Chapter 15 16 Note Taking Guide
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Chapter 15 16 Note Taking Guide






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    Chapter 15 16 Note Taking Guide Chapter 15 16 Note Taking Guide Document Transcript

    • Chapter 15-16 Note-Taking Guide Evolution: Evidence and Theory and Speciation What is evolution by natural selection? Evidence for Evolution 1. 2.
    • 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  The Fossil Record  A fossil is a ______________________________.  Fossils are often found in layers of ______________________________________.  Sedimentary rock is formed when ______________________________ like dust, sand or mud is deposited and turns to _________________________ over many years.  A _______________________________ is an imprint in rock in the shape of an organism.
    •  A _________________________ is when a mold fills in with hard ___________________________.  Sometimes a fossil can form when a whole animal is preserved in ________________________________________________.  What can Fossils Tell Us?  Law of Superposition states that successive layers of rock or soil were deposited  The lowest layer is the _____________________________because it was deposited ________________________________.  Any ____________________________________ found in those layers would be around the same age as the layers.  ______________________________________ is not exact but can only determine if a fossil is older or younger than another fossil.  ___________________________________________is determined using chemical processes which can show a number of years for the age of the fossil or rock layer.  Succession of Forms  ___________________________ indicate that species of organisms appeared, existed for a while and then _________________________________ or became __________________________.
    •  __________________________________________ occur when large amounts of species ____________________________.  Mass extinctions can be caused by the ______________________________ like volcanic activity or from asteroid impacts.  Current extinctions are being caused by ______________________________.  ____________________________________________ is the study of the comparison of fossils to living organisms.  Biogeography shows that new organisms arise in areas where ______________________________ forms once lived.  Theories of Evolution (Change)  French scientist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck formed some of the first theories of change by observing animals with webbed feet and other animals like giraffes.  He thought that ____________________________________________ like ones that are earned through life were passed down to offspring.  His idea was easily __________________________________ but Lamarck was one of the first thinkers of change of his time.  Darwin’s Dangerous Idea
    •  In the mid-1800’s, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently developed an idea that species were _____________________________ by ______________________________________.  In the process of natural selection, organisms best __________________________ to their _______________________________ reproduced more successfully than other organisms.  Over generations, the ____________________________ increase in the population.  Voyage of the Beagle  Darwin rode aboard the ship the H.M.S Beagle as the ship’s _________________________________ so he could learn about all the plants and animals he found.  Darwin based some of his work on the research of ____________________________ who said that many of the Earth’s geologic processes took a long time to complete and the Earth must be quite ____________________________.  Darwin’s Observations  Darwin observed high in the Andes Mountains of South America that fossils of ____________________ creatures were present. How did they get up there?  Darwin reasoned that they ______________________________ must have been uplifted from the sea bed many years ago.
    •  If the land can change why not the living creatures there?  Darwin collected many _____________________________ and observed thousands of species on his 5 year journey.  The Galapagos Islands  Darwin visited the _____________________________________________, an isolated part of South America.  There he observed many animals ________________________ those found on the mainland of South America.  Each island in the Galapagos had unique animals found nowhere else. Why?  Darwin’s Theories  _________________________________________________________________- states that newer forms appearing in the fossil record are actually the _______________________________ or slightly changed _____________________________ of older species.  ______________________________________________________________ states that the __________________________________ may affect individual organisms in different ways because they are not _________________________
    •  _______________________________________ said populations are limited by adverse conditions like ____________________,______________________, and_________________________________ otherwise they would grow unchecked.  Darwin used Malthus’ ideas in his work.  Natural Selection  A population of organisms _____________________________________ to their environment as their proportion of ______________________________ for favorable ___________________________ increases.  A single organism’s genetic contribution to the next generation is termed _________________________________.  A ________________________________ gives an organism an __________________________________________.  _________________________ occur in species which can create favorable or unfavorable traits in certain environments.  Homologous and Analogous Structures  A _____________________________________ structure is a similar feature that originated in a ________________________________________.  These structures originate from the same areas in ____________________________of the animals.
    •  _______________________________________ are features that look similar because they are used for a _____________________________________ but arise from a different embryological development like _______________________________ in birds and bees  Vestigial Structures  _________________________________________________ are features that are no longer _______________________________________ and have no apparent function in a current animal but had a function in a common ancestor.  Vestigial structures indicate ___________________________________.  Some animals like humans are born with vestigial structures showing like tails.  Whales have 4-chambered stomachs like a cow even though it is not used. Examples of vestigial structures 1. 2. 3.
    •  Embryology  Embryology is the study of _________________________ and their _____________________________.  Animals have similar _____________________________ at certain stages of development indicating a common _________________________.  Macromolecules and DNA  All life on this planet has the same __________________________ bases and the same types of _____________________.  This indicates that we are all __________________________.  Comparing genes and DNA, comparing amino acids sequences and comparing certain protein sequences all lead to the same conclusion…  As the number of differences _____________________________, the more related the two animals are.  Evolution in Action  Anyone can see evolution in action every day.  Entire ___________________________ can evolve into new species.
    •  Larger animals take more time while bacteria and viruses can evolve in a matter of hours. Examples of Evolution in Action 1. 2. 3.  Patterns of Evolution  __________________________________ is when two species change together in close association.  Some species cannot live without the other because they are so closely connected.
    •  ________________________________________evolution is when the environment selects certain _____________________________ to be similar even though the two animals may not closely related; _____________________________and_____________________  _____________________________________ evolution is when two or more related populations over time become more _____________________________. This usually results in a new species; dogs and wolves.  ______________________________ evolution is also called _____________________________________________, when the animals adapt to a specific _________________________________and change into new species over time.  ________________________________ is when humans select the traits and cause the evolution; _____________________,___________________,_______________________and_____ ___________________________. Examples of Coevolution 1. 2.
    • 3.  Convergent Evolution  Many ___________________________ have _____________________ counterparts on other continents.  The ___________________________ selects an animal to occupy a habitat. Examples of convergent evolution 1. 2. 3.  What is a species?
    •  A species is a group of animals that can ____________________________ with each other and produce offspring that that also _________________________.  One species cannot breed with another and create offspring that can also breed.  There are many ______________________________ that can restrict breeding which can contribute to the formation of a new _________________________.  ___________________________ is the formation of a new ________________________.  Isolating Mechanisms that cause Speciation  Geographic isolation is the ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________.  Examples are ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________.  Reproductive isolation creates a barrier to _________________________________________________.  Examples are ________________________________________________________________________
    • ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________. What do you think is the strongest piece of evidence presented? What three people influenced Darwin’s work? How can we see evolution working today? How are new species being created?