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F I K 3042  E N G L I S H  F O R  C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2
 

F I K 3042 E N G L I S H F O R C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2

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    F I K 3042  E N G L I S H  F O R  C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2 F I K 3042 E N G L I S H F O R C O M M U N I C A T I O N 2 Document Transcript

    • FIK 3042 ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION 2 EDITORS AINON OMAR AHMAD ZAINURI LOAP AHMAD AZIZAH ATAN LEELA CHAKRABARTY
    • Writers: Ainon Omar Ahmad Zainuri Loap Ahmad Farah Natchiar Mohd Khaja Goh Hock Seng Leela Chakrabarty Mariyatunnitha Shari Mohammad Sidik Ariffin Napisah Kepol Nor Azmi Mostafa Nor Hashimah Isa Azizah Atan Seva Bala Sundaram Abdul Ghani Abu Che Ton Mahmud Hasimah Ja‟afar Maizatulliza Muhammad Raja Nor Safinas Raja HarunIntan Safinas Mohd Ariff Al-Bakri Abdul Halim Ibrahim Fairus Ahmad Daud
    • CONTENTUnit Topics Page1. Human Interest 1 Listening 1 Speaking 2 Reading 3 Language Focus 11 Writing 19 Self Assessment 262. Journey to the Future 37 Listening 38 Speaking 39 Reading 50 Language Focus 54 Writing 59 Self Assessment 623. Tech Savvy 67 Speaking 67 Listening 74 Reading 80 Language Focus 84 Paraphrasing 89 Self Assessment 954. A Way of Life 113 Speaking 113 Listening 117 Reading 121 Writing 127 Language Focus 1285. Job Satisfaction 150 Listening 150 Speaking 153 Reading 155 Language Focus 160 Writing 163 Self Assessment 168
    • COURSE GUIDE iINTRODUCTIONThe course guide is to assist students to understand the course content andassessment. Students are advised to read this section carefully and take note ofthe course requirements so that they can complete the course successfully.The course FIK3042 English for Communication 2 will cover 5 units in thisbook which are thematic and authentic, catering for students from both scienceand arts streams. Specific Language skills such as listening, speaking, readingand writing are covered in each unit. While these language skills are presentedunder separate sections, they are integrated throughout the module.Furthermore, grammatical aspects are peppered throughout to reinforce thestudents‘ general grasp of the language.The listening components for the respective units are designed to cater to thewhile and post-listening activities. The speaking section allows students tointeract in pairs and groups. In addition, these speaking tasks encouragecreativity and freedom amongst students to express their views. The readingtexts that appear in each unit are interesting and varied, covering variouspertinent current issues. The culmination of these skills prepares the students forthe writing section. It is a 2 credit hour course.TARGET AUDIENCEThis course is offered to all students undergoing the Bachelor of EducationProgram at UPSI. However, this module has been specially designed forstudents pursuing the Distant Education Program.STUDENT LEARNING TIMEAccording to UPSI‘s and MQA Standards, every credit requires that studentsallocate 40 hours of learning time. Therefore, for this course students arerequired to spend 80 hours of learning time. The estimated learning time for thecourse FIK3042 is presented in Table 1.
    • COURSE GUIDE ii Table 1 Estimated learning time for the course FIK3042 Learning Activity Learning Time Face-to-Face Independent Reading the Module, revision and completing 21 assignments Tutorial at centres 10 On-lineTutorial (E-Learning, example, via 26 BigBlueButton, Skype, etc.) Forum (E-Learning via MyGuru2) 12 T&L Video via MyGuru2 10 On-line Quiz via MyGuru2 1 36 44 Total Learning Time 80COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMEAt the end of the course, students will be able to:1. Demonstrate effective listening, speaking, reading and writing skills learned in the course for communicative purposes.2. Use correct grammar and vocabulary when writing a variety of texts. Define and discuss, individually and in groups, vocabulary, expressions, and issues found in a variety of texts.3. Apply critical reading skills when reading texts on current issues.4. Organise and implement a collaborative writing project.
    • COURSE GUIDE iiiCOURSE SYNOPSISThis course helps students in developing strong foundations in reading andwriting skills for communicative purposes in a variety of contexts. The courseintegrates the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, with moreemphasis being given to the skills of reading and writing.COURSE CONTENTTo assist students in achieving the learning outcomes for this course, the coursecontent is divided into five units which cover the listening, speaking, reading andwriting skills.UNIT TOPIC 1 HUMAN INTEREST  Listening – Healthy Lifestyle  Speaking – Nutrition and Food Pyramid  Reading- Letter to the Editor - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Present Tense - Past Tense  Writing - Pre-writing Activities - Writing Process  Self-Assessment 2 JOURNEY TO THE FUTURE  Listening to a radio interview
    • COURSE GUIDE iv  Speaking – Oral Presentation Skills  Reading- Voyagers 1 and 2 - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Future Tense  Writing - Descriptive Writing  Self-Assessment3 TECH SAVVY  Listening to a talk  Speaking – Role play  Reading- The Net Generation - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Present Continuous Tense  Writing - Paraphrasing  Self-Assessment4 A WAY OF LIFE  Listening – Practising Turn Taking  Speaking - Conversations  Reading- Past Traditions brought to life
    • COURSE GUIDE v - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Gerunds and Infinitives  Writing - Summary Writing  Self-Assessment5 JOB SATISFACTION  Listening to a Radio Interview  Speaking – My Dream Job and Conducting Interviews  Reading - Workplace Satisfaction - Word Attack - Comprehension  Language Focus - Passive Voice  Writing - Letter of Application  Self-Assessment
    • COURSE GUIDE viASSESSMENTAssignment % Approach and Weightage Assignment OutcomeOn-line Quiz 1 10 On-line via MyGuru2On-line Quiz 2 10 On-line via MyGuru2Project Work 40 On-line via MyGuru2Final Examination 40 Conducted at Centres Total 100ICON SPECIFICATIONS Exercises to consolidate students‘ understanding of the topics learnt. Exercises with answer key. Aktiviti latihan yang disertakan jawapan A serta maklum balas.
    • UNIT 1 HUMAN INTERESTLEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to:1. listen to texts and answer T/F questions;2. discuss on given topics in groups;3. read and answer comprehension questions and4. write paragraphs on topics discussed.CONTENTLISTENING Task 1 Listen to the Radio Talk Show entitled “Healthy Lifestyle” and answer the following questions.1. The radio talk show is about En. Hamid‘s health. T/F2. Mr. Sam is the Deejay. T/F3. Dr. Sani is the nutritionist from ANPAC. T/F4. We need to stop being stressful and start living healthily. T/F5. To be healthy we must avoid processed food. T/F6. En. Hamid is a university lecturer. T/F7. En. Hamid often has palpitation in his chest. T/F8. Mr. Sam advises En. Hamid to reschedule his activities. T/F 1
    • 9. Dr. Sani suggests that En. Hamid goes for medical check up as soon as possible. T/F10. Almonds are good source of calcium and fibre. T/FSPEAKINGNutrition and the Food PyramidTask 2 Study the food pyramid below and in groups of four discuss the varioustypes of food one needs to consume in order to lead a healthy life. Then, thegroup representatives will present the groups‘ findings. Nutrition and the Food PyramidSource: Ignatowski .A. 2005. Food Pyramid Chart for Balanced Diet. Bestvitamin- supplements- guide.com.DialogueImagine that you and your three friends meet after a tutorial class at thecafeteria, and your next tutorial is an hour later. While having a drink each of yourelate events that took place in your lives. While listening, the others are to askquestions and give opinions wherever necessary. Come up with a dialogue to bepresented to the class. 2
    • READINGPASSAGE ONERead the letter to the editor and carry out the tasks. Dear Editor,1 I am an ardent fan of ASTRO, so much so that the first thing I do upon entering my humble abode is to switch on to HBO, Star Movies, E, ESPN, Animal Planet, Discovery Travel and Living and of course to AFC or Asian Food Channel when I am incredibly hungry. As I watch delicious foods on AFC, I sincerely hope the pang of hunger will slowly disappear into oblivion. 5 More often than not, this does not work to my advantage especially when I am famished. The effect is just the opposite as I gazed at the delicious foods prepared by the chefs. And talk about the camera men! They are incredibly good at focusing. The food is so crystal clear that you are practically thrown into the chef‘s kitchen. Once, I became so hopelessly hungry watching the 10 program `License to Grill‟ that I could not stop myself from rummaging my small refrigerator for bits of snacks. I was desperate for food in the middle of the night.2 I love to read the Astroview – your magazine with the slogan `Malaysia‟s largest circulated entertainment magazine‟ which is out monthly, complete with 15 information and updates on the different channels, celebrity news, health tips and other news useful to ASTRO subscribers. Congratulations! Your viewers must be so thrilled to grab a copy every month. I am keen on watching Animal Planet and I am very thrilled to read that this channel will be airing a new program called Bindi: The Jungle Girl. I think Steve Irwin‘s daughter is such a 20 brave girl to be among snakes and other animals. She has her daddy‘s talents and not to forget his smile. I just had to bring to your readers on page 8 of December 2007 issue entitled ‗Watch out - Jungle Girl‟3 ―My daddy was a hero,‖ she said, and her short speech earned a standing ovation and an indelible mark on the memory of many Australians. Now, 25 Bindi‘s charms comes to the small screen in Bindi: The Jungle Girl , a new wildlife series that brings the Irwins and heir passion for animals together on- screen. Here are some quick facts about Bindi:  She has a rat named Candy ―Candy is my favorite friend and we do lots of fun things together! We go out 30 rollerblading and he rides on my shoulder. He likes to play with all my other animal friends too except the snakes, of course!‖  She‘s not afraid of the animals she handles 3
    • ―My dad taught me to respect all animals, so I‘ve never had to overcome my fear.‖ 354 As I am a traveler I love to read the travel guide and tips given by famous travelers such as Samantha Brown and Anthony Bourdain. I just love Samantha because of her sweet smile and her pink attire. She makes me want to travel to those countries and experience what she had experienced. Who does not know Anthony Bourdain on Discovery Travel and Living? He is 40 the tall New Yorker Chef who travels around the world to discover culinary heaven. We can catch him on No Reservation 3. Bourdain is the man for real travel….no reservation indeed. He is like the Guru of real travel. He has no boundaries and limits to trying local foods and drinks. In the December issue, he gave a few very practical travel tips on page 9. He suggested that we: 45  Never eat in the hotel and never ask the concierge where to eat. Ask your taxi driver instead.  Eat local.  Don‘t travel in packs – no more than two or three people. It gets difficult after that. 505 These travel tips are so practical and I will definitely remember them when I visit Scotland next week. I will unquestionably follow Bourdain‘s tips when I am there. It is so true that one should try and eat local foods and not insist on looking for your own traditional foods. When we are in a foreign country we must try to adapt and adopt. If we are rice eaters, we can opt for bread instead, 55 or croissant. We cannot be looking high and low for restaurants selling rice.6 Well, I welcome other readers to share my views of ASTRO and Astroview. Well done ASTRO! Shima_Daniel Shima_daniel@yahoo.comTask 3 Provide the meanings of these words pertaining to the letter to theeditor.1. ardent (line 1) _______________________________________________2. abode (line2)________________________________________________3. famished (line 7)______________________________________________4. rummaging (line 11) __________________________________________5. keen (line 18)________________________________________________ 4
    • 6. attire (line 38)________________________________________________ Task 4 Answer the questions. 1. Name the ASTRO channels found in the letter to the Editor. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. What is the slogan for Astroview? __________________________________________________________ 3. Who is the New Yorker chef that Shima Daniel admires? ___________________________________________________________ 4. What is the programme that the chef hosts? ___________________________________________________________ 5. Who is Bindi‘s father? ___________________________________________________________ 6. In your own words, explain what the writer means in the phrase ―It is so true that one should try and eat local foods and not insist on looking for your own traditional foods” ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5
    • 7. Imagine you are the Editor of Astroview. Reply to Shima Daniel‘s letter via e-mail.Dear Shima Daniel, Thank you so much for your letter. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Editor.Task 5 In groups of four, prepare a mind map of the advantages of tuningin to ASTRO channels. You are to present your mind map. You have 15 minutesto discuss and create the mind map. Choose your group‘s best channel and givefour reasons for your choice.Our best Channel - 6
    • Task 6 Still in your group, prepare an e-mail to Shima Daniel, in responseto her letter to the editor. You may agree or disagree with her pertaining toASTRO‘s channels and Astroview. Give reasons for your agreement ordisagreement.Dear Shima Daniel, I read your letter to the editor and ………Yours faithfully,…………………………….*Please exchange your group‘s e-mail with other groups. Note the differences orsimilarities between the e-mails. Underline them.PASSAGE TW0Read the passage and complete the given tasks1 I had been a quiet, bookish child. My father had led a peripatetic career as a teacher and he had taken his young family with him to successive postings across the length and breadth of the Malayan Peninsula. And it was a growing family; my two brothers were born, at three-year intervals, in Johor Bharu at the peninsula‘s southern tip, and in Kuala Krai in the interior of Kelantan, where my 5 mobile family had come to a temporary rest. Eventually my father had received what would be the last posting of his abbreviated life, as a senior lecturer at the Language Institute in Kuala Lumpur.2 It was in our house in Kuala Lumpur, on a dark and rainy night in 1967, that my father first spoke to me about my future. I was twelve years old then, in 10 Standard Six of primary school; the next year, I would be moving on to secondary school. My father had always been a fairly remote figure to his three 7
