IPADS & MOBILES: LET’S (NOT) DO MOREMEDIA COMPARISON STUDIESC H A R L E S B . H O D G E S , P H . D .
FREQUENT QUESTIONS• Is online instruction as good as face-to-faceinstruction?• Are computer-based lectures as good face-to...
CHARGE• You will see published research studies wherequestions like those on the last slide wereinvestigated. Before askin...
LOCKEE, BURTON, CROSS, 1999• “Stakeholders desire to prove that participants in distance-deliveredcourses receive the same...
LOCKEE, BURTON, CROSS, 1999• This excellent paper includes the evolution of mediacomparison studies in the professional li...
MAYER, 2001• “The research question for media effects concernswhether students learn more deeply when materialis presented...
MAYER, 2001• “Media scholars have come to the conclusion that itis not productive to continue with traditional mediaresear...
MAYER, 2001• “In summary, the consensus among educationalpsychologists is that questions about which mediumis best are som...
HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Method• Media• Mode9
HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Method:• strategies/techniques to facilita...
HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Media:• “Media attributes are traditionall...
HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Mode:• The system used to convey instruction• For example: online, face-to-face, iPad•12
HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• “When assessing the effectiveness of a givendistance education experience, perhaps evaluator...
LOCKEE, MOORE, & BURTON, 2002• Regarding the evaluation of distance education...• “Unfortunately, what may seem the most l...
NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCEWEBSITE• Thomas R. Russell• Website companion to book, The No SignificantDifference Phenomenon• h...
NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCEWEBSITE• http://www.nosignificantdifference.org/faq.asp#Q1• “Mr. Russell found that an overwhelmi...
FINAL CHARGE• Why would you expect reading (or anything else) onan iPad to be somehow “better”? Are thereimportant variabl...
REFERENCES• Head, T.J., Lockee, B.B., & Oliver, K.M. (2002). Method, media, and mode: Clarifying thediscussion of distance...
19Charles B. Hodges, Ph.D.2013
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iPads & Mobiles: Let's (NOT) Do More Media Comparison Studies

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iPads & Mobiles: Let's (NOT) Do More Media Comparison Studies

  1. 1. IPADS & MOBILES: LET’S (NOT) DO MOREMEDIA COMPARISON STUDIESC H A R L E S B . H O D G E S , P H . D .
  2. 2. FREQUENT QUESTIONS• Is online instruction as good as face-to-faceinstruction?• Are computer-based lectures as good face-to-facelectures?• Is reading text on an eReader as effective asreading the text from a paper-based book?2
  3. 3. CHARGE• You will see published research studies wherequestions like those on the last slide wereinvestigated. Before asking questions like theseyourself, consider the following viewpoints.• References for the papers and resources highlightedare provided on the next-to-last slide in thispresentation.•3
  4. 4. LOCKEE, BURTON, CROSS, 1999• “Stakeholders desire to prove that participants in distance-deliveredcourses receive the same quality instruction off-campus as thoseinvolved in the ‘traditional’ classroom setting. However, the desire toprove that the quality of such distributed offerings is equal to thequality of on-campus programming often results in comparisons ofachievement between the two groups of student participants.Statistically, such a research design almost guarantees that thedesired outcome will be attained--that indeed distance learnersperform as well as campus-based students.” (p. 33)•4
  5. 5. LOCKEE, BURTON, CROSS, 1999• This excellent paper includes the evolution of mediacomparison studies in the professional literature anda discussion of the several problems associated withsuch studies.• Even better, the authors suggest appropriate designsfor evaluation and research in distance education.5
  6. 6. MAYER, 2001• “The research question for media effects concernswhether students learn more deeply when materialis presented via one medium - such as computer-based animation and narration - than anothermedium - such as book-based illustrations and text.In short, we can ask, “Are computers more effectivethan textbooks?” (p. 69)6
  7. 7. MAYER, 2001• “Media scholars have come to the conclusion that itis not productive to continue with traditional mediaresearch, in which one medium is compared toanother (Clark, 1983; Clark & Salomon, 1986;Salomon, 1994; Wetzel, Radtke, & Stern, 1994). Mediaresearch can be criticized on empirical,methodological, conceptual, and theoreticalgrounds.” (p. 70)7
  8. 8. MAYER, 2001• “In summary, the consensus among educationalpsychologists is that questions about which mediumis best are somewhat unproductive questions.”• (p. 71)•8
  9. 9. HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Method• Media• Mode9
  10. 10. HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Method:• strategies/techniques to facilitate learning outcomes• For example: project-based learning, classdiscussion, one-to-many lecture10
  11. 11. HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Three “M”s of the distance education environment• Media:• “Media attributes are traditionally defined as ‘...theproperties of stimulus materials which are manifest inthe physical parameters of media’ (Levie & Dickie,1971, p. 860)” (p. 262)• Examples: auditory or visual stimulus, level of realism,ability to assess progress, or ability to replay11
  12. 12. HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• Mode:• The system used to convey instruction• For example: online, face-to-face, iPad•12
  13. 13. HEAD, LOCKEE, & OLIVER, 2002• “When assessing the effectiveness of a givendistance education experience, perhaps evaluatorswill focus the questions on the many factors thatinfluence learning, such as the selection ofappropriate instructional methods or the leveragingof suitable media attributes, instead of simplyconcentrating on the delivery mode itself.” (p. 267)13
  14. 14. LOCKEE, MOORE, & BURTON, 2002• Regarding the evaluation of distance education...• “Unfortunately, what may seem the most logical approach todetermining effectiveness is often theoretically unsound. For example,comparing student achievement between distance and face-to-facecourses may seem a simple solution, yet the design is flawed for anumber of reasons.” (p. 21)• This practical article provides suggestions for appropriate evaluationsof distance education programs that can be adapted for currenttechnologies.•14
  15. 15. NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCEWEBSITE• Thomas R. Russell• Website companion to book, The No SignificantDifference Phenomenon• http://www.nosignificantdifference.org/•15
  16. 16. NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCEWEBSITE• http://www.nosignificantdifference.org/faq.asp#Q1• “Mr. Russell found that an overwhelming number of studies showedthat when the course materials and teaching methodology were heldconstant, there were no significant differences (NSD) between studentoutcomes in a distance delivery course as compared to a face toface course. In other words, student outcomes in distance deliverycourses were neither worse nor better than those in face to facecourses.”• Key point -- “neither worse nor better”.16
  17. 17. FINAL CHARGE• Why would you expect reading (or anything else) onan iPad to be somehow “better”? Are thereimportant variables to study other than simply “oniPad” vs. “not on iPad” ?• What does “no significant difference” really mean?• Think Critically.17
  18. 18. REFERENCES• Head, T.J., Lockee, B.B., & Oliver, K.M. (2002). Method, media, and mode: Clarifying thediscussion of distance education effectiveness. Quarterly Review of Distance Education,3(3), 261-268.• Lockee, B.B., Burton, J.K., & Cross, L. (1999). No comparison: Distance education finds anew use for ‘no significant difference’. Educational Technology Research & Development,47(3), 33-42.• Lockee, B.B., Moore, M., & Burton, J.K. (2002). Measuring success: Evaluation strategies fordistance education. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 1, 20-26. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0213.pdf• Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.•18
  19. 19. 19Charles B. Hodges, Ph.D.2013

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