RIGHT CORNER >: 1) Write: Name: _, Period: _,Date: 04/02/12, Topic: Post WW1 China+JapanLEFT CORNER <: Write “Opener #21” and then:1) Write 1 high+1 low in last 24 hours2) Rate your comprehension for thisweek’s material so far: lost<1-5>easy3) Respond to the Opener by writingat least 1 sentences about:Your opinions/thoughts OR/ANDQuestions sparked by the clip OR/ANDSummary of the clip OR/AND
Agenda1) Post WW1 China + JapanWhat you will be able to do:1) Why did Japan become ultranationalist?Reminder1) Fieldtrip forms and $8 to fin office!
Review1) Meiji Restoration (1868-1912): Ppl ashamed of their weakness to the West, overthrow shogun and place emperor in power. (Emperor Mutsuhitito takes name of Meiji Emperor “Enlightened”)2) Fokoku Kyohei: Emperor’s command for the country: “Rich country, Strong Military”
3) Meiji Reforms:1) Copied German Gov + Constitution: Treat people equally, strong rule of law, but emperor in total control (like the German Kaiser)2) Send Students/Observers: To all western countries to learn and copy3) Gov Targeted Investments: Gov spent tax money to create biz in key areas, sell off later4) Modernize Military: With strong economy, buy western weapons5) Modernize Economy: Set up mail, railroads, telegraphs, banks, schools/colleges (esp. tech)6) Hire Western Experts: Goal of having them teach Japanese, then send experts away and have Japanese teach Japanese
4) Opening of Korea (1876): Japan opens Korea the way Perry opened Japan5) 1st Sino-Japanese War (1894-95): Fighting for influence of Korea, Japan wins Taiwan and Chinese ports near Taiwan (accelerates fall of Qing Empire)
6) Russo-Japanese War (1904-05): Fighting for influence of Korea, Japan wins Korea and parts of Manchuria, wipes out entire Russian fleet (1st Asian nation to defeat European in modern times, accelerates fall of the czar)
7) Korean Protectorate (1910-1945): Japanmodernizes Kor. and forces Jap. culture on them.Some Kor. independence fighters move to U.S.(Japan also picks up Ger. Asian territory in WWI)8) March First Movement (3/01/1919): Failed nonviolent protest against Japanese rule, 7,000 die.
Review1) Chinese Nationalist Party: Kuomintang/KMT (1912): Sun’s attempt to create a party to unify China, gets help from Russia. Communist were active members.2) Chiang Kai Shek (1887-1975): Takes over KMT after Sun, attempts to unify China and purge communist.3) Chinese Communist Party/CCP (1921): Soviets help found communist party, unique in based on farmer support (Maoism). Break from KMT in 19274) Northern Exhibition (1926–1927): Chiang conquers warlords in north.
5) Chinese Civil War, Part 1 (1927-1936): Chiang Kai-shek fights to purge KMT nationalist of CCP communists, weakening China. (China’s founder Sun welcome communist into KMT to keep China together and because Soviets gave China aid)
Notes #21a, Title: “Japanese Militarism Notes”1) League of Nations: Club of nations to prevent war, no power (US Pres. Wilson’s idea, US won’t join)2) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1925): Major nations incld. Japan, Italy, Germany pledge never to invade other countries. (World celebrate lasting peace!)
Notes #26a, Title: “Japanese Militarism Notes”3) Taisho Democracy (1920s): Jap. becomes democratic monarchy. Elected diet (legislature) holds power.4) Political Corruption: Giant companies (zaibatsus) bought influence over politicians5) Economic Conflict: Recession, global tariffs, labor conflict over wages (Communism rises)
1920s American Culture: US made $, lost few ppl in WWI, US culture dominated the world: jazz+swing music, sexualized lifestyle, more individualityMobo/Moga (Modern Boy/Modern Girl): Young Japanese rebel against traditional culture + adopt Western ways. Conservatives argued Western idea weakening Jap. obedience.6) National Crisis:a) 1923: Tokyo Earthquakeb) Gov corruption + labor conflict peaksc) 1929: US/Global Great Depression
7) Ultranationalists: Rise to power with belief that strong gov (military gov) needed to restore national power + restore Jap. traditions.8) Ultranationalist Methods:a) Assassinate political oppositionb) Use schools to make ppl worship the new Emperor Hirohito (Emperor symbol for military)c) Limit political freedomd) Expand military + conquer land to Jap. ppl economically (wealth+glory)
Notes #26b, Title: “Japanese Militarism Notes”9) Manchuria Incident (1931): Ultranationalist take over democracy, military fakes attack on Jap. railroad in Chinese Manchuria, Jap invades.10) League of Nations Protest: League has no tools to punish. Jap. ignores and quits league.