    • sons; stern and affectionate in equal measure, but still remote. Much, much, later I would console myself with the thought that he had been saving himself for later in our lives, when we were out of our infancy and could understand more of 15 his strong and complex personality.3 That night, my father said to me: ―The Malay College is not just any school. It is the school.‖ That‘s about all I remember, although there must have been more. I do remember not being sure what he was on about. I knew that I would be sitting for the Malay College entrance examinations very soon, and I 20 was vaguely aware that this was a place, a big boarding school way up in Kuala Kangsar, spoken of with much respect by my teachers. But merely sitting for the exams was no big deal; practically every Standard n the country did so, and I had by no means excelled in school so far. But here was my father talking about the Malay College in a way that made me feel, for the first time in my 25 young life, that he actually had hopes for me. And he went on: ―You must take the Sciences. There is no future in the Arts.‖ What was this? ―Sciences‖? ―Arts‖? I couldn‘t even draw! And I was certainly no whiz at arithmetic.4 The day of the entrance exam came, and the four of us who were the only four Malay boys in our primary school‘s top class went to take it. Ghani and 30 Azizi were deadly serious about it; Muslini and I larked about. Ghani and Azizi were the great hopes of our school, which would apparently be honoured to send off a ward or two to the Malay College; Muslini and I were there to make up the numbers.5 So of course, when the results came out a month later, Muslini and I 35 made the cut and the other two didn‘t. Nobody could believe it, least of all Muslini and me. I went home a very happy kid that Friday. My father was at home when I got there, reading the newspaper. ―Papa,‖ I said, struggling to keep the excitement from my voice. ―I‘ve got the results. I passed. I have to report to Malay College on January seventh.‖ He didn‘t even lower the paper. ―Good,‖ he 40 said. Years later, my mother would tell me that was one of the proudest moments of his life. He certainly fooled me then.6 Five days into 1968, my father bundled his wife and sons into the car and set off on a 200-kilometre drive north to Kuala Kangsar, a small, sleepy town dozing by a bend of the Perak River not far south of Taiping. Kuala Kangsar had 45 a distinguished air about it: it was the royal town of Perak, site of the Sultan‘s Palace, and of the esteemed Malay College. It had been founded by the British in 1905 as a place in which the sons of Malay Sultans could acquire the rudiments of a sound British education before moving on to tertiary institutions in Britain itself. It was indeed a grand old school, and its reputation was well 50 deserved. My first impression, however, was of bedlam: a horde of twelve-year- olds and what seemed to be their families, seeking out their allotted bed-spaces in the dormitories, being endlessly hugged by weeping mothers, grandmothers and aunts. I was happy to find Muslini amidst the chaos, although he seemed altogether too dazed to be coherent. 557 The day drew to an end; the families were waved a tearful goodbye. We had our first mass meal in the dining hall, in which were hung framed group photographs of the College‘s previous First-Form intakes, and were sent to our 8
    • beds at nine. Within the soft white drapes of their brand-new mosquito nets, ninety-two young boys fell asleep on their first night away from their homes and 56 families. From that day on, home would be a place we would only visit on holidays. It was all for the best that we were utterly exhausted. Adapted from: A Malaysian Journey by Rehman Rashid.Task 7 The following words given in Column A are found in the passageabove. Match the meanings in Column B with the words in Column A in contextof the passage. A B1. peripatetic ________________ a. confusion and noise2. stern _______________ b. clever3. excelled _______________ c. definitely4. whiz _______________ d. strict5. larked _______________ e. very good6. apparently _______________ f. speak clearly7. esteemed _______________ g. basics8. rudiments _______________ h. roamed9. bedlam _______________ i. traveling from place to place10.coherent _______________ j. respected and admiredTask 8 Mark with a (√) for the statements which are true and a (x) for thestatements which are false1. The writer‘s family had stayed in a number of places throughout the peninsula ( )2. The writer‘s father last career was a senior lecturer ( ) 9
    • 3. The writer‘s father was very close to his sons ( )4. The writer was not very interested to be in the Malay College ( )5. The writer was good in arithmetic ( )6. The Malay College is the only well-known place in Kuala Kangsar ( )Task 9 Answer the following questions in your own words.1. When did the writer‘s family finally settle down? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________2. How was the father-son relationship in the writer‘s family? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. Why was the writer not keen in enrolling in the Malay College? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. What was the response of the writer‘s father when he was successful in the Malay College entrance exam? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10
    • 5. What was the main aim of the establishment of the Malay College by the British in 1905? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________Task 10 You may have some ideas after reading the above passage.1. Relate your experience on your first day in primary or secondary school.2. Describe any memorable happenings in your school or college life.LANGUAGE FOCUSTALKING ABOUT THE PRESENTSimple Present Tense shows habitual action, a fact or general truth, a plannedaction that will take place in the future and to show the time of action. Usage Examples1. To show a fact or general truth e.g. Penang is the `pearl of the orient‘ UPSI is located in South Perak.2. To show habitual action. e.g. Goh always plays tennis at UPSI court. Shima drives from Proton City to UPSI every day.3. To show a planned action that will e.g. The plane takes off at 12 midnight take place in the future. from KLIA. The Kayak participants leave for UPM tomorrow. 11
    • 4. To show an event that is likely to e.g. If he arrives, just let him into the happen in the future (`If‘ is used). house. The students will respect you if you demonstrate some concern and kindness.5. To show the time of action. Words e.g. As soon as she locks the door, the like `until‘, `as‘, `as soon as‘ and robber grabs her. `when‘ are used. When he reaches his house, he goes straight to bed.Task 11 Change the forms of the verbs in brackets to the present tense.1. She (sip) ___________ the hot tea slowly.2. Her nephew (love) __________ to play squash and he (is) ________ the state champion.3. The vet (suggest) __________ that her dog be put to sleep.4. He (inform) __________ his class of the concert tonight.5. Ahmad (write) to his parents every week.6. Mei Lee (sing) at the Charity Ball every year.7. We (experience) longer days in the U.K. during summer.8. Friends (support) one another in difficult and challenging times.9. The university bus (depart) as early as 7 in the morning.10. Vitamin C and Fish Oil (help) our bodies fight against influenza.Task 12 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the present tense.Herman _________ 1 (love) to kayak. He ___________ 2 (dream) to be aMalaysian cum an Olympic Kayak paddler one day. Realizing his passion, he 12
    • _________ 3 (join) the UPSI Canoe Club, under the guidance of the SportsScience Faculty. The Club members train at the Proton City Lake about 8 kilometres fromUPSI. Herman and five other peddlers normally _________ 4 (practise) from5.00 pm. to 7.30pm everyday. He _______ 5 (join) his team to row the kayakback and forth several times under the watchful eyes of the coach. When he__________ 6 (finish) his training, he returns home and continues working onhis assignments like any ordinary university student. Herman _______ 7(receive) his early training at Belaga, Sarawak where he rows sampan andmaneuvers motorboats. His effort __________ 8 (pay) off as he is now theuniversity Kayak peddler. Herman and his team ___________ 9 (compete) in the Asian VarsityRowing Tournament in October. The UPSI Kayak peddlers _________ 10(leave) for Putrajaya on 14 October 2008. They have made us proud winningthe gold medal a few months ago and we pray for their success in the upcoming tournament.SIMPLE PAST TENSE USAGE EXAMPLESTo express an action completed in Salim played rugby when he was inthe past usually with a time frame school. I saw this movie when I was 12 years old. 13
    • To show a past habit, usually She always visited the old folks homeaccompanied by adverbs like when she was in town.„always‟, „often‟, or „ „never‟ My teacher often made it compulsory for us to write an essay every week.To express a series of past actions He got into the car, started the engine and drove off in a hurry.To express an unlikely situation in the Father would be angry if I did not get‗if‘ clause of a conditional sentence home by 11 pmIn indirect speech Direct: She said ― I want this book‖ Indirect: She said she wanted that bookIn its passive form to indicate a past I was asked to give a speech.action was done to the subject and The students were reminded to submitnot by the subject the report before the deadline.In English, the simple tenses are the present, past and future. The tenses showthe time when the action takes place. Verbs (‗doing‘ word) in sentences willindicate when the action has occurred.Task 13 Tick the sentences in the simple past tense form only.1. He eats rice for lunch and dinner. ( )2. Dollah scored a goal for his team. ( )3. She studied hard for the examinations. ( )4. The police sent the prisoner to jail. ( )5. Do you always go out at night? ( )6. I watched a horror movie. ( )7. The tiger killed and ate the deer. ( ) 14
    • 8. The river flows into the lake. ( )9. They visit their aged parents on weekend. ( )10. Bears love honey. ( )Task 14 For each of the following sentences change of the verb in bracketinto the past tense form.1. I (buy) _____________ a new car yesterday.2. His uncle (arrive) _____________ from Johor Bahru last night.3. The cat (catch) _____________ a rat in the drain.4. She (walk) _____________ to her office this morning because of the jam.5. The doctor (tell) _____________ me to take less sugar.6. We (find) _____________ a strange- looking insect on our field trip.7. The guest speaker (give) _____________ an interesting talk.8. He (run) _____________as fast as he could when the dog chased him.9. She (get) _____________ into trouble after complaining to the authorities.10. He (is) _____________ a well-known rugby player in his younger days.Task 15 Complete the passage below with the correct past tense form of theverbs in bracket.Ismail (1)………….. (leave) in a hurry with Kandan. They (2)………… (be) ontheir way to the house of the village headman, Haji Hamid, who(3)……………(live) a quarter of a mile from the mosque. Ismail‘s neighbour,Khalid (4) …………… (spot) the terrorists crossing the Langat river just beforesunset. There (5)…………. (be) seven of them, all in light green uniforms and (6) 15
    • ..………….. (arm) with rifles. They (7) …………. (come) from the isolated SungaiLong track and (8)……………..(approach) the village from Bukit Enggang.The intrusion to Omar (9) ………… (be) frightening. He (10) ……….. (hear) fromuncle Ali that there were brutal killings in the district. The Communist terrorists(11) ………… (ambush) and (12) …………. (kill) a Scottish planter in a rubberestate near Semenyih in broad daylight. Two days later, they (13) …………..(burn) down a bungalow in another isolated rubber estate, in full view of theworkers. Before the terrorists (14) …………. (set) the bungalow on fire, they (15)…………..(shoot) dead the English planter and his wife. Adapted from: Long Road to Merdeka by Kamarul Zaman Ariff (2007)PRESENT PERFECT TENSE USAGE EXAMPLES To show actions at an unspecified time Bakri has never seen a tapir before. with words like ‗before‘, ‗ever‘ or ‗finally‘ Have you ever seen a ghost before? To show a past action that has My mother has cared for me since I continued until NOW, with words like was born. ‗for‘, ‗since‘, ‗so far;, ‗up to the present‘ She hasn‟t settled the loan until today. To express an action that begins in the I have not seen her for years until past and finishes at the moment of today. speaking He has not spoken a word of English for years. (But he is speaking it now) 16
    • To show an action completed recently The train has just left the station. with the verb ‗just‘ Alin has just finished cooking lunch. Used with the phrase‘ the first time‘ This is the first time I have arrived here. Is this the first time you have met my parentsThe present perfect tense shows an action that started in the past and wascompleted at an unspecified time or still continues into the present. It involvestwo periods of time that is a ‗half present and half past‘ action.Task 16 For each of the following sentences, change the present tense intothe present perfect form Present PerfectExample: He eats durians has eaten1. Jenny and I drive to town_________________________________________________________2. The life guard watches the children in the pool_________________________________________________________3. Our friends bought the final match tickets_________________________________________________________4. Omar dreams of winning an award_________________________________________________________5. Rodiah finishes her project_________________________________________________________6. The worker gives his manager an answer_________________________________________________________7. The baby catches cold_________________________________________________________ 17
    • 8. The mechanic repairs the car_________________________________________________________9. I submit my assignment_________________________________________________________10. We take our meal_________________________________________________________Task 17 For each of the sentences below, change the verbs in the bracketsinto the present perfect form.1. The workers …….. (have) just …………… (finish) the road repair work.2. I ………….(have) already…………..(buy) the ticket for tonight‘s big match.3. She ………..(have) ………….(live) here for thirty years.4. The boys ………..(have) not ……………..(complete) their homework.5. I ………(have) ……….( play) rugby since I was in secondary school.6. The tutor …………(have) just ………….(give) us the assignment topic.7. Nizar ………..(have) just …………..(report) for duty this morning.8. We ………….(have) already …….. (see) that movie in 2001.9. Kumar ………..(have)……….(leave) the office ten minutes ago.10. Eliza is worried. Her boyfriend ……….(have) not ………(call) her or ........... (send) her any messages for the last few weeks. 18
    • WRITINGAre you ready to begin the writing process? Often, writers begin by doing somePre-writing activities. A pre-writing activity will help you find ideas to write whatyou need to write about. A pre-writing activity is also a useful way to help youorganize your ideas in a logical order. Here are some suggestions. TALK FREE WRITINGTalk about what you want to write. For Free writing involves writing about aexample, share your interests with a particular topic for a timed period. Forgroup of students. Give reasons, listen example, writing about whatever thatto your friend‘s reasons, exchange comes to your mind for ten minutesviews and ask questions. Don‘t forget about a particular topic. At the end ofto take note of the interesting things ten minutes, read what you haveyou have discussed in your group. written and further develop your ideas from that point onwards. BRAINSTORM CLUSTERINGBrainstorming is a process where you Another word that means the same aslist down thoughts in words or phrases clustering is grouping. When youthat come to your mind about a cluster or group certain words, phrasesparticular topic. You can do this on or ideas together, you are actuallyyour own or in a group. organizing and expanding your thoughts. You will then form a diagram to show how each word, phrase or idea links to one another. 19
    • Task 18 Now, let‘s start with some pre-writing exercises.1. Share your thoughts on the things that you enjoy doing with a group of students. Use the box below to take notes of some interesting things mentioned by others. • • • • • •2. Write a paragraph on the topic below in not more than 10 minutes. Begin now. The most interesting thing that I have done in my life‘……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
