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Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
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Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere

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  • 1. Chapter 22 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
  • 2. Producers <ul><li>Producer-makes its own food, autotroph </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis-produce carbohydrates from inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs, which include plants and some kind of protists and bacteria, manufacture their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Because autotrophs capture energy and use it to make organic molecules, they are called producers. </li></ul>
  • 3. Producers <ul><li>Most producers are photosynthetic, so they use solar energy to power the production of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Some autotrophic bacteria do not use sunlight as an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria carry out chemosynthesis, which means they produce carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic (non-living) molecules. </li></ul>
  • 4. Productivity <ul><li>Biomass-organic (living) material in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>What factors affect how much biomass an ecosystem can produce? </li></ul><ul><li>In terrestrial (land) biomes, light, temperature and precipitation are the key factors. </li></ul><ul><li>In aquatic (water) biomes, light and availability of nutrients are key factors. </li></ul>
  • 5. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers-heterotrophs, must eat other organisms to obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores-animals that eat producers, plant eaters or bacteria eater </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores-animals that eat other consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores-animals that eat both producers and consumers </li></ul>
  • 6. Consumers <ul><li>Detritivore-consumers that feed on dead or dying organisms and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers-break down complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules </li></ul>
  • 7. What Am I? zebra consumer producer decomposer lion grass mushroom deer
  • 8. Energy Flow <ul><li>Trophic level-the organisms’ position in the sequence of energy transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever one organism eats another, molecules are metabolized and energy is transferred </li></ul><ul><li>One way to follow the pattern of energy is to group organisms in an ecosystem based on how they obtain energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers are always on the first trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are on the second level and carnivores on the third…etc. </li></ul>
  • 9. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food chain-single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Food web-interrelated food chains that connect together </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom of energy diagrams is always the biggest. </li></ul><ul><li>There are always more producers than consumers. </li></ul>
  • 10. Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Tundra/Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga/Coniferous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Savannas </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest/Jungle </li></ul>
  • 11. Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>Ocean/Marine-includes reef, neritic, benthic and pelagic zone </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries-mixed salt and freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes and Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and Streams </li></ul>
  • 12. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why are autotrophs essential components of an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>What role do decomposers play in an ecosystem? Why is this role important? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a food chain differ from a food web? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if you removed any organism from a food web or chain? Be specific! </li></ul>

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