Human Genome 5


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Human Genome 5

  1. 1. THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.<br /> Ethical, Legal and Social issues (ELSI) implicating the human genome<br />
  2. 2. History of the human genome project<br />Begun in 1990<br />It was a large-scale global project, that involved research teams in 20 different countries, allocated over US$ 3 billion in public sector funding alone<br />It was completed in the year 2003 which was two years earlier than predicted.<br />
  3. 3. Human Genome: Ethics<br /><ul><li>Origins of bioethics
  4. 4. The bioethics principles are based on: loving oneself, to love life, justice and do good.
  5. 5. Three major ways of viewing Bioethics: </li></ul>Descriptive bioethics: the way peopole analyze life as affecting their responsibilities and moral actions.<br />Perspective bioethics: telling people what is acceptable and unacceptable and the rights of others.<br />Interactive bioethics: the debate and discussions involving people, societal groups and communities.<br />
  6. 6. Ethical reviews of the human genome project.<br /><ul><li>Biosafety: since the 1990’s, humans, plants, animals were used to improve genetic standards through technological advancement
  7. 7. Animal rights: Presence of protest against the use of animals as subjects to dangerous experiments. </li></li></ul><li>Ethical reviews of the human genome project.<br /><ul><li>Biotechnology: Genes are the source of biotechnology and no one is permitted to make financial profit of the human genome in it’s natural state .e.g. from an ethical view, the termination of the growth of seeds in its second generation are harmful in the production of drugs.
  8. 8. Parental genetic testing: It allows the fetus to be analyzed to detect heritable disorders which sometimes leads to abortion which is a very sensitive ethical topic. Some people consider this act to be ethical or unethical to manipulate the life of a living being. Thus, EVERYTHING HAS A RIGHT TO LIVE.</li></li></ul><li>Ethical reviews of the human genome project.<br /><ul><li>Human reproductive technologies : It assists in human reproduction of sperms donor, ovum donor or surrogate mother. The controversy of the sperm bank is the privacy of the parent vs the child’s right to know his genetic father. </li></li></ul><li>Human- Animal Hybrids<br />Hybrids is the combination of cells from different species which are referred to as chimeras. President Bush gave a speech concerning this topic indicating science is going beyond its boundaries and this experiment must be banned.<br />
  9. 9. Social Implications<br />Screening for genetic diseases<br />Genetic matching<br />Stigmatization<br />Insurance companies<br />
  10. 10. Genetic Screening<br /><ul><li>Duchenne Muscular </li></ul>Dystrophy<br />With the help of genetic screening, we can now detect diseases such as:<br /><ul><li>Huntington’s Disease
  11. 11. Hemophilia
  12. 12. Cystic Fibrosis
  13. 13. DMD
  14. 14. Cancers</li></li></ul><li>Screening for Medical purposes<br />Better choices for medicine prescriptions:<br />-Genetic information can help doctors make more informed decision concerning medicine <br /> prescription which may reduce risks of side-effects.<br />
  15. 15. Genetic Screening<br />Better choices for medicine prescriptions<br /> - Allows Doctors to make better decisions when considering what medication to prescribe to patients. Have had a great influence on diseases like Hemophilia and different kinds of cancers <br />
  16. 16. Couple Screening<br />Premarital screening <br />partners may have a genetic makeup that allows for diseases when combined <br />Before deciding to have a baby, parents can know which of their genes might be passed on to the child <br />
  17. 17. Good or Bad?<br />Finding an untreatable disease can lead to an unhappy and hopeless life.<br />Life is put on hold just waiting for the symptoms of a disease that might never develop. <br />
  18. 18. The Other Side of the Project:Discrimination <br />Stigmatization<br />Who should have access to your genetic information?<br /> - <br />How does personal genetic information affect an individual and society&apos;s perceptions of that individual?<br />Insurance Companies<br />Genetic information denying rights of health and life insurance.<br />
  19. 19. The legal implication <br />The human genome project <br />
  20. 20. Legal Implications of the human genome project<br />Paternity test : <br /><ul><li>Is used to prove who the father of a child is.</li></ul>Crime scenes<br /><ul><li> Can binned a suspect to a crime by sequencing his DNA. </li></li></ul><li>CRIME SCENE<br />PATERNITY TEST<br />
  21. 21. What does the future hold for us with Genomics?<br />Developed by the National genome Research Institute ( NHGRI) <br /><ul><li>Genomics to Biology</li></ul>Genomics to health<br />Genomicsto Society<br />
  22. 22. NAMES<br />Diana Hasna Abou Soultan <br />Myriam Alaa ElAzhary <br />Adaiba Egbuche<br />Ragaa Samir Abouzad <br />THANK YOU<br />
  23. 23. Sources<br /><ul><li>Darryl Macer ‘Bioethics’ Accesse -science@McGraw –Hill</li></ul><br /><ul><li>V good wesites
  24. 24.
  25. 25. C:UsersUserAppDataLocalTempRar$EX00.011Bush_speech_sparks_human-animal_hybrid_craze.htm
  26. 26. C:UsersUserAppDataLocalTempRar$EX03.169We Are Family ~ Patricia Piccinini ~ Venice Biennale 2003.htm
  27. 27.</li>
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