    • 3. Individually or in groups, list down as many words, phrases or ideas that comes to your mind on the topic given below. Compare your list with others. ‗Things that I wish to do in my lifetime‘………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4. Use the diagram below to expand your ideas on ‗Interesting things people do‘. Learn how to swim Shop for antiques Interesting things people do 21
    • Task 19 Before you write, take a look at the boxes below. Match the termsin Box A with their definition in Box B. Then, check your answers. Box A Box B Topic • • A group of sentences about one main idea Main idea • • A sentence that summarizes what an essay will be about Thesis statement • • A word or phrase that tells what a paragraph is about Topic sentence • • A word or phrase that tells what an essay is about Paragraph • • A sentence that includes the main idea of a paragraphLet‘s find out if you have really understood the terms above by completing someexercises. Use the terms above to fill in the boxes below. The first one has beendone for you. 0) Datuk Nicole David is my favourite squash player. 1) Topic sentence1. Mountain climbing has captured the hearts of many people. Lately, young children have also been introduced to mountain climbing activities at camps. These young children are taught the basics of mountain climbing and are given proper training by qualified instructors. ____________________2. It is easy to take up swimming for three reasons ____________________3. Gardening can also help reduce stress. ____________________ 22
    • 4. Alternative Music ____________________ There are a few interesting activities that I do5. ____________________ during my free time.Task 20 Now, the following exercises will help you narrow down your topic,write a thesis statement, form topic sentences and finally, construct a paragraph.STEP 1:Narrow down your topic.State three things that interest you in Column I. Then, add more informationrelated to the three things you enjoy in the Column II. Before you begin, checkout the example. Column I Column II Things that interest me Additional informationExample: Science Space, astronauts, exploration of planets 23
    • STEP 2:Write a thesis statement.Study information that you have stated in column I and II. Try and form a thesisstatement. Check out the example.Example: Exploration of planets interests me for three main reasons.Write your thesis statement:________________________________________________________________STEP 3:Forming topic sentences.Based on your thesis statement, form three topic sentences. Check out theexample.Example:Topic sentence 1: Firstly, I have always wondered about life beyond ourplanet. Tip:Write a sequencesentences: Use your topic or logical connector to begin your topic sentence.Topic sentence 1:…………………………………………………………………………………………Topic sentence 2:………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
    • Topic sentence 3:…………………………………………………………………………………………STEP 4:Construct a paragraph.Your paragraph should include a thesis statement and the topic sentences thatyou have formed. Each paragraph consists of a topic sentences and a fewsupporting details. Check out the example.Example:Thesis Exploration of planets interests me for three main detailsstatement Supporting reasons. Firstly, I have always wondered about life beyond our planet. I am certain that aliens and other beings exist. Evidences Topic sentence that were reported by astronauts and space explorers convince me that we are not alone in this universe. 25
    • SELF ASSESSMENTTEST 1Read the article on Almonds and respond to the tasks. Awesome AlmondsYou may have had almonds in your cakes, ice-creams and chocolate bars but doyou know that these nuts have some beauty tips to offer? Eating a few almondsoffer benefits which include good fats, minerals and vitamins including A, B andE. Some experts believe it is best to eat raw almonds that have been soaked inwater overnight. Although almond oil is not commonly consumed as olive oil, itcan be eaten to get those benefits.Almond is used mainly for its emollient and slight bleaching properties. This iswhy these nuts are used in skincare. They have anti-inflammatory properties andtheir light aroma and texture make them ideal for soothing women‘s skins.Ground into a meal, almonds are used for exfoliation in beauty preparations, andalmond oil serves as a skin softener, with antiseptic properties and a complexarray of vitamins and minerals. (Adapted from Her World , February 2008) 26
    • Answer the following questions.1. What are the benefits of eating almonds? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________2. Why are almonds used in skincare? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. What would you do to almonds if you want to exfoliate your skin? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. Name the benefits of using almond oil as skincare? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________5. Suggest your own traditional way of using almonds in your daily life. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 27
    • TEST 2Create a skincare product using any local vegetable or fruit. Present this in classusing a mind map. Allow questions and answers after your presentation.SUMMARY Tick here if Main Skills Sub Skills you have Notes understood Listening Listening to a Text Listening Comprehension Speaking Speaking about Food Pyramid Speaking about Healthy Life Style Presentation of Findings Reading Reading Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Writing Pre-Writing Writing Paragraphs Mind-Mapping Grammar Present Tense Past Tense Present Perfect Tense 28
    • ANSWER KEYTask 1 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. TTask 7 A B1. peripatetic ______ i _________ a. confusion and noise2. stern _______d_______ b. clever3. excelled ________e_______ c. definitely4. whiz ________b______ d. strict5. larked _______h________ e. very good6. apparently _______c________ f. speak clearly7. esteemed ______ j _________ g. basics8. rudiments ________ g ______ h. roamed9. bedlam ________a_______ i. traveling from place to place10.coherent _______f________ j. respected and admired 29
    • Task 8 1. True 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. False 6. TrueTask 9 1. The writer‘s family finally settled down when his father had his final posting as a senior lecturer at the Language Institute in Kuala Lumpur. 2. Not very close and stern but affectionate 3. Because he felt that he was not a bright student/ did not excel in school. 4. His father did not show any enthusiasm/ did not show he was happy/ 5. It was meant for the sons of Malay Sultans to be educated according to the British education system.Task 11Present tense 1. sips 2. loves, is 3. suggests 4. informs 5. writes 6. sings 7. experience 8. support 9. departs 10. help 30
    • Task 12 1. loves 2. dreams 3. joins 4. practise 5. joins 6. finishes 7. receives 8. pays 9. compete 10. leaveTask 13Past TenseTick the sentences in the past tense for only 2. / 3 / 4 / 6 / 7 /Task 14Past Tense 1. bought 2. arrived 3. caught 4. walked 5. told 6. found 7. gave 8. ran 9. got 10. was 31
    • Task 15Past Tense 1. left 2. were 3. lived 4. spotted 5. were 6. armed 7. came 8. approached 9. was 10. heard 11. ambushed 12. killed 13. burnt/burned 14. set 15. shotTask 16Present Perfect Tense 1. has driven 2. has watched 3. have bought 4. has dreamt/dreamed 5. has finished 6. has given 7. has caught 8. has repaired 9. have submitted 10. have taken 32
    • Task 17Present Perfect Tense 1. have , finished 2. have, bought 3. has, lived 4. have, completed 5. have, played 6. has, given 7. has, reported 8. have, seen 9. has, left 10. has, called, sentTEST 1 1. Good fats, minerals and vitamins including A, B and E. 2. Because of its emollient and slight bleaching properties. 3. I would ground the almonds into a meal to exfoliate my skin. 4. Almond oil serves as softener to the skin. 5. Gives any relevant suggestion. 33
    • TEST 2Mix the ingredients and apply to face every morning. BLEND THE CUCUMBER ADD TWO TABLESPOON OLIVE OIL CUCUMBER ADD TWO TABLESPOON HONEYADD HALF A CUP OF FRESH MILK 34
    • REFERENCESGaudart, Hyacinth; Hughes, Richard & Michael, Jessie (2003) Towards BetterEnglish Grammar . Shah Alam: Penerbit Fajar BaktiKamarul Zaman Ariff (2007) Long Road to Merdeka Kajang: KamarulzamanMohd Ariff Dusun GayahRehman Rashid (1993) A Malaysian Journey Petaling Jaya: Rehman RashidLISTENING TRANSCRIPTVoice: Listen to the Radio Talk Show entitled “Healthy Lifestyle”.(End of the Road by Boyz II Men is on air….)Deejay Pink: Hmmm …that was Boyz II Men with End of Road. It is definitelynot end of the road here at FBK. FM as it is time for our favourite programme.Hello everyone! I‘m Deejay Pink and I‘m so thrilled to have with me in the studiothis morning two very important guests who are going to talk about ―HealthyLifestyle‖. They are Mr. Sam, a nutritionist from ANPAC and Dr. Sani, a physicianfrom the General Hospital. How are you Mr. Sam and Dr. Sani?Mr Sam : Well, I‘m good. Thank you. Glad I made it despite the heavy traffic(laughs)Dr. Sani: I‘m fine too. It is great to be here.Deejay Pink: Thank you so much for being here at FBK.FM. I‘m sure ourlisteners out there are equally excited to listen to our renowned guests. Feel freeto call in and talk to our experts. The number is 03-3344555. Well …. Mr. Sam,what exactly is Healthy Lifestyle?Mr Sam: Well….remember the saying ―Take your time to smell the flowers?Deejay Pink: Yes… and ―You will get more wrinkles if you worry too much.‖Mr. Sam: Exactly….those are some of the advice for Healthy Lifestyle. We needto stop being stressful and start living healthily. Eat good food and exercise. Deejay Pink: Yes! You are right Mr. Sam. Actually I would like to discuss this –Healthy Lifestyle in this modern demanding age! Is it feasible? Can we be notstressful with all the job deadlines?Mr. Sam : Of course we can. That is if we put effort to it. We must be positiveand take our time to try and consume nutritional food. Avoid processed food andthe famous fast food that we have now.Dr. Sani: I agree with you on that Mr Sam. It saddens me to see parents orelders bringing children to the fast food joints. The food there is not healthy at all.The drinks are so sweet and bad for health too. Malaysians are high on diabetes.We should also get medical check ups regularly.Deejay Pink: Gosh!! I feel guilty already (laughs). We have a caller on theline….Hello En. Hamid…?.En. Hamid: Hello….Hello… Yes. I have question for Mr. Sam and Dr Sani.Deejay Pink: Yes. Go ahead En. Hamid. 35
    • En. Hamid; I‘m a university lecturer. I work round the clock. My job is notmerely teaching. At times I work at night too, trying to meet my deadlines. Whatshould I do to distress? I am always stressed. At times I feel palpitation in mychest.Mr. Sam: Thank you En. Hamid. This is so true in this modern era. I find life to bestressful too. Perhaps you can try and reschedule your activities. Do one task ata time. Take a breather after you have finished one task. Go out and walk in thepark near your house.Deejay Pink: Dr. Sani, do you have any advice for En Hamid?Dr. Sani: Yes. Have you done your Medical check up, En Hamid? How old areyou now if I may ask?En. Hamid: Well, I just turned 50, doctor. Hmm….My last medical check upwas 10 years ago (laughs)Dr. Sani: You have to get it done soon. Ask your doctor to do a profile and withthe results he or she can follow through. You need to inform the doctor of yourfamily medical history. I‘m sure the palpitation is due to your stress level but youcan‘t be too sure. You must go for medical check up fast.En. Hamid: Thank you Dr. Sani and Mr. Sam. Have a nice day!!Mr. Sam: He is cheerful already… (laughs).Deejay Pink: Yes. He is. Ermm….Mr. Sam, could you give us some easy tips oneating healthy? Mr. Sam: As a nutritionist I have some suggestions. Take more nuts likealmonds. They are good as source of calcium and fiber. We can crush them andadd to our vegetable salad. Or eat them just like that.Deejay Pink: Hmmm….almonds? I never thought of eating them like that. I eatthem only if I find them in ice creams or chocolate bars.Dr. Sani: I agree with you Mr. Sam. By the way, eating almonds may soundeasy but I think it could be challenging to get them. It is not easy to find in ourcountry unlike peanuts. They cannot be replaced with peanuts though. Peoplewho are suffering from gout should abstain from peanuts.Deejay Pink: Yes. Not many stores have almonds. We need to buy them frombig supermarkets.Mr. Sam: I agree with both of you but we need to try and buy them. They providegreat benefits such as calcium. In fact people suffering from thyroid should eatmore almonds.Deejay Pink: Do you have email that can be accessed by our listeners? I‘m suremore people would like to reach both of you for tips and advice.Mr. Sam: Sure! My email is Sam@ANPAC.com.my. (He spells the address).Dr. Sani: Mine is Sani@yahoo.co.uk (He spells the address).Deejay Pink: Well…It looks like we have come to the end of our session. I wouldlike to thank Dr. Sani and Mr. Sam for coming to FBK FM this morning. Andthank you so much to our caller En. Hamid and to our listeners out there….don‘ttouch that dial as Deejay Paul is here with more songs from the 80‘s.(Endless Love by Lionel Ritchie and Diana Ross is aired) 36
    • UNIT 2 JOURNEY TO THE FUTURELEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. listen to and respond to opinions, 2. prepare speeches based on specific situations, 3. read and understand the text, 4. guess the meaning of words in the text, and 5. write sentences in the correct tenses.CONTENTMan has always been fascinated with what is beyond this earth that we live in.What is out there? How did the world come into being? Is there intelligent life outthere? Such questions continually spurred scientists to explore space withnumerous spacecrafts. Do you know that there are many spacecrafts orbiting theearth at the moment? How many spacecrafts do you know that have been sent tospace and for what purpose? You may want to visit the relevant websites ofcountries like America, Russia, Japan, China and even Malaysia that haveongoing space programmes for more information - one recommended website isthe National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) [website athttp://www.nasa.gov.] 37
    • LISTENING Task 1 You will listen to a radio interview. As you listen, complete theA graphic organizer. 38
    • SPEAKING Oral Presentation SkillsLearning PointsMost people feel nervous about speaking in public. For most students, oralpresentation is not an easy task as they fear speaking in front of an audience,especially in English. As a result, they become nervous and will in turn affecttheir performance during the oral presentation. Nervousness is normal. We needto have a systematic plan to deliver our speech effectively. If oral presentation isguided properly, students will be able to reduce their anxieties and improve theirperformance during presentation. This would help them to develop a greaterawareness of how self-confidence can overcome fear of public speakingespecially in the target language. Their confidence level will improve and oralpresentation will not be a threat to them anymore.First, let‘s have a look at some basic styles to do speeches such as:i. Impromptu speaking means unprepared speech where students are suddenly asked to perform without given time to do much preparation. The delivery style is informal. We need to adopt some changes to suit our purpose and audience.ii. Extemporaneous speaking happens when students are quite prepared beforehand. Normally they will refer to the text when it is necessary. Therefore, they will deliver quite naturally and will do some changes of delivering according to the audiences‘ responses.iii. Text speaking refers to a situation where students have prepared themselves in terms of the topic, the audience and the speaking situation before presentation. This will make them confident to deliver well. However students might lack spontaneity during presentation. 39