Overview 1931-Japan invades Manchuria 33-Hitler takes power 37-Japan reaches mainland China 38-Appeasement 39-Hitler+Stalin invades Poland 40-Battle of Britain 41-Hitler invades USSR 41-Japan attacks Pearl Harbor (US joins war) 42-Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Midway 43-Allies win in Africa 44-D-Day 2/45-Japan inflicts heavy loses in island campaign (Okinawa) 4/45 Hitler commits suicide 8/45 Atomic bombs, war over!
11) Japan Invades China (1937): Need for resources.
Activ #21a, “Japanese War Debate”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Invade China CON: Do not invade.1) We need raw materials 1) We can trade for rawand land for our people materials.2) If we don’t invade, the 2) Because other nationsWesterners will continue do wrong, it doesn’t giveto expand, we must us license to do the sameincrease Japan’s power.3) It is our duty+destiny to 3) We are not helpingcivilize Asia Asians by invading them
Notes #22a, Title: “Rape of Nanking”1) Rape of Nanking (1937): Jap. progress slows at Nanking capitol, Jap. kill 200,000+ Chinese in frustration.
Activ #22a, “Rape of Nanking Debate”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Doesn’t Need to be CON: Needs to be TaughtTaught 1) 200,000+ civilians died,1) It was one specific to say it’s just a minorincident, not incident insults thoserepresentative of the who diedJapanese people 2) The more violent it is,2) It’s too violent to teach the more we need to remember, so not to repeat it
Acitv #22b, Title “Rape of Nanking”Individually read each, and answer:1-4) Write down what you consider the mainidea/event of each document (rotate through all 4):Schooling, Killing Contest, Torture, PsychologyThen with your group come up with a group answer:5) Why did the Rape of Nanking happen? (Insightinto Humanity)6) Japan calls 1937 the “Nanking Incident,” is itimportant that Japan acknowledge their actions?7) Should Japan now in 2009 apologize and payreparations (compensation) for surviving victims, ifso how much?8) Can this happen anywhere AND how can we
“We learn these difficult events because societies ‘whodo not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’By being witness of our past, we can pledge ‘neveragain’ so that they did not die in vain.”
Title “Video: Nanking Incident”1) Copy Source Title: Rape ofNanking2…) Discuss questions on the boardwith a partner. Summarize yourdiscussion (include their name at theend). Remember participation pointsare deducted if off task.5 Reading/Film Qs Come From These Work Sections
Violence begins with indifference. Indifference is nothate, it’s not caring. When there is indifference, thereis violence.
To prevent evil,one has to know evil.Stages to the Descent of HumanityStage 1: Dehumanize the target
Title “Video: Nanking Incident”1) Copy Source Title: City of Life andDeath2…) Discuss questions on the boardwith a partner. Summarize yourdiscussion (include their name at theend). Remember participation pointsare deducted if off task.5 Reading/Film Qs Come From These Work Sections
Violence begins with indifference. Indifference is nothate, it’s not caring. When there is indifference, thereis violence.
Review1) Manchuria Incident (1931): Ultranationalist take over democracy, military fakes attack on Jap. railroad in Chinese Manchuria, Jap invades.2) League of Nations Protest: League has no tools to punish. Jap. ignores and quits league.3) Japan Invades Rest of China (1937): KMT forced to join with CCP to fight Japan.4) Rape of Nanking (1937): Jap. progress slows at Nanking capitol, Jap. kill 200,000+ Chinese in frustration.
Review1) 9/01/1939: Ger. invades Poland, UK+France decl. war. WWII Eur. has started (WWII Asia 37)
Notes #22b, Title: “WWII: Asia”1) South East Asia’s Lure: Japan needed raw materials from British + French colonies
2) 12/07/1941: Pearl Harbor: Japan decl. war on US, Ger. decl. war on US (12/11). (US won’t open Western Front in France, Stalin thinks on purpose)
Activ #22b, “Pearl Harbor Debate”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Attack US CON: End Expansion1) When we take S. Asia 4 1) We have gainedmaterials, US will decl war enough land, if we stop now, we won’t need more2) A surprise attack will raw materialscripple US long enoughfor Japan to gain enough 2) No matter howland to be a position to successful the attack, USnegotiate a peace with US will out last us in the end
Notes #22c, Title: “WWII: Asia”3) 12/1941-5/1942: Japanese Expansion: Japanese win every battle
4) 5/1942: Battle of Coral Sea: Fought purely by aircraft, first Jap. “defeat.” Jap. Both lose 1 carrier.5) 6/1942: Battle of Midway: Jap loss 4 carriers, US 1 Tides turned.
