Chapter 23 note guide


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Chapter 23 note guide

  1. 1. Chapter 23 note-taking guide Name__________________________ A Global Connection Convection cell- Groups of convection cells form the system of _____________________________________ that helps determine _______________. Upwelling In the southern Pacific Ocean, the usual pattern of ______________________ creates a ___________________ that blows from _______________________ and pushes ____________________ surface water from South America toward Australia. Along the South American coast, ___________________water rises from _____________________ in the ocean and replaces the _____________________ water. This rising current is called an _______________________ and it brings with it ________________________ material and ________________________ that support an abundance of __________________________. The _______________________ in turn supports an abundance of _____________________.
  2. 2. El Nino The ____________________ economy along with ________________________ depends on normal atmospheric conditions. But sometimes, usually in December, the normal ______________________ winds do not form over the ________________________. Instead, winds push _____________________ water eastwards toward the coast ofSouth America. When these conditions occur, the _____________________ surface water cuts off the ____________________ of _________________________. The event is called _____________________. Consequences of El Nino The ____________________ populations ___________________ and Peruvian anchovy exports ____________________ because of the halted _____________________. Fewer _____________________ mean fewer ______________________ and reduced _____________________ population. Peruvians need guano for ___________________. Northeastern _______________________ can suffer summer ______________________ leading to reduced ____________________ production there. The southeastern United States gets higher _______________________ in El Nino years, boosting ______________________ while also decreasing _____________________. Declining Ozone
  3. 3. __________________ is a naturally occurring ________________ in the upper ____________________ that is vital to life on Earth. _______________ protects life from deadly __________________________ rays. Humans, if exposed to _________________ light can suffer ________________________ and ________________________. Several kinds of human-made ________________________ are diminishing the __________________shield. A major __________________________ that destroys the _________________________ is chlorofluorocarbons or ______________________. _____________________ are used in coolants in ____________________, ____________________________ and in __________________________. Consequences of Ozone Depletion Due to the ___________________ depletion, __________________ rays are negatively affecting life on Earth. ________________ and _________________ are also damaged by _________________ rays. The rise in ___________________ indicates the ______________________ is still thinning. A __________________ agreement has been reached that has cut ___________________ by ___________________. Hopefully, the ____________________ will recover within ______________________ years. Increasing Carbon Dioxide
  4. 4. Carbon dioxide or _________________, is a naturally occurring ___________________ that is the raw material of __________________ and a byproduct of ____________________. It is released when _____________________ are ____________________. This includes: ___________________, ___________________ and ____________________. Around the middle of the ________________ century, humans began to use _______________________ more frequently. ______________________________ levels and global _________________________ have risen as a result of the increased use of _________________________. Effects of Rising CO2 Levels There is a ____________________ or __________________________ relationship exists between _______________________________________ and ______________________________ levels. As carbon dioxide levels ___________________________ due to increased use of fossil fuels, global temperatures will ___________________ causing drastic changes to our environment. Future Population Growth The _______________________ population is currently just above _________________________ and growing at a rate of about _____________________________ per year.
  5. 5. The United Nations estimates that by the year_____________________the world’s population could be more than _________________________. How would the doubling of the human population affect the environment? The Biodiversity Crisis Biodiversity- Evenness- Genetic diversity- Species richness is Genetic diversity is an important measure of _____________________. Measuring Earth’s Biodiversity Biologists estimate that there are at least _______________________ species on Earth and possibly as much as ________________________. _______________________ are actually a small portion of the Earth’s ___________________________.
  6. 6. Most species are ____________________, _____________________ and ________________________. Reducing Biodiversity Biologists estimate that up to _______________ of existing species may become extinct by the year _________________. There have been ____________ major ___________________ in the past and the _________________ is currently happening. The ___________________ is different in that it is being caused by _________________ instead of natural causes. The greatest threat to ___________________ is _______________________________________. Since the discovery of agriculture ______________________ years ago, more than ___________________ of the world’s ____________________________________ have been _____________________. Rainforests contain the most _____________________________ so their destruction is especially damaging to the world. Ways to Save Biodiversity Many countries that have _________________________________ are some of the economically ____________________ nations on Earth. In a process called ____________________________________, richer countries or private conservation organizations pay off some of the _____________________ of a developing
  7. 7. country in _______________________ for the country to protect their ________________________. This could be setting up a ________________________, launching educational programs, or promoting _______________________. Importance of Biodiversity Utilitarian value- Some species are valuable as sources of _______________________. Nonutilitarian value- Many people have both reasons to preserve______________________. Essential Questions Why is the upwelling on the coast of Peru important to that country? Describe the consequences of El Nino? How have CFC’s affected the atmosphere? How might this change affect humans?
  8. 8. Describe some possible effect of a continued increase in the human population. Explain how species richness and evenness differ. What is genetic diversity?