    • Oral presentation involves a lot of skills for it to be delivered successfully.Students have to collect, inquire, organize and construct information before theycan present their speech. These skills will provide students a valuable learningexperience and help them in acquiring lifelong skills for their future career andprofessional development. Task 2 Impromptu Speechi. Think of a topic and prepare a speech for a 2 minute individual presentation.ii. Present your speech.iii. In groups of 3 evaluate speeches of each other. Use the evaluation form below to evaluate your friend.a. Content Excellent Good Fair Weak1. Gains the audiences attention and focuses it on the topic2. States main ideas clearly and distinctly3. Uses transitions that are effective4. Uses sufficient evidence to support assertions5. Communicates ideas clearly and understandablyb. Presentation Excellent Good Fair Weak6. Pronounces words clearly and correctly7. Maintains eye contact with the audience8. Speaks at an appropriate rate9. Uses effective, non-distracting gestures10. Uses effective facial expressions to reinforce message11. Appears extemporaneous and not memorizedc. Conclusion Excellent Good Fair Weak12. Uses effective strategy to end speech 40
    • Effective Oral PresentationThere are three important steps of an oral presentation: i. planning ii. preparing iii. deliveringStep 1 Planning an oral presentationHere are simple rules that students can follow as they plan for an oralpresentation. First, consider the following questions as a guide.  What topic should I choose?  Can I narrow down the topic into something manageable?  What is my purpose?  What are my goals?  Who are my audience?It seems difficult to start but there are ways to handle this situation effectively.Here are some ways that can help you to select a topic:  Relate to your own experience  Choose an interesting and a current topic or issueAs a speaker, you must ensure that you have a clear purpose and set goals. Thiswould provide directions for you to move forward successfully. You should alsobe aware of who your audience are such as their age group, generalbackground, interests and needs. This is important so that you can plan yourcontent appropriate to their level and able to gauge their attention from thebeginning to the end of the presentation. As an example, if we are giving aspeech in front of our course mates, we can assume that they share the sameinterest and knowledge of the world with us. Therefore, we can choose to presentcurrent topics and issues appropriate and relevant to us as students andmembers of the society.After you have decided on a topic, you can proceed to plan the content of yourspeech. Brainstorming is a useful technique which you can use to structure thecontent. Brainstorming helps students to generate as many ideas as possible.Two ways of brainstorming for ideas are idea mapping and listing. 41
    • i. Idea mappingThis method of brainstorming can be developed in many directions. You canmake other mappings and go into details before you choose the most effectiveideas for your presentation.An example of idea mapping. Painful experience Luxury operation Wasting money Plastic surgery Benefits of Plastic Surgery Boost confidence Help accident victims Correct deform from birthii. ListingThis method of brainstorming requires us to list all the ideas in our mind. Do notworry if you do not see the connection of your ideas. This technique encouragesus to have a free flow of unlimited ideas before we develop the ideas further. 42
    • An example of listing. Step 1: List as many topics as you can. 1. MPP election 2. Health 3. Unemployment 4. Road bully 5. Instant millionaire 6. Time management 7. Animal cruelty 8. Technology Step 2: Narrow it down to causes of road bully. 1. Stress at work/home 2. Unhappy 3. Insensitive to others 4. Egoistic 5. Impatience 6. Selfish 7. Disrespect other drivers Step 3: Focus on impatience. 1. Negative attitude on the road 2. Endanger other drivers 3. Reckless driving 4. Ignore rules and regulations on the roadTask 3 BrainstormingIn 5 minutes, write down as many topics as you can for a presentation. ChooseONE method of brainstorming and focus on it. Show the exploration of the topicclearly. 43
    • After you have completed generating ideas, the next important task is to organizethe ideas. Organization is essential so as to make your presentation attractiveand clear. This will keep your audience alert and your presentation will beinteresting as you deliver the content effectively. To do this, you need to preparean outline to organise your ideas. You should include not more than four pointsfor a short speech. There are two ways to organise your ideas and they are usinga tree diagram and outlining.i. Tree diagramThis diagram displays an effective visual of the relationship between the pointsand its purposes. A tree diagram consists of short notes and this will make iteasier for the speaker to remember the main ideas during presentation. An example of a tree diagram Holiday Abroad Shopping Tasting New Food Meeting New Friendsii. OutliningThis method will help us to develop the body of the speech for the presentation.Therefore we need to choose and select the points carefully so that the ideas arerelevant to make our presentation successful.An example of an outlineSpecific Purpose: To inform people of the advantages of going holiday abroad.Main Points: 1. Taste food from different countries. 2. Meet new friends and exchange views and experiences. 3. Learn the culture of various people in other countries 44
    • Task 4 Identifying main pointsA Write the main points that are appropriate to support the specific purpose given. 1. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about social etiquette. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 2. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience that great teachers are born, not made. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 3. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience that open burning is hazardous. Main Points: 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ Task 5 Idea mapping State a specific purpose for a speech and give three main ideas. Present your ideas in the form of a tree diagram or an outline. 45
    • Step 2 Preparing an oral presentationWriting the introductionAs a speaker, you need to have a good introduction or an opening statement sothat you can capture the attention of the audience immediately. Learn tointroduce your speech effectively as this is the ‗wow‘ factor in your speech thatwill make your audience continue to listen. Here are some tips to help you in yourpreparation. The opening statement should seek the immediate attention of the audience. This can be in the form of a startling statement or statistic, a controversial point, a question, an anecdote, a famous quote, an eye-catching visual or a story. Listeners pay close attention when a person begins with, "Two weeks ago as I was driving to work, a van pulled out in front of me…." You could begin with a current event: "You might have read in the papers this morning about the brutal murder of …." A question is another way to make people listen. "How many of you feel our society spends too much on beauty care?" might be a way to begin a presentation about cutting costs.Task 6 Provide three examples of effective opening statements. i. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ii. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ iii. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 46
    • Task 7 Introducing your speechWrite a brief introduction of your speech using the guidelines below. The mainobjective of this activity is to capture the attention of the audience.Topic:Unemployment 1. Relate to the audience‘s experience 2. Narrate a story 3. Pose relevant questions 4. Begin with current events or statisticsDeveloping the contentThe content of your speech should be well developed and organised. You needto communicate your ideas as clearly as possible. Introduce the central idea first.Then, present the main points and develop each point with supporting details soas to ensure that the audience understand well. Structure your speech. Ideally,do not have more than three or four main points. Preview in the beginning whatyour main points will be. With each point, have two or three supporting detailssuch as provide relevant examples, definitions, present testimony or currentstatistics. Visual aids are important when you want your audience to understanda process, concept, or understand a financial goal. Line graphs are best fortrends. Bar graphs are best for comparisons and pie graphs are best for showingdistribution of percentages. The following is an example of an outline with acentral idea, main points and supporting details. Central Idea: The Ministry of Education‘s immediate solutions to its problems are to deal with the shortage of English language teachers and the difficulty of learning Maths and Science in English language in rural schools. Main Point 1 The shortage of English language teachers is seriously affecting the examination results in rural schools. Supporting Details A. Parents do not send their children to tuition classes. 47
    • 1. live in a rural area. 2. cannot afford the expensive tuition fees. B. Students are not keen to learn the target language. 1. can survive without knowing English. 2. English is a boring subject. Main Point 2 Some difficulties faced by students from rural schools who are learning Maths and Science in the English language. Supporting Details A. Difficult subjects in schools. 1. cannot score well in examinations. 2. lose interest to learn. B. Students do not understand English language well. 1. have difficulty to understand the instructions. 2. teachers do not motivate students in classrooms.It must be noted that as a speaker, you need to establish your credibility as aknowledgeable as well as a sincere speaker. Therefore, you need to tell theaudience the source of your expertise and you should add depth to yourevidence.ConclusionA common conclusion will be to summarize your main points. Remember thatyour conclusion should leave the audience with further food for thought. Peopleremember best what you say last. As an example, you might end a speech onbecoming a better speaker with, "As Robert Frost once said, „In three words I cansum up everything Ive learned about life. It goes on.‟ Do not end your speechwith “That‟s it” or ―That‟s all I have to say.” Remember to say ―Thank you verymuch” at the end. This is to show your sincere appreciation for your audiencepresence and attention and it signals the audience to applaud. Leave theaudience with positive memories of the speech. 48
    • Step 3 Delivering an oral presentationPractice! Practice! Practice! Adequate practice will boost your confidence. Whilepractising, you need to work on your body language as well as your voiceprojection. It is advisable to practice in front of your peers so that they canprovide constructive feedback on the following details:  body posture  facial expressions  body gestures  eye contact  pronunciation  pace and intonation  voice projection  clarity of your voiceDo not memorise your notes but try to remember the key words. Use yourknowledge of the world to give your presentation a ‗BANG! Avoid reading yournotes as this will bore the audience. Deliver your ideas confidently and with style.The following are some tips for you to consider so as to make your oralpresentation effective and attractive.Before delivering your oral presentation:  Dress appropriately  Relax and take a few deep breaths to calm yourself  Be confident and believe in yourself  Focus on your message and communicate it clearlyThings to avoid during your oral presentation:  Reading from prepared text  Excessive hand movements and gestures  Distracting body positions, movements and postures  Long pauses  Too many fillers e.g. Hmmm… aaaahh…. 49
    •  Speaking too fast  Monotonous toneThings to do during oral presentation:  Maintain eye contact  Speak with clarity and confidence  Be natural and spontaneous  Be lively and smile  Include effective visual presentations when and where appropriate and relevant  Monitor your time to avoid panic attack!Task 8 List as many spacecrafts as possible and be prepared to share withyour friends in the class.READINGAs you read the passage below: (a) try to guess the meanings of words that are new to you. (b) think about the answer to this question – What are the purpose(s) of the two space probes? Voyagers 1 and 21 The twin spacecraft Voyagers 1 and 2 have transformed our understanding of the outer solar system. Originally designed to study only Jupiter and Saturn, these two intrepid probes have visited all the gas giants – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. They have sent back startling images of churning atmospheres, complex ring systems 5 50
    • and exotic moons, some of which are large enough to be worlds in their own right. Now, as the Voyagers head for the stars, they continue to report from the edge of the solar system. 2 After 20 years and more than 7 billion miles (11 billion km), the Voyager space probes are still in fairly good shape. Both spacecraft 10 continue to return data from their studies of the solar wind – the stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun. Using this data, scientists hope to investigate the heliopause, the distant region where the solar wind finally dies away. 3 NASA plans to keep in contact with the Voyagers for the next 20 to 30 years, which is when their nuclear power packs are expected to run 15 down. After that, and assuming that nothing collides with them, the probes will continue on their journey to the stars. 4 Voyager 1 is currently travelling into the outer solar system at a rate of about 324 million miles (520 million km) per year. After both Voyagers break through the heliopause, which is expected to happen in 2014, 20 they will travel for some 24,000 years before they reach the Oort Cloud, the area on the edge of the solar system where comets are thought to originate. 5 Beyond the Oort Cloud, the Voyagers will enter true interstellar space. But even at speeds of more than 35,000 miles per hour, it will be tens 25 of thousands of years before either craft reaches another star. 6 About 40,000 years from now, Voyager 1 will pass less than a light- year from AC+793888, a star in the constellation of the Little Bear. According to present calculations, Voyager 2 should arrive in the vicinity of the bright star Sirius in the year 296,036. It could be millions 30 of years before either spacecraft drifts into another planetary system and is perhaps picked up by intelligent life [Source: Space Missions: From Sputnik to SpaceShip One, The history of space flight]Task 9 Given below are some words taken from the passage above and dothe following:a. Please refer to your dictionary and provide the ‗appropriate‘ definition of each word in the context of the passage. 51
    • b. Identify the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb and adverb) of the word.c. Write a sentence using the given word 1 head a) Definition: _____________________________________________________ b) Part of speech: _____________________________________________________ c) Sentence: _____________________________________________________ 2 report a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: wind a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: 4 break a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: 52
    • 5 pass a) Definition: b) Part of speech: c) Sentence: _____________________________________________________Task 10Read the passage again and answer the following questions.1. What were the initial aims of sending out Voyagers 1 and 2 into space? ___________________________________________________________2. Are the two space probes travelling in the same direction? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. Can scientists in NASA keep in contact with the Voyagers after 30 years? Why? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. Will the probes travel through space forever? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________5. When are the probes expected to break through the region where the solar wind finally dies away? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 53
    • 6. Where is the area in which comets are thought to originate? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________7. Do you think there is intelligent life ‗out there‘? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________Task 11 In small groups, discuss the following questions. Be prepared toshare your opinions with the class.1. Do you know of any satellites that are orbiting the earth presently? What functions do they have?2. Do you know of any spacecrafts (other than Voyagers 1 and 2) that have been deployed in space to study the various planets and the solar system?3. How do you think studies in space affect our lives on earth?4. How do you think a settlement in space for man will be like?LANGUAGE FOCUSTalking About the FutureThere are several ways of expressing about the future in English. Given beloware four ways in which one can talk about future actions or what will happen inthe future. 1 Simple A) Structure Future will/shall + the base form of the main verb Tense B) Examples a. It will take a few years before the new space shuttle is ready. b. I shall introduce a new source of energy tomorrow. 2 Present A) Structure 54
    • Continuous Auxiliary be + Verb+ing Tense B) Examples a. They are launching the rocket on Monday. b. I am receiving the fuel efficient car next week.3 Simple A) Structure present (Please refer to Unit 1) tense B) Examples a. The countdown starts tonight. b. I leave for NASA on Saturday.4 ‗Be going to‘ A) Structure Auxiliary be + going to + the base form of the main verb B) Examples a. I am going to wait for the hybrid car. c. Oh.. No! The rocket is damaged. It is going to explode!Task 12 Write 3 sentences using each of the 4 ways of expressing thefuture as explained above.1. Simple _________________________________________________ Future Tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________2. Present ________________________________________________ Continuous Tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________3. Simple ________________________________________________ present tense ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________4. ‗Be going to‘ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 55
    • Task 13Read the passage at the beginning of this unit again and do the following:a. Identify the sentences that express the future.b. Underline the relevant words or phrases that help to express the future.Task 14For each blank below choose the right form of the verbs given in the brackets The Road Ahead (by Bob Lutz) 1 In other parts of the world, including markets where some people buy cars for the first time, a different type of small car is developed, one lacking many premium features such as multiple airbags, antilock braking systems, traction control, entertainment and power everything. And that (1) ______________ (explain) the very low costs of some of 5 these vehicles. 2 To be successful, a company has to be prepared to address both types of market, and at GM we are. Our partners around the world such as Wuling in China, and our own global brands like Chevrolet, (2) _________________ (help) us to do just that. We (3) 10 _________________ (plan) to compete aggressively in the brave new small-car world if we want to succeed. 3 But that doesn‘t mean there will be a small-car craze that will envelop a market like the United States. Certainly, impending Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulatory changes (4) _________________ 15 (affect) the composition of the U.S. fleet. I‘m a believer, however, research has suggested the U.S. fleet won‘t come to resemble what‘s on European roads until fuel prices (5) __________________ (climb) well above $10 per gallon. Until then, there will be a place for all types of vehicles in the market, even as the volume change. 20 4 People still have a need for trucks in America and, to lesser extent, elsewhere. People still (6) __________________ (buy) them for work. 56
    • People still want them to haul boats and horse trailers. Not everyone (7) 25 ____________________ (be - go) switch to very small cars, or tiny little pickup trucks, unless they suddenly (8) _______________ (decide) to haul tiny little horse trailers carrying tiny little horses.5 And there will still be a desire for high-performance vehicles like the Chevrolet Corvette ZR1. The global automotive market is a big place, 30 after all. There is and will be room for green and mean. Just because a grocery store (9)__________________ (expand) its line of organically grown vegetables, that doesn‘t mean it (10)_________________ (shut) down the meat counter. [Source: Newsweek 2008] 1 A explain B explains C will explain D is explaining 2 A helps B will help C are helping D has helped 3 A plan B planned C are planning D have planned 4 A affect B will affect C is affecting D is going to affect 5 A climb B will climb C will be climbing D is going to climb 6 A buy B bought C will buy D are going to buy 57
    • 7 A is going to B are going to C was going to D were going to8 A decide B will decide C is deciding D are deciding9 A expand B expands C is expanding D are expanding10 A shut B shuts C will shut D are shutting 58
    • DESCRIPTIVE WRITINGIn descriptive writing the main aim is to describe someone, something, someplace or an event in such a way that helps the readers to imagine or picture(rather than just tells) that which you are describing. In other words your writingshould vividly portray the person, thing, place, or event in such a way that thereader can visualize it or enter into your experience or imagination. This isusually done by using lots of descriptive language and details.T US Plans Moon Settlement Before Heading on to MarsThe US president, George Bush, will announce plans next week to build a humansettlement on the moon, with a view to sending humans to Mars. In an attempt toreinvigorate the space programme, still reeling from last years Columbia shuttletragedy, Mr Bush will unveil plans to create a permanent science base for peopleon the moon. Once there, aides say, scientists could test the equipment andtechniques vital to making the significant technological advances demanded forsending astronauts to Mars more than a decade from now.Task 15Above is an excerpt from a newspaper report back in the year 2005. Incelebrating its 50th Anniversary (2008), NASA is having a contest describing asettlement on the moon. Discuss with your friends how you think a home will belike in a settlement on the moon. You may want to start by considering thefollowing aspects:ShapeMaterials usedAmenitiesAir and water supply 59
    • EntertainmentFurnitureTask 16You have decided to send an entry to the contest by NASA. Write an essay inabout 150 -200 words, describing how you think a settlement on the moon will beor look like. You may even want to send some sketches of the settlement.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 60
    • Task 17Prepare and present a speech to the whole class. You are free to choose yourown topic. Other members of the class will evaluate the speaker and providefeedback.Task 18Surf the internet and find information regarding the following:a) Alternative sources of power for cars (to replace petroleum).b) Future application and role of computers.c) How a house of the future may look likeSUMMARY Tick here if Main Skills Sub Skills you have Notes understood Listening Understand texts Identify main ideas Identify supporting ideas Understand language forms Speaking Oral Presentation Skills a) Planning b) Preparing c) Delivering Reading Know meaning of words and phrases Identify parts of speech Writing Descriptive writing Ways to describe objects Ways to describe people Grammar Future Tense Different types of future tense 61
    • SELF ASSESSMENTTest 1Prepare and give a speech. Get your partner to use the evaluation form to gaugeyour performance.Test 2Write sample sentences in the future tense. You can combine them to form aparagraph.REFERENCESAzar, B. S. (2000). Basic English grammar. New Jersey: Pearson Education.Barker, A. (2007). Improve your communication skills. (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.Beebe, A. S. & Beebe, J. S. (1997).Public speaking: An audience centred approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.Mehmet, C. (2001). Teaching English intonation to ESL/EFL students. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University.ANSWER KEYTask 1Listen to the tape and answer the following questions.Here‘s the script you werelistening to.Tapescript DJ Hello, Miss Lee. I hear that ‗Mega Science TV‘ is screening science fiction movies every Sunday next month. Mr Lee Yes, we are going to whet the appetites of so many fans of science fiction. As you know, until man has conquered every corner of the known universe, man will always be fascinated about what‘s there in space. This fascination has been nurtured since young and for many people, the craze for sci-fi movies remain until adulthood. DJ Why are these movies classified as science fiction? 62
    • Mr Lee Well, science fiction movie is a movie genre. It is speculative, science-based depictions of phenomena. It is not mainstream science.DJ How does it differ from mainstream science?Mr Lee There‘ll be extraterrestrial life forms and alien worlds, time travel, and other futuristic elements. Of course, rather like mainstream science, there are spacecraft, robots, and other technologies.DJ What makes this four-Sunday movie screening event unique?Mr Lee Well, each movie will be screened full length. As you know, ‗Mega Science TV‘ normally screens multi-episodic science fiction movies and also serials.DJ Yes, I watch ‗Star Trek‘ movies and ‗Robocop‘.Mr Lee Yes, these are multi-episodic movies, including ‗Highlander‘. But ‗Star Trek‘ has also been made into serials. The same goes for ‗Back to the Future‘.DJ What are other science fiction movies turned into serials on TV?Mr Lee We are still screening ‗Transformers‘ weekly, remember?DJ I think you also screen ‗Robocop‘ and ‗The Jurassic Park‘?Mr Lee Yes, we turned ‗Robocop‘ and ‗The Jurassic Park‘ into episodes as they are too long. Our long running one is ‗Star Trek: Voyager‘, about 172 episodes. ‗The Jurassic Park‘ is also screened as episodes.DJ So what movies are you going to screen this month?Mr Lee We are definitely showing ‗AVATAR‘. As you know, humans are forever seeking resources, and here man is the exploiter. This is recent as it‘s from the 21st century.DJ Is there a 1990‘s movie?Mr Lee We‘ll screen ‗Armageddon‘ and ‗Total Recall‘ from the 1990‘s. Then there‘ll be a James Bond movie, the one with the plot of global genocide using a space shuttle from the 1970‘s.DJ That must be ‗Moonraker‘?Mr Lee Yes, you‘re right. So, I hope sci-fi movie buffs will enjoy the four Sundays next month.DJ Thank you Miss Lee for a most enlightening view of what science fiction movie fans will see on ‗Mega Science TV‘ next month. 63
    • Task 8Here, you may find many examples beside Voyagers 1 and 2, for example,Sputnik.Task 91 head a) Definition: going to or heading to b) Part of speech: verb c) Sentence: To save time, we head for the river for the night.2 report a) Definition: give a verbal statement or account of a situation b) Part of speech: verb c) Sentence: You have to report to your supervisor immediately..3 wind a) Definition: one of nature‘s elements b) Part of speech: Noun c) Sentence: You have to be careful of the strong wind in this weather.4 break a) Definition: going through b) Part of speech: verb c) Sentence: She breaks into the room quickly.5 pass a) Definition: have completed or reached b) Part of speech: verb c) Sentence: They pass the checkpoint without any problem. 64
    • Task 101. They were designed to study only Jupiter and Saturn2. Yes, they are.3. Yes, they can still keep in contact with them provided they are not destroyed by collision with space objects.4. Yes, they will.5. After 24,000 years6. Oort Cloud7. It is a possibility.Task 111. At present, Malaysian satellite‘s Measat is in the space for communication purposes.2. Initially, it started with the Apollo series.3. It helps us to understand nature.4. Any logical opinion is acceptable.Task 12Any sentence is acceptable as long as it is grammatical and serves a particularfunction.Task 13a. Example: After that, and assuming that nothing collides with them, the probes will continue on their journey to the stars.(Lines 17-18)b. Phrases like will continueTask 141. B2. C3. C4. B5. A6. A7. B 65
    • 8. A9. B10. C 66
    • UNIT 3 TECH SAVVYLEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to:1. listen for main and supporting ideas;2. manage discussions using the correct forms and functions;3. read and identify the main ideas and supporting details in the text;4. identify the main ideas in a paragraph to paraphrase.CONTENTSpeech ActsLearning Points Speech acts are things we do through language (Nunan, 1999). We uselanguage to convey our thoughts and ideas, views and opinions and to expressour feelings and attitudes. We also use language to make sense of and confirmour understanding, to question and to test our assumptions, and to exploremeaning. As an example, when we say I am sorry, we are apologizing forsomething. Likewise, Can you turn on the radio? is a request for someone to dosomething. Speech acts can be a direct or an indirect use of functional language.This means that meaning is literally presented or inferred (Thornbury, 2006). For 67
    • example, the statement It‟s hot in here may be inferred as a request for someoneto switch on the fan, in replacement of the direct use of the statement- Can youswitch on the fan? Participating effectively in conversations not only requires knowledge ofgrammar, but also an understanding of key communication factors (Mc Carthyand Walsh, 2003). What are the key communication factors which need to betaken into consideration each time you use English in your daily conversations?The following guidelines will provide helpful hints in making appropriate choicesand forms of English language in various situations. In communication, thesefactors need to be considered to ensure meaningful and effective speech acts. i. Goal which answers the question ―What is the main purpose of the conversation?” ii. Context which answers the question ―What is the nature and situation of the conversation? “ iii. Relationship of speakers which answers the question ―Who am I speaking with?”Goal Goal refers to the purpose of the conversation. Is the conversation aboutmaking a serious decision? Is the conversation casual and jovial? Take thefollowing statement for example: Youve got to be joking! In a seriousconversation this statement would mean that the person does not take you, orwhat you have to say, seriously. This is obviously a bad sign and calls for you toexplain your position in detail. However, if this comment was given during a lunchbreak while you were telling a funny story, the statement means that the personfinds what you have to say amusing. You may even want to continue telling moreof the story. Generally, speech acts in formal situations which involve makingnegotiations, business transactions, and providing information in oralpresentations for example, require more formal language forms. It is advisablenot to use colloquial or informal language during such transactions.Context Context involves understanding the situation and knowing your rights andresponsibilities in any discussion in which you may be participating. Is thediscussion of a personal nature? Are you being interviewed for a job? In each of 68
    • these instances personal conversations allow for freedom of speech. On theother hand, if you are being interviewed for a job, certain speech conventionsmust be adhered to.Relationship between Speakers The type of language you use depends on the relationship between youand the speaker. This includes factors such as relative status and familiarity(Thornbury, 2005). Is the person you are speaking with a subordinate, or ishe/she your employer? Do you have a friendly relationship with this person? Isjoking allowed? Generally, informal situations require informal language use.Friends and colleagues use more informal language with each other. If, on theother hand, you are speaking with a person of authority, you will probably need touse more formal language.Forms of Speech ActsTask 1 The table below provides samples of the language forms which youcan use in your daily conversation for specific speech acts. Try adding moreexamples.Speech Act Language FormInforming  Could you tell me ___________________?(to request for or to give  Do you know _______________________?information)  I‘d like to know _____________________  __________________________________Persuading  Please _____________________________  I would be much obliged if _____________  ___________________________________  ___________________________________Suggesting  Why dont you / we go to the movies?  Lets go to the travel agents this afternoon.  What about asking your brother for help?  ___________________________________  ___________________________________ 69
    • Requesting  Can you please mail the letter?  Please take me to the clinic.  I would like a cup of tea please.  __________________________________  __________________________________Apologizing  I‘m sorry. I shouldn‘t have done that.  Please accept my apologies.  I would like to apologise ______________  __________________________________  __________________________________Complaining  I would like to complain about ___________  I am not satisfied with _________________  I‘m afraid I‘m not happy with ____________  ___________________________________  ___________________________________Complementing  You look pretty in that new dress.  He has been such a good friend.  This is a fantastic book.  ___________________________________  ___________________________________Asking permission  Please can I ________________________?  I have to leave for home. Would you mind?  May I _____________________________?  ___________________________________  ___________________________________ 70
    • Offering help or advice  Can I help?  Don‘t worry. I‘ll help you out.  I think you should ____________________  It would be better if __________________  __________________________________  __________________________________ Agreeing and  I think you are right. disagreeing  It is not as simple as it seems.  That is not necessarily so.  __________________________________  __________________________________ Expressing  ___________________________________ disappointment  ___________________________________  ___________________________________ Giving and responding to  ___________________________________ opinions  ___________________________________  ___________________________________ Expressing disbelief  ___________________________________  ___________________________________  ___________________________________ Task 2 : For each situation, identify the language function.A Situation 1 Aina : You look lovely in this one! (Function: Complementing) Siew Ai : Do you think so? I like the blue one better. (Function: ______________________________________________) Aina: No…..This is more becoming. It suits you. (Function: ______________________________________________) 71
    • Siew Ai: Alright, I‘ll trust you on this. (Function: ______________________________________________)Situation 2Mel: Hi Chris, would you like to do something with me this weekend?Chris: Sure. What shall we do? (Function: _________________________________________________)Mel: I dont know. Do you have any ideas? (Function: __________________________________________________)Chris: Why dont we see a film? (Function: __________________________________________________)Mel: That sounds good to me. Which film shall we see? (Function: __________________________________________________)Chris: Lets see "Action Man 4". (Function: __________________________________________________)Mel: Id rather not. I dont like violent films. How about going to "Mad Doctor Brown"? I hear its quite a funny film. (Function: __________________________________________________)Chris: OK. Lets go see that. When is it on? (Function: __________________________________________________)Mel: Its on at 8 oclock at the Rex. Shall we have a bite before the film? (Function: __________________________________________________)Chris: Sure, that sounds great. What about going to that new Italian restaurant ‗Mama Macaroni ? 72
    • (Function: __________________________________________________) Mel: Great idea! Lets meet there at six. (Function: __________________________________________________) Chris: OK. Ill see you at six. Bye. Mel: Bye. Task 3 Which of the expressions in the box below are used for (i)A complaining about things, (ii) giving/responding to opinions, (iii) offering help or advice, (iv) asking for permission, and (v) apologizing for something? May I leave early? I am displeased with the courier services. That’s very kind of you. We were unhappy with the way we were treated. Can I join the trip? I‘m sorry. I don’t think you have to go to that extent. Do you need anything? Did you hear that? It would be wise if you think it over first. I think so too. I believe you can do it. Sorry for the delay. You should visit your parents often. Gosh! How awful! This isn’t what I had expected! The idea sounds good. What a pity! Oops! I didn’t mean to do that. I couldn’t agree with you more. I fancy your shoes. He can’t really mean that. Do take caution. Complaining about things. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 73
    • Giving/ responding to opinions. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Offering help or advice. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Asking for permission. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Apologizing for something. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ LISTENING Task 4: Listen to the talk on the advantages of Computer Assisted LanguageA Learning (CALL). Answer the following questions as you listen for the second time. Part 1 What are the advantages of CALL? i) Generate………………………………. ii) Students become……………………… iii) Changes in …………………………… 74
    • iv) Promote……………………………….Part 2 Appropriately implemented network-based technology contributes to: i) …………………………………. ii) …………………………………. iii) …………………………………. iv) …………………………………. v) …………………………………SPEAKINGSample ConversationRead the following conversation between three friends. One of them plans to geta new netbook.Situation: Azaize and Lyla are the University‘s LRT Station. They are met bytheir friend Swee Pee.Swee Pee : Hi Azaize, hi Lyla. (To greet) Both of you are all dressed up. Where are you girls heading to? (To ask for information)Azaize and : Hi. (To greet)LylaAzaize : You look good, yourself. (To praise) We‘re going to Low Yat Plaza. (To give information)Swee Pee : Low Yat? Getting a new PC? (To ask for information)Azaize : Yeah. I urgently need a new one. I‘ve got loads of assignment and the due dates are just around the corner.Swee Pee : Are you getting one too, Layla? (To seek for clarification) 75
    • Lyla : Nope. I‘m just accompanying Azaize. Would you like to come along? (To invite)Swee Pee : Yeah, why not. (To accept an invitation) I‘ve always wanted to get an external hard drive. The 4G thumb drive which I have is nearly used up. By the way, Azaize. Are you getting a desk top or a laptop? (To seek for clarification)Lyla : She told me she wants to get a netbook and I told her there are some new ones just launched at Low Yat. (To explain)Swee Pee : That‘s right. A friend of mine posted some sleek and stylish ones on her Facebook. Some of them are really awesome. (To agree)Azaize : Really? I don‘t know much about computers. That‘s why I asked Lyla to come along with me to Low Yat. Do you know much about computers? (To seek for clarification)Swee Pee : A little. (To clarify) I saw the New Alpha Swift on my friend‘s Facebook and it‘s quite popular in the market. The Swift is powered by the Intel Mega N600 dual core processor.Lyla : What about its speed. Is it fast? (To inquire)Swee Pee : Of course. The N600 processor has been given a speed increase. The 1.5GHz x 2 processor also supports hyperthreading (To explain)Azize : Wow! That‘s marvelous!Lyla : We can also have a look at the New Sonata NB606. It has 1024 x 600 pixel display and it‘s powered by 1.66 GHz Intel mega and 554 processor. Not only are its features recommendable, it also comes with a 76
    • range of colourful lid options. There are blue, orange, green, red, brown and turquoise. (To give details)Azaize : That‘s interesting. But I need a netbook with a lasting battery.Lyla : Not a problem. The Sonata comes with a 6 dry cell. You can use it up till 6 hours.Swee Pee : The New Alpha Swift is also fitted with a 6 dry cell as well.Azaize : I‘m glad both of you can come along with me. (To express gratitude) Let‘s go and check out both machines. Besides the features, it must also be within my budget too.Task 5 Practice making suggestions in the following situations:1. Help your partner decide which item to buy.2. Warn your partner against doing something stupid.3. Suggest that your partner change his/her plans on an overseas trip.4. Help your partner make up his/her mind on taking up a job offer.5. Suggest doing charity work together during the weekend.Sample conversation:Amira : Should I buy the blue or the purple hand phone?Bella : I think you should buy the purple one.Amira : Why is that?Bella : Because purple is more trendy. 77
    • Task 6 Here are some role plays for you to practice your speech acts.Role Play 1: Requesting for Product InformationStudent AYou need to purchase six new computers for your office. Call JA Computer Worldand ask for the following information:  Current special offers on computers  Computer configuration (RAM, Hard Drive, CPU)  Guarantee  Possibility of discount for an order of six computersStudent BYou work at JA Computer World. Answer student As questions using thefollowing information:  Two special offers: Multimedia Monster - with latest Pentium CPU, 256 RAM, 40 GB Hard Drive, Monitor included – RM 4,000 and Office Taskmaster - cheaper CPU, 64 RAM, 10 GB Hard Drive, Monitor not included - RM4500.  1 Year guarantee on all computers  Discount of 5% for orders of more than five computersRole Play 2: Selling your productStudent AYou are a salesperson for Ready Company. You are entertaining a customerwho you think might be interested in buying your new line of office supplies.Discuss the following information with your customer:  New line of office supplies including: stationery, mouse-pads and white boards, printers, scanners, digital cameras.  You know the customer has not ordered any new products during this past year  Special discount of 15% for orders placed before next Monday 78
    •  Any order placed before Monday will not only receive the discount, but also have its company‘s logo printed on the products at no extra chargeStudent BYou work in an office and you need some new office supplies. You are veryinterested in what the salesperson has to offer. Talk about the following:  Printers, scanners  Do they have any special offers?  You would like to place an order for 200 packages of copy paperTask 7Asking for permission is very similar to asking for favours. In most cases, whenyou ask someone to do something for you, it is important to use an introductoryphrase to soften the request.Examples:Lend me your pen-drive! (too abrupt; sounds rude)Excuse me, could you lend me your pen-drive? (more polite)Help me fix my PC. (sounds too demanding)Sorry to bother you. Im having trouble with my PC. Would you mind helping mefor a minute? (better)Role play the following situations with a friend. Include details and give avariety of responses.1. Ask your friend to repeat something.2. Ask your friend to help you print something.3. Ask your friend to give the web address.4. Ask your friend to download a video clip from U- Tube. 79
    • Task 8: Role playIn groups, discuss which would be the most effective decision for each of thefollowing situations. Role play the situations and present it to the class.1. The English Language Panel has just completed writing a revision E-Book for the Form Five students. Decide on a suitable name for the E-book.2. The ‗E- poster‘ group assignment is due tomorrow. Your group members have not completed their individual task and would require an additional week to complete it. All of you decided to meet the lecturer concerned.3. You have just started teaching for two months. Your school principal wants you to prepare a power point presentation for some visitors from Korea. Ask the principal what he/she wants to be included in the presentation.4. While waiting for the semester to reopen, you worked part time as a technical assistant in a computer company. Apologize to a customer for a mistake your friend made while performing maintenance operation on her computer.READINGReading about current trends in technologyThe Net Generation has grown up with information technology. The aptitudes,attitudes, expectations, and learning styles of Net Gen students reflect theenvironment in which they were raised. One generations technology is taken forgranted by the next. Computers, the Internet, online resources, andinstantaneous access are simply the way things are done. 80
    • Pre- ReadingMake notes on you know about the following internet- based services:  Blogging  Podcasting  Photo sharing  Wikis  Social Bookmarking  Video SharingRead the passages below and complete the tasks.PART 11 It is an almost instinctive assumption to believe that Net Gen students will want to use IT heavily in their education; they certainly do in their personal lives. However, if you ask Net Gen learners what technology they use, you will often get a blank stare. They dont think in terms of technology; they think in terms of the activity technology enables. In general, the Net Gen views the 5 Internet as an access tool—a medium for distribution of resources rather than a resource with limitations.2 When asked about technology, students definitions centered on new technologies. For example, a cell phone with a new feature was considered technology; a cell phone with standard features was not. What we might 10 consider "new technology," such as blogs or wikis, are not thought of as technology by students.3 The activity enabled is more important to the Net Gen than the technology behind it. For example, instant messaging wasnt considered a technology; IMing is treated as a verb—it is an action, not a technology. 15 Students often use the word "talk" when they describe text messaging or instant messaging. Software blends into the background; it enables certain activities to occur, but it is not new, novel, or customizable—all part of the Net Gens definition of technology.4 Student satisfaction with online learning exemplifies our assumptions 20 about online learning. Since Net Geners spend so much of their time online, it seems reasonable to expect that they would have a strong preference for Web-based courses. The reverse is actually true, as illustrated by a study from the University of Central Florida. Older students (Matures and Baby Boomers) are much more likely to be satisfied with fully Web-based courses than are 25 traditional-age students. The reason relates to the Net Gen desire to be connected with people and to be social as well as their expectations of higher education. Traditional-age students often say they came to college to work with faculty and other students, not to interact with them online. Older learners tend to be less interested in the social aspects of learning; convenience and 30 81
    • flexibility are much more important. 5 In response to a student technology survey the majority of students preferred a moderate amount of IT in their classes. They also want face-to- face interaction, however; year after year, face-to-face interactions are ranked by all students in either first or second place. This replicates the results of 35 many distance education studies that show students often feel that something important to their learning is missing when all interactions are mediated, whether asynchronous or synchronous. 6 The implication is that colleges and universities should not assume that more technology is necessarily better. Technology that enables certain types 40 of activities is likely to be appreciated. For example, wireless networking enables learner mobility and makes it possible to be constantly connected. The majority of wireless network use, however, may be outside the academic realm. Using technology to increase customization, convenience, and collaboration is well received; however, its integration into most courses or curricula is not as deep as into students personal lives. Task 9 Do the following statements agree with the information given in theA passage above? Write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information. Write FALSE if the statement contradicts the information. Statements True/False 1. Net Gen students usually opt to use IT heavily in their education. 2. Net Gen students think in terms of the activities they can do with technology. 3. A cell phone with extra features will not attract Net Gen students 4. Students often use the word talk when they are actually sending short messages. 5. Students nowadays have a strong preference for Web-based courses. 6. Older learners tend to be extremely interested in the social aspects of learning. 7. Face-to-face interactions are becoming very popular amongst the students. 8. The integration of technology into most courses is not as deep as into students personal lives. 82
    • Task 10 Complete each of the following sentences with information from theA reading passage. 1. The ________________________includes commercial, educational, governmental, and other networks, all of which use the same set of communications protocols. 2. Social ____________________sites typically let users develop a list of friends. 3. _____________________________ is a branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment. 4. The movement of people, as from one social group, class, or level to another is known as __________________________. PART 2A Task 11: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. A junior at the university, Eric wakes up and (i)……………………………..(IMs) arrived while he slept. Several attempts to reach him are visible on the screen, along with various postings to the blog hes been following. After a quick trip to the shower, he pulls up an eclectic mix of news, weather, and sports on the home page he customized using Yahoo. He then (ii)……………………………. A reminder pops up indicating that there will be a quiz in sociology today; another reminder lets him know that a lab report needs to be e-mailed to his chemistry professor by midnight. After a few quick IMs with friends he (iii)………………………………..has made on a project theyre doing for their computer science class. He (iv) ……………………………………; hell review it while he sits with a group of students in the student union working on other projects. After classes are over he has to go to the library because he cant find an online resource he needs for a project. He rarely goes to the library to check out books; usually he uses Google or Wikipedia. Late that night as hes working on his term paper, he (v)…………………………………….multiplayer game hes trying to win. 83
    • 1. Complete Eric‘s activities (i-v) with the correct phrases from a- e a. downloads yesterdays chemistry lecture to his laptop b. switches back and forth between the paper and the Internet-based c. peers at his PC to see how many instant messages d. logs on to his campus account e. pulls up a wiki to review progress a teammate2. Which of the following is a suitable title for the passage. a. Eric is goes crazy every morning because he is not organized. b. Eric is a member of the Net Generation; hes never known life without the Internet. c. Eric does not lead a normal life, he is always tormented by the internet. d. Eric uses the internet facilities to complete his work, thus he has got no friends.LANGUAGE FOCUSThe Present Continuous or Present Progressive TenseThe Present Continuous or Present Progressive Tense is used to describe anaction that is currently in progress. The action words (main verbs) used are in thepresent participle form ending in –ing.Read the following sentences.1. I am having some problems with my keyboard.2. I am watching Lady Gaga‘s latest video on Youtube.3. My sister is reading the information on the touch screen computer.4. The new boy in my class is talking on his HTC mobile phone.5. Joe, the headboy, is typing on his laptop.6. Josiah and Amirul are downloading some images from Yahoo.com.7. Chandran and his friends are challenging each other in Avatar, the latest game on Play Station 3. 84
    • Note: am, is, are are the auxiliary or helping verbs. having, watching, reading, talking, typing, downloading and challenging are the main verbs in the present participle form. Basic rules Rule 1 : If a verb ends with a consonant e. Drop the –e and add –ing. have have + ing having write write +ing writing Rule 2 : One vowel + one consonant. Double the consonant and add –ing. w, x and y cannot be doubled. begin begin+ing beginning run run+ing running Rule 3 : Two vowels + one consonant. Do not double the consonant. read read+ing reading download download+ing downloading Rule 4 : Two consonants. Do not double the last consonant. indent indent+ing indenting align align+ing aligning Task 12: Write the –ing forms of the following verbs.A 1 fix fixing 7. justify ____________ 2. view ____________ 8. scroll ____________ 3. copy ____________ 9. defragment ____________ 4. paste ____________ 10. format ____________ 5. delete ____________ 11. publish ____________ 6. align ____________ 12. embed ____________ Task 13: Fill in the blanks with the correct –be verb+ ing.A 1. I am formatting (format) this CD. I need to format it before I could use it. 2. Zulhelmi ____________________ (copy) the file into his external hard disc drive. 85
    • 3. James Raj ____________________ (justify) the document. He wants it to look neat. 4. The students ____________________ (view) the latest netbook in the market. 5. The twins ____________________ (save) all the files into the CD before sending the computer for repair. 6. I ____________________ (publish) my ―Save the world‖ video on Youtube. I want to share it with the rest of the world. 7. He ____________________ (scroll) the screen for the latest information on Egypt. 8. They ____________________(embed) songs and pictures in their presentation slides. Task 14: Fill the blanks with the most suitable phrases.A 1. The students‘ ___________________________ attentively to the instructor who is explaining how to create a movie. 2. We ___________________________ Google.com for some pictures. We want to use them for our e-poster. 3. My father ___________________________his document on Google Doc. He can share the document with his colleague on Google.com. 4. I ___________________________ my parents to get me the latest Play Station for my birthday. 5. Sue ___________________________ some articles on ProQuest. She needs it for her assignment. 86
    • Task 15 Use the Present Continuous to describe the following actions.A 1. delete the phrase ____________________________________________________________ 2. download the video ____________________________________________________________ 3. embed the song ____________________________________________________________ 4. clean up the temporary C: file ____________________________________________________________ 5. buy an external hard disk ____________________________________________________________ 6. format the CD ____________________________________________________________ 7. name the file ____________________________________________________________ 8. publish ______on Youtube ____________________________________________________________ The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense – Questions Read the following questions and the answers. 1. Is Jamal buying an i-pad? Yes, he is./Yes, he is buying an i-pad. No, he isn‘t./No, he isn‘t buying an i-pad. 2. Are they doing their assignment at the cyber café downstairs? Yes they are/ Yes, they are doing their assignment at the cyber café downstairs. No, they aren‘t / No, they aren‘t doing their assignment at the cyber café downstairs. 87
    • Task 16 Make questions and give short answers to your questions.A Eg. 1 Question : Are you buying the latest Blackberry Storm? (be___buy). Answer : Yes, I am/ Yes, I am buying the latest Blackberry Storm. No, I am not/ No, I am not buying the latest Blackberry Storm. 2. Question : __________ the ―Flood‖ document into the D: File? (be___save). Answer : __________________________________________________ 3. Question : __________ Farid and Johnny __________ competing in the ―Video Game Challenge‖? (be___compete) Answer : __________________________________________________ 4. Question : ________the girls ______________ the drama on the computer? (be___view) Answer : 5. Question : ________Salmi and Chloe Lim ______________ with their friends on Yahoo.com? (be___chat) Answer : _________________________________________________ 6. Question : ________Tamilselvi ______________ to post the invitation on the wall of her Facebook? (be___plan) Answer : _________________________________________________ 88
    • PARAPHRASING Why do we need to crack our heads and learn to paraphrase?When we have large chunks of lecture notes to digest, we need to paraphrase. It will help us remember the important points orinformation.What is a paraphrase?A paraphrase is when you write published materials in your own words withoutchanging its original meaning. It is important that the sentence structure and thevocabulary are not too similar to the original. 89
    • The main way to paraphrase is to:  change the structure of the paragraph  change the words.It is not enough to do just one of these, you need to change the structure and thewords. You must do this to avoid plagiarism.Changing the structure of a paragraphUse the following steps to change the structure of a paragraph.i. Write down the main ideas and concepts.  Read the paragraph and write down the main points or words. Do not copy down entire sentences.ii. Put the original away.  Put the paragraph / book away and using the main points, write your paraphrase from memory. This means that you are not copying the text word for word.To be able to paraphrase correctly, you must be able to understand and identifythe main idea and the specific details.PRACTICE: Make predictions about the topics using the given passages.Educators Need to Embrace Internet Technologies. There are five reasonswhy they must do so. They are:Reason No. 1: ___________________________________________________As the world continues to embrace and evolve the Internet, businesses andorganizations are increasingly looking to tap into this resource. It is in the bestinterest of educators, and professionals in general, to be aware of what theInternet has to offer. We can choose to sit back and wish it would all just go awaybecause it‘s too hard to find the time for it, or we can choose to embrace it, andlook for simple ways to learn more about it. Another unavoidable fact is thegrowing desire for experience and familiarity with the Internet and other computertechnologies as a hiring requirement in the educational field. 90
    • Reason No. 2: ___________________________________________________Internet tools can be fun! Internet tools are interactive! What a great way toengage students in the classroom. Many of the tools are collaborative, and theyare all hands-on. Applications that allow for the creation of cool looking timelines,videos, or other dynamic presentations can be a lot of fun, and when a studentrealizes that they can easily make the resulting creation available for viewing onthe Internet, it can be pretty exciting!Reason No 3: ____________________________________________________―Meet them where they live!‖ We‘ve all heard this, and there is asolid undercurrent of wisdom in it. Many students use Internet tools on a regularbasis. If you use some of them in the classroom, you will be talking to them intheir language. And for those who have not been exposed to a given technology,you‘ll be teaching them something they are probably predisposed to learningmore about.Reason No. 4: ____________________________________________________The Internet is here to stay. It‘s been well over a decade now that ‗average users‘have had access to the Internet, and we‘re now knee deep in the Social Mediarevolution that has defined Web 2.0. It isn‘t going away. It isn‘t a fad. It‘s onlygoing to grow and evolve. It‘s already woven into the fabric of the daily lives ofmillions of people. Yes, a lot of folks are wasting a lot of time doing things on theInternet that don‘t contribute to society or offer much in the way of personalgrowth, but at the same time, there are countless ways in which the multitude oftools and technologies available on the Internet are being used in wonderfullyconstructive ways. 91
    • Reason No. 5: ____________________________________________________ If you introduce your students to technologies like Blogs, RSS Feeds, Wikis, and so on, you will be helping to build their resume. Businesses and organizations are more interested in these types of tools every day. They‘re thinking about how to get on board and get ahead of the curve, and how they can offer value in the workplace. Blogs are being used to provide updates about new developments, Wikis are being used as knowledge bases, RSS Feeds are being used to capture a steady stream of information about topics of interest, Social Bookmarking tools are being used for research, and the list goes on and on. Name any Internet technology, and there is a growing list of business applications for it. Go to Google and search ―Twitter for business‖ and see the list of articles on the subject. Task 17 Match the reasons 1-5 to the topics A-EA Reason Topics Number Businesses Want to Hire Workers Who Understand The A Internet B Students Use Them Already C Professional Development D It‘s Not Going Away (It Will Only Grow) E The Power To Engage Task 18 Underline the topic sentence in each of the above paragraphs. 92
    • Task 19 Answer the following questions on each of the paragraphs (a)- (e)Reading paragraph (a)All of the following key facts about internet are mentioned in the paragraphexcept A. Businesses and organizations are trying to use this resource B. Educators do not need to use the internet C. We should learn more about internet D. Students have no desire to use computer technologiesReading paragraph (b)Which of the following does not explain the benefits of internet applications? A. Presentations can be interesting B. Presentations can be difficult C. Videos can be created D. Timelines will be clearReading paragraph (c)The meaning of the word ―predisposed‘ as used in the paragraph is… A. Prejudiced B. Prepared C. Prompt D. PrimeReading paragraph (d)The phrase ‗It is not a fad‘ implies A. it is a craze B. it is not a craze C. it is a habit. D. it is not a habit 93
    • Reading paragraph (e)Fill in the table below with the information from paragraph (e) Technology Use Who would use it?a. Blogsb. RSS feedsc. Wikisd. Social BookmarkingTask 20 Read these paragraphs again. Pay attention to the topic sentence.Underline the details that support the topic sentence. Rewrite the main idea andthe supporting details in your own word.SUMMARY Tick here if Main Skill Sub Skills you have Notes understoodListening Listening to a talk Listening to the main ideas Listening for specific detailsSpeaking Speech Acts Forms of Speech Acts Language FormReading Reading a text on use of technology at home Reading for Main Ideas Reading for Specific DetailsWriting Paraphrasing Identifying the main idea Identifying the supporting details 94
    • SELF ASSESSMENTTest 1Read the following passage on using technology at home and answer thequestions that follow.1 Parents have numerous demands on their time and energy. Luckily, there are plenty of ways to save time, stay organized, and streamline your day by adopting a digital lifestyle. Giving your house a digital home makeover will allow you to be more efficient while reducing stress and providing your family with opportunities to have fun together. Here are some simple and fun family activities you can do using digital technology.2 Sit down with an online calendar and plan out the family meals for the week. There are numerous recipe sites you can visit to generate ideas for new dishes. In many areas, food retailers feature online services to deliver groceries straight to your door, saving you a trip to the supermarket. When planning dinner, invite your kids to help and teach them the basics of building healthy, balanced meals.3 No working parent wants to be concerned with how their kids are spending their time when they return home from school. With a little forethought on Sunday, you can use a Digital Video Recorder (DVR) to plan out a schedule of wholesome, educational programming to keep your children entertained and informed until you return home each weekday. DVRs utilize an onscreen television menu allowing you to choose what your children are able to watch, and cable boxes feature parental controls to prevent your children from watching inappropriate content while you are not home.4 It can often be difficult to coordinate a familys schedule around the broadcast of family-friendly films on TV. Todays time-shifting technologies, such as DVRs and Video On Demand (VOD) channels, allow you to watch movies at your familys convenience. With the use of a DVR and VOD, it has never been easier to plan a time for the whole family to enjoy a movie at home together.5 You and your kids can conduct research online to organize a 95
    • weekend outing to a nearby public park or recreation area. A few minutes on the Web will provide you with details such as driving instructions, hours of operation, and amenities offered by your destination. If you need to stock up on picnic supplies, outdoor games, or sporting goods, there are a number of online retailers available to meet those needs. Make sure you consider weather forecasts and dress appropriately.6 Often during the summer your childrens outdoor plans get washed out, leaving you responsible for finding an entertaining alternative in a pinch. Plan ahead for rainy days by spending a few moments to set aside engaging activities for your children to enjoy indoors. Go online and bookmark a few sites featuring fun games and puzzles for your children. You should also save up a few hours of wholesome, educational programming on your DVR and be familiar with movies and TV programmes that are available over VOD. These options will be waiting for you on a moments notice when you unexpectedly need to provide your kids with stimulating activities for an afternoon or two.7 Many communities boast a number of fascinating historic places that get taken for granted when encountered on a daily basis. Help educate and enlighten your children by encouraging them to research the history of their community on the Web. Most museums and historical societies maintain Web sites featuring a wealth of interesting facts and information, offering your children a richer appreciation of their community.8 These are just a few basic suggestions on how adopting a digital lifestyle can save you time and energy when dealing with todays hectic parenting responsibilities. You will be surprised at how much difference a digital home makeover can make in your life. 96
    • Match the „topics‟ or main idea with each of the paragraphs. Paragraph Main Idea or Topics Number 1 A Save Up Rainy Day Entertainment. 2 B Plan a Family Movie Night. 3 C Teach Your Kids Local History. 4 D Plan Dinner Online. 5 E Organize a Weekend Outing. 6 F Record Educational Programming for Your Kids.TEST 2Read the article and match the main idea of each paragraph in the box providedfrom the list given below. a. Training teachers b. Increasing access through distance learning c. Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of educational administration and policy d. Broadening the availability of quality education materials e. Enabling a knowledge network for studentsHow do ICT in education initiatives contribute to the Millennium DevelopmentGoals?Paragraph Main IdeaParagraph 1:ICTs can provide new and innovative means tobring educational opportunities to greaternumbers of people of all ages, especially those b.Increasing access throughwho have historically been excluded, such as distance learningpopulations in rural areas, women facing socialbarriers, and students with disabilities 97
    • Paragraph 2:With knowledge as the crucial input forproductive processes within today‘s economy,the efficiency by which knowledge is acquiredand applied determines economic success.Effective use of ICTs can contribute to thetimely transmission of information andknowledge, thereby helping education systemsmeet this challengeParagraph 3:Large numbers of school teachers will beneeded to meet the Millennium DevelopmentGoals for education. The use of ICTs can helpin meeting teacher training targets. Moreover,ICTs provide opportunities to complement onthe job training and continuing education forteachersParagraph 4:Network technologies have the potential toincrease the availability of quality educationalmaterials. Their interactivity and global reachallow for customized sharing of knowledge,materials, and databases, quickly and cheaplyover long geographic distances. Furthermore,online resources offer teachers access to a vastand diverse collection of educational materials,enabling them to design curricula that best meetthe needs of their students. 98
    • Paragraph 5:New technologies can help improve the qualityof administrative activities and processes,including human resource management,student registration, and monitoring of studentenrollment and achievementREFERENCESAzar, B. S. (1996). Basic English Grammar. (2Ed.). New Jersey: PearsonLongman.DiSessa, A.A. (2000). Changing Minds: computers, learning, and literacy.Reilly, B (1996). New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns (in C. Fisher, D.C. Dwyer & K. Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: Reflections on computing in classrooms. San Francisco: Pearson.McCarthy, M. & Walsh, S. (2003). ―Discourse‖ In Nunan, D. (2003) Practical English language teaching. New York: McGraw Hill.Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. Essex: Longman.ANSWER KEY:Task 1Speech Act Language FormInforming  Could you tell me where I could get(to request for or to give some CDs?information)  Do you know how much an external drive costs? 99
    •  I‘d like to know if you have i-phones and i-pods.  You can get a good bargain for a new mobile phone at Low Yat Plaza.Persuading  Please come in and see our latest mobile phones.  I would be much obliged if you could spend some time and try out our courseware.  This notebook is fitted with windows 7. Would you like to see its other features?Suggesting  Why dont you / we go to the movies?  Lets go to the travel agents this afternoon.  What about asking your brother for help?  Shall we purchase the latest virus cleaner?  Why don‘t you get yourself a laser printer?Requesting  Can you please mail the letter?  Please take me to the clinic.  I would like a cup of tea please.  Can I have an MP4 for my birthday, Dad?  Please let me use your PC. I need to send an e-mail immediately.Apologizing  I‘m sorry. I shouldn‘t have done that.  Please accept my apologies.  I would like to apologize for using your scanner without your permission.  I‘m sorry for erasing the files from your D: drive.Complaining  I would like to complain about your rude sales assistant.  I am not satisfied with my new digital 100
    • camera.  I‘m afraid I‘ve misplaced the address of the website.  I‘m not happy with the colour of my new pc .Complementing  You look pretty in that new dress.  He has been such a good friend.  This is a fantastic book.  She is good at preparing Power Point Presentations.  Your 4G iphone is amazing.Asking permission  Please can I use your lap top?  I have to leave for home. Would you mind?  May I use a few CDs for the project?  Could we buy a better digital camera?  Can I order some HP 1006 toner for the printer?Offering help or advice  Can I help?  Don‘t worry. I‘ll help you out.  I think you should buy a new handphone and give this one to your son.  It would be better if we bought a faster laser printer.  I think you should email the document to her immediately.  Don‘t panic. I‘ll help you to make the 100 copies that you need.Agreeing and disagreeing  I think you are right.  It is not as simple as it seems.  That is not necessarily so.  Yes, typing the schedule using Microsoft Excel is a better idea.  No, I think faxing the letter is better than emailing it to him.Expressing  I‘m not happy with the new computer 101
    • disappointment lab. It‘s too small.  Haven‘t you ordered the thumb drives as instructred?  You should defragment your computer once a week. It‘s too slow.Giving and responding to  I think we can print our drafts using theopinions dot matrix printer.  Yes, chatting on Skype is better than Yahoo Messenger.  A high definition television gives a better picture than the normal ones.Expressing disbelief  I can‘t believe you spend all your money on that purple Sega Wildfire handphone!  He‘s getting a new plasma flat screen television? Didn‘t he buy one last week?  They spent RM4000 on a new sound system for their car!Task 2Situation 1Aina : You look lovely in this one! (Function: Complementing)Siew Ai : Do you think so? I like the blue one better. (Function: Giving and responding to opinions)Aina: No…..This is more becoming. It suits you. (Function: Disagreeing)Siew Ai: Alright, I‘ll trust you on this. (Function: Agreeing )Situation 2Mel: Hi Chris, would you like to do something with me this weekend?Chris: Sure. What shall we do? (Function: Agreeing)Mel: I dont know. Do you have any ideas? 102
    • (Function: Enquiring)Chris: Why dont we see a film? (Function: Suggesting)Mel: That sounds good to me. Which film shall we see? (Function: Giving and responding to opinions)Chris: Lets see "Action Man 4". (Function: Suggesting)Mel: Id rather not. I dont like violent films. How about going to "Mad Doctor Brown"? I hear its quite a funny film. (Function: Giving and responding to opinions)Chris: OK. Lets go see that. When is it on? (Function: To request for or to give information)Mel: Its on at 8 oclock at the Rex. Shall we have a bite before the film? (Function: Suggesting)Chris: Sure, that sounds great. What about going to that new Italian restaurant Mama Macaroni ? (Function: Agreeing)Mel: Great idea! Lets meet there at six. (Function: Agreeing)Chris: OK. Ill see you at six. Bye.Mel: Bye.Task 3Complaining about things.I am displeased with the courier services.We were unhappy with the way we were treated.This isn‘t what I had expected!Gosh! How awful!What a pity!Did you hear that?Giving/ responding to opinions.I don‘t think you have to go to that extent. .I believe you can do it.I think so too.I couldn‘t agree with you more.The idea sounds good. 103
    • Offering help or advice.Do you need anything?Do take caution.You should visit your parents often.It would be wise if you think it over first.Asking for permission.May I leave early?Can I join the trip?Apologizing for something.Sorry for the delay,Oops! I didn‘t mean to do that.I‘m sorry.Task 4Part 1. What are the advantages of CALL? i. Generate autonomous learners who will experience freedom of choice ii. Students become interactive iii. Changes in the teaching methodologies of English iv. Promote communication/interaction with -and mainly among- studentsPart 2 . Appropriately implemented network-based technology contributes to: i. Experiential Learning ii. Motivationiii. Enhanced student achievementiv. Authentic materials v. Greater interactionsTask 9 1. False 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. False 7. False 8. True 104
    • Task 101. internet2. network3. technology4. mobilityTask 111. i. c ii. d iii. e iv. a v. b2. BTask 12 1 fix fixing 7. justify justifying 2. view viewing 8. scroll scrolling 3. copy copying 9. defragment defragmenting 4. paste pasting 10. format formatting 5. delete deleting 11. publish publishing 6. align aligning 12. embed embeddingTask 13 1. I am formatting (format) this CD. I need to format it before I could use it. 2. Zulhelmi is copying (copy) the file into his external hard drive. 3. James Raj is justifying (justify) the document. He wants it to look neat. 4. The students are viewing (view) the latest netbook in the market. 5. The twins are saving (save) all the files into the CD before sending the computer for repair. 6. I am publishing (publish) my ―Save the world‖ video on Youtube. I want to share it with the rest of the world. 7. He is scrolling (scroll) the screen for the latest information on Egypt. 8. They are embedding (embed) songs and pictures on their presentation 105
    • slides.Task 14 1. The students are listening attentively to the instructor who is explaining how to create a movie. 2. We are surfing Google.com for some pictures. We want to use them for our e-poster. 3. My father is typing /is saving his document on Google Doc. He can share the document with his colleagues on Google.com. 4. I am persuading/asking my parents to get me the latest Play Station for my birthday. 5. Sue is browsing some articles on ProQuest. She needs it for her assignment.Task 15 1. delete the phrase He is deleting the phrase from the document. Sharul is deleting the phrase because his lecturer asked him to. 2. download the video They are downloading the video from Youtube. She is downloading the video to be embedded in her slides. 3. embed the song The group is embedding the song into their presentation slides. Anne Sim is embedding the song into her PowerPoint presentation. 4. clean up the C: file The technician is cleaning up the temporary C: file. 5. buy an external hard disk I am buying an external hard disk because I want to download some movies. Fadhilah Hanim is buying an external hard disk for her boyfriend. 6. format the CD We are formatting the CD as instructed. The lecturer is formatting the CD for the students. 7. name the file She is naming the file after her beloved father. 106
    • The group is naming the file “Our group”. 8. publish their short movie on Youtube They are publishing their short movie on Youtube. The student is publishing his/her video on Youtube.Task 16 1. Question : Are you buying the latest Blackberry Storm? (be___buy) Answer : Yes, I am/ Yes, I am buying the latest Blackberry Storm. No, I am not/ No, I am not buying the latest Blackberry Storm. 2. Question : Are you saving the ―Flood‖ document into the D: File? (be___save) Answer : Yes, I am / Yes, I‘m saving the ―Flood‖ document into the D: File. No, I am not/ No, I am not/No, I‘m not saving the ―Flood‖ document into the D: File. 3. Question : __________ Farid and Johnny __________ competing in the ―Video Game Challenge‖? (be___compete) Answer : Yes, they are/ Yes, they‘re competing in the ―Video Game Challenge.‖ No, they are not/ No, they aren‘t/No, they aren‘t competing in the ―Video Game Challenge‖. 4. Question : ________the girls ______________ the drama on the computer? (be___view) Answer : Yes, they are/ Yes, they‘re viewing the drama on the computer. No, they are not/ No, they aren‘t/No, they aren‘t viewing the drama on the