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# Chapter 2 Note

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• Tia, do these power point shows correlate with a particular textbook? If not, can they stand alone to cover all of High School Chemistry I? I see chapters 1 and 2; how can I get the rest of the chapters?

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### Transcript of "Chapter 2 Note"

1. 1. Chapter 2 Note-taking Guide and Organizer Name________________Date___________Mod__________ Remember to keep your periodic table with your notes at all times! Composition of Matter Matter is anything that occupies ________________ and has ______________. _______________ is the quantity of _________________ an object has. _______________ And ________________ are different. ________________ depends on the amount of __________________. You would ______________ less on the moon than on earth but have the same ___________________. http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/ What is matter? Check off everything you believe is matter. Air darkness water Light heat cold Smoke sound jello human Check your answers. Element An _________________ is a pure substance that cannot be ___________________ into simpler kinds of ________________. Each element has a different __________________________________.
2. 2. More than _____________________________ have been identified. More than _______________________ of the mass of living things is composed of _____________________, ________________________, _____________________________ and ______________________________. Atoms An ___________________ is the simplest part of an element that retains the _______________________ of that element. The properties of _____________________ determine how the element will _____________________ in nature. An atom consists of ___________________ parts. The _________________________ contains ____________________ and _________________________. ___________________________ float around the outside of the __________________________. The number of _______________________ is called the ______________________. Protons are charged _________________________, electrons are __________________________ and neutrons are neutral or __________________ charge. Draw a picture of an atom below.
3. 3. Atomic Particle Table Name of Particle Location Charge Related Info Electrons ____________________ are responsible for making __________________. Electrons are set in different layers called _______________________. Each level can hold up to ___________________ electrons except the innermost level which can only hold _______________. Compounds A ____________________ is a pure substance made up of ______________ or more ______________________. A ____________________ shows what elements and how many are in a ____________________. An atom is chemically _________________ when its outer shell has _____________ electrons with the exception of ___________________ and ____________________. That is why elements ____________________ together.
4. 4. When elements bond together they create a _______________________________________ which makes the atoms happy and ____________________. Write some examples of chemical formulas. How do you read a chemical formula? Covalent bonds _______________________ form when atoms __________________ one or more ________________ of electrons. This usually happens between _________________________. A ______________________ is formed when a ___________________________ is used. Examples are: Draw some examples of covalent bonds below. Water
5. 5. Ionic Bonds ________________________ form when one atom ______________________________ from itself to another _________________. When this occurs, an _________________ is formed. ________________________ usually happen between a ___________________ and a ________________________. Draw some pictures of ionic bonds below. Sodium chloride (table salt) (NaCl)
6. 6. Energy and Matter ______________________ is the ability to do __________________ or cause ___________________. _____________________ is the energy in a system available for __________________. There are ________________ main states of matter. They are: Energy and Chemical Reactions Living things undergo ______________________ of _________________________ as part of their life processes.
7. 7. The ______________________ are shown on the __________________ of the equation. The __________________ are shown on the ____________________. _________________________ are converted to __________________________. ______________________ is required for the ____________________________ to occur. How can you recognize a chemical reaction? Circle the reaction if you think it is a chemical reaction. All others are physical reactions. Think: Are you changing one thing to another thing? Breaking glass ice pack rusting car Frying an egg burning a match boiling water Shaking a pop hand warmers chopping veggies Freezing water cooking macaroni baking a cake Energy Transfer ___________________________ that release energy are called _____________________ reactions. Chemical reactions that _____________________ energy are called _________________________ reactions. Both ______________________ and _______________________ reactions require energy to start the process. This is called ____________________________. Certain chemicals called _____________________, reduce the amount of ___________________energy required. The reaction happens ________________________.
8. 8. One ____________________ in the body is called an _______________________. Draw an example of catalysts decreasing activation energy. Redox reactions Many ______________________ that help ____________________________ in living things involve the transfer of _________________________. These are called __________________________________________________- reactions or ____________________ reactions. In _________________________, a reactant loses one or more _____________________, making it a ___________________________________. In _____________________________, a reactant gains one or more ____________________________ making it more _____________________. There is always an atom that is _______________________ and an atom that is _______________________. Solutions A __________________ is a mixture in which one or more substances is _______________________ distributed in another substance.
9. 9. A solution has ___________________ parts. The ____________________ is the substance dissolved in the solution. The ___________________ is the substance in which the ___________________ in dissolved. The ____________________ is the measurement of the amount of ____________________ dissolved in the ___________________. A __________________________________ is one in which no more __________________ can dissolve. __________________________ are solutions in which water is the ______________________. These are very _____________________. Acids and Bases __________________ is the _________________ apart of _______________. When water breaks, ____________ things are made. The hydroxide ion is ________________. The hydrodium ion is __________________. If the number of ______________________ ions is greater than the number of ____________________ions, the solution is an acid. Sometimes hydrodium is just written ________________. If the number of hydroxide ions is _________________ than the hydrodium ions, then the solution is a base. Draw the dissociation of water below.
10. 10. pH and Buffers ________________ is the scale for comparing the relative concentrations of ____________________in a _________________. The scale ranges from _____________________. The smaller the number, the more ___________________ a solution is. The higher the number, the more __________________ it is. For example, stomach acid has a _______________ of about _________. Ammonia has a pH of about ___________. ____________________ are chemicals that _______________________ acids and bases in the body. ___________________ help maintain good _______________ levels in the body. Essential Questions • How are particles arranged in an atom? • How does an ionic bond differ from a covalent bond?
11. 11. • Why doesn’t Neon combine with elements very often? • What are the 3 state of matter? • Explain how a catalyst affects a reaction. • Why does a reduction always happen with an oxidation? • Describe the dissociation of water.
12. 12. • What is neutral pH? • What is a buffer? Why is it important to the body?