Chapter 21 and 22
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Chapter 21 and 22

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    Chapter 21 and 22 Chapter 21 and 22 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 21-1 and Chapter 22 Species Interactions Community Ecology Food Webs
    • Predation
      • Predator-captures, kills and consumes another individual
      • Prey-is captured and consumed for food
    • Predators, Prey and Natural Selection
      • A predator’s survival depends on its ability to capture food, but a prey’s survival depends on its ability to avoid being captured.
    • Mimicry
      • Deception is important in antipredator defenses.
      • In a defense called mimicry, a harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species.
      • The harmless mimic is protected because it is often mistaken to be its dangerous look-alike
    • Mimicry Monarch Viceroy
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    • Plant-Herbivore Interactions
      • Animals that eat plants are called herbivores.
      • Through natural selection, plants have evolved adaptations that protect them from being eaten.
      • Physical defenses, such as sharp thorns, spines, sticky hairs, and tough leaves, can make a plant more difficult to eat.
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    • Plant-Herbivore Interactions
      • Plants have also evolved a range of chemical defenses.
      • They synthesize chemicals from products of their metabolism, called secondary compounds, that are poisonous, irritating, or bad tasting.
      • Examples are the tobacco plant and poison ivy and poison oak.
      • Many medicines are derived from secondary compounds.
    • Secondary Compounds
    • Purple Coneflower or Echincaea. Immune system Willow Tree aspirin
    • stop
    • Parasitism
      • Parasitism- a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the other benefits
      • Parasite- feeds on another individual, harming it
      • Host-fed upon by another organism
      • Ectoparasites-external, ticks, fleas, lice
      • Endoparasites-internal, worms, protists
    • Ectoparasites
    • Endoparasites
    • Competition
      • Competition results from niche overlap.
      • Competition is the use of the same limited resource by two or more species.
      • Competitive exclusion is when one species is eliminated from a community due to competition.
      • One species uses a resource more efficiently and has a reproductive advantage over the other.
      • Competition is the most intense between similar species using the same resources.
    • Mutualism and Commensalism
      • Mutualism- a cooperative relationship in which both partners benefit
      • Some mutualistic relationships are so close that neither partner could live without the other.
      • Pollination is a major mutualistic relationship that benefits the world.
    • Mutualism and Commensalism
      • Commensalism- a relationship between organisms in which one organism benefits and one organism is unaffected.
      • One example is birds eating insects and lizards that are flushed out by buffalo.
      • The buffalo is not harmed and does not benefit but the birds clearly benefit from the buffalo.
    • Mutualism
    • Commensalism These are mainly commensalism but could change to mutualism if the situation changes.
    • Essential Questions
      • Explain how predators differ from parasites. Give an example of each kind of organism.
      • Some harmless flies resemble bees and wasps. What is this mechanism called? Evaluate its importance as a defense mechanism.
      • Describe two chemical defenses of plants.
      • What is symbiosis?
      • What are the 4 kinds of symbiosis?
    • Stop Magic School Bus
    • Producers
      • Producer-makes its own food, autotroph
      • Chemosynthesis-produce carbohydrates from inorganic molecules
      • Autotrophs, which include plants and some kind of protists and bacteria, manufacture their own food.
      • Because autotrophs capture energy and use it to make organic molecules, they are called producers.
    • Producers
      • Most producers are photosynthetic, so they use solar energy to power the production of food.
      • Some autotrophic bacteria do not use sunlight as an energy source.
      • These bacteria carry out chemosynthesis, which means they produce carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic (non-living) molecules.
    • Consumers
      • Consumers-heterotrophs, must eat other organisms to obtain energy
      • Herbivores-animals that eat producers, plant eaters or bacteria eater
      • Carnivores-animals that eat other consumers
      • Omnivores-animals that eat both producers and consumers
    • Consumers
      • Detritivore-consumers that feed on dead or dying organisms and waste products
      • Decomposers-break down complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules
    • What Am I? zebra consumer producer decomposer lion grass mushroom deer
    • Energy Flow
      • Trophic level-the organisms’ position in the sequence of energy transfers
      • Whenever one organism eats another, molecules are metabolized and energy is transferred
      • One way to follow the pattern of energy is to group organisms in an ecosystem based on how they obtain energy.
      • Producers are always on the first trophic level.
      • Herbivores are on the second level and carnivores on the third…etc.
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    • Food Chains and Food Webs
      • Food chain-single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer
      • Food web-interrelated food chains that connect together
      • The bottom of energy diagrams is always the biggest.
      • There are always more producers than consumers.
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    • Essential Questions
      • Why are autotrophs essential components of an ecosystem?
      • What role do decomposers play in an ecosystem? Why is this role important?
      • How does a food chain differ from a food web?
      • What would happen if you removed any organism from a food web or chain? Be specific!
    • Commensalism
    • Mutualism
    • commensalism
    • Parasitism
    • Predation
    • Parasitism
    • mutualism
    • mutualism