this change affect humans?
Describe some possible effect of a continued increase in the human population.
Explain how species richness and evenness differ.
What is genetic diversity?