Review: 7/1942: Battle of Stalingrad: Bogged in street fighting, 2 mil die (deadliest battle in history) USSR surrounds + captures 500,000. Tides turned.
6) 8/1942-4/1945: Island Hopping: US takes islands to island, est. airbases as they go.
7) 10/1944: Battle of Leyte Gulf: Jap. employ+lose every last ship, 1st kamikazes used, only Jap. army left (largest naval battle in history: Jap. lose 4 carriers, 3 battleships, 8 cruisers, 12 destroyers)
Review: 4/1945: Invasion of Berlin:a) USSR reaches Berlin first, followed by US+UK.b) Hitler commits suicide: VE Day: 5/08/1945c) 100,000 Germans raped by USSR troops (USSR never punished for this)d) Capital Berlin divided in 4: US/UK/USSR/France
8) All of 1945: Japanese Firebombing: US bombs Jap. cities, 80,000 to 100,000 each run.
"They set to work at once sowing the sky with fire."
6/4/1945 Issue of Newsweek:"Six weeks ago Tokyo had a population ofnearly 7,000,000. Last week the Japs criedthat Tokyo no longer existed as a city.Using new techniques and new bombs, thelargest fleets of B-29s ever to take the airand turned most of the Japanese capitalinto ashes in two great strikes on May 24and 26....For 105 minutes theSuperfortresses filed over and dropped700,000 incendiary bombs. ”
Title “Video: Firebombing”1) Copy Source Title: Graves of theFireflies2…) Discuss questions on the boardwith a partner. Summarize yourdiscussion (include their name at theend). Remember participation pointsare deducted if off task.5 Reading/Film Qs Come From These Work Sections
Notes #22b, Title: “WWII: Asia”9) 2-4/1945: Battle of Iwo Jima + Okinawa: US invasion of Jap. home islands, only Jap. army left, but suicidal resistance (30-80% US casualty rate).
“I hear that theenemy is boasting ofhis demand forunconditionalsurrender of Japan.Unconditionalsurrender meansthat our nationalstructure and ourpeople will bedestroyed. Againstsuch boastful talkthere is only onemeasure we musttake, to fight to thelast.” –Pr. Suzuki,
Activ #22c, “Atomic Debate 1”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Use A-bomb CON: Don’t Use A-bomb1) Using the bomb will 1) Jap. is surrounded andprevent the need of an starving, we can wininvasion of Japan that will without itcost more lives on both 2) To be 1st to use such asides awful weapon is not2) We need to show USSR what’s good for US’we aren’t afraid of them image and future(our next enemy)
Notes #22c, Title: “End of WWII”10) 7/1945: Atomic Bomb: New US Pres. Truman notified $2 bil (08: $25 bil) bomb project successful
Notes #22c, Title: “End of WWII”11) 1945: Cold War Begins: As Axis falls, fear of USSR (Communism) rise. USSR likely to keep control of any land they invade (nukes a msg to the Russians)
Activ #22d, “Atomic Debate 2”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Drop Over City CON: Drop Over Isolated1) We need to show we Areamean business. To warn 1) They can get the msgor to drop elsewhere will by watching.not carry the full effect. 2) We can end the war2) USSR will think the US without costing anyoneis weak. more lives.
Notes #22d, Title: “End of WWII”12) 8/06/1945: Hiroshima: Warned of “utter destruction” if no surrender, no response, 140,000 die.
Activ #22e, “Atomic Debate 3”1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why.2) Then write down what your partner thinks (include their name at the end).1 2 3 4 5PRO: Drop Second CON: Don’t Drop Second1) They still didn’t 1) They only had 3 dayssurrender, USSR getting to consider.close, we don’t want to 2) We can end the warshare Japan. without costing anyone2) We need the USSR to more lives.think we have more, notjust (though we reallydidn’t have more than 2)
“We are in possession of the most destructiveexplosive ever devised by man. A single one ofour newly developed atomic bombs is actuallythe equivalent in explosive power to what2000 of our giant B-29s can carry on a singlemission. This awful fact is one for you toponder and we solemnly assure you it isgrimly accurate. We have just begun to usethis weapon against your homeland. If youstill have any doubt, make inquiry as to whathappened to Hiroshima… we ask that younow petition the Emperor to end the war. Ourpresident has outlined for you the thirteenconsequences of an honorable surrender.”
Reflection #20 (place at the end of today’s work)Pick the 1 most important thing youlearned today to share with your partner.1) Write down the main idea oftoday.(include their name).2) Summarize Mr. Chiang’s closingremarks
Homework:1) Study today’s notes + activity sections for a possible Notes/Activity Quiz.2) Follow your reading schedule