Arthropods Notes
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Arthropods Notes






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    Arthropods Notes Arthropods Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Arthropods Our hard-shelled friends…..and foes!
    • Characteristics of Arthropods
      • Segmented
      • Jointed appendages
      • Hard external skeleton
      • 3 parts-head, thorax, abdomen (arachnids exception)
      • Exoskeleton-hard, external skeleton made of chitin
      • Molting- shed old exoskeleton and secrete a larger one, very vulnerable after molting
    • Body parts
      • Ganglia-clusters of nerve cells along a nerve cord
      • Compound eyes-may facets each with their own lenses, some have single lenses and some have both
      • Spiracles-holes in the exoskeleton that allow gas exchange (book lungs in arachnids)
      • Trachea-chitin lined tubes in spiracles
    • Arthropod Ancestors-Trilobites
    • Diversity of Arthropods
      • First arthropods evolved in sea about 560 mya
      • 4,000 species of trilobites
      • Spider-like arthropods abundant in sea 300 mya, only 4 species left-horseshoe crabs-changed very little
      • Crustaceans live in mostly aquatic environments, specialization of appendages;claws
    • Types
      • Curstaceans-lobsers, crayfish, rabs, shrimp, barnacles, copepods, Isopods (pillbugs,sowbugs)
      • Arachnids-spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks
      • Insects-beetles, ants, grasshoppers, butterflies, dragonflies,etc
      • Myriapods- centipedes-venomous, millipedes- toxic chemicals, smell/taste bad
    • Class Arachnida
      • Scorpions, spider, ticks, mites
      • 2 boy sections-cephalothorax and abdomen
      • Chelicerae-fanglike mouthparts to paralyze prey with poison
      • Pedipalps-mouthpart typically used to manipulate prey once it has been paralyzed or for mating
      • Malpighian tubules-remove wastes from fluids in body cavity
    • Arachnids
      • Book lungs-specialized respiratory structures and provide large surface for gas exchange, some use trachea
      • Almost all arachnids live on land and have several adaptations to help them retain water.
    • Types
      • Spiders-have silk glands made from spinnerets; many hunt for prey or use webs
      • Scorpions-nighttime hunters in deserts, venomous stinger at the end of the tail, body glows in a black light
      • Mites/ticks-suck sap or blood, sucking mouthparts, transmit diseases, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tick paralysis
    • Spiders
    • Not really spiders but close…
    • Scorpians All scorpians glow in a black light
    • Mites and Ticks
    • Class Crustacea
      • Decapods-ten legs, pincers and walking legs, most are marine, crayfish are freshwater and a few land crabs exist in tropical areas
      • 2 body parts-cephalothorax and abdomen
      • Carapace-portion of the exoskeleton that cover cephalothorax
      • Mandibles-bite and grind food
      • Lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimp
    • Barnacles and Copepods
      • Barnacles secrete calcium carbonate to make their shells
      • Copepods are very small but play a big part in food chains
    • Isopods
      • Most are small marine crustaceans, but also include large animals and terrestrial pillbugs/sowbugs
    • Decapods
    • Isopods
    • Barnacles and Copepods
    • Class Insecta
      • 3 main body parts-head, thorax, abdomen
      • 6 walking legs
      • Wings
      • Malpighian tubules for waste
      • Tracheal system and spiracles for gas exchange
      • Young often have completely different behavioral and eating patterns in complete metamorphosis
      • Entomology-study of insects
    • Class Insecta-Complete Metamorphosis
      • Changes from one completely different form into another adult form.
      • Has various stages of larva and pupa before becoming an adult
      • Pupa is an inactive stage in which a cocoon forms and the insect undergoes major physical and chemical changes.
      • Examples are: butterflies, moths, wasps, bees, beetles
    • Class Insecta-Incomplete Metamorphosis
      • Insect goes through various stages of molting and growing but remain basically the same.
      • Young grows bigger and bigger but has same feeding habits and physical appearance
      • Examples are: praying mantis, crickets and grasshoppers
    • Class Insecta Includes Many Insect Orders
      • Coleoptera- beetles
      • Lepidoptera-butterflies and moths
      • Diptera- flies and mosquitoes
      • Hymenoptera- ants, bees, wasps
      • Hemiptera- the true “bugs” stinkbugs, water striders
      • Orthoptera- crickets and grasshoppers
      • Odonata- dragonflies and damselflies
      • Isoptera- Termites
      • Homoptera- cicadas, aphids
    • Order Coleoptera Larval Beetle Forms
    • Order Lepidoptera Larval Forms
    • Order Diptera
    • Maggots, Diptera Larvae
    • Order Hymenoptera
    • Order Hemiptera The Kissing Bug, transmits the deadly Chagas disease!
    • Order Orthoptera
    • Order Odonata Larval Forms
    • Order Homoptera Molted skin
    • Cicada Songs
      • Many of these are from the Southeast Asia areas, but there are cicadas that are quite loud around here.
    • Order Isoptera Termite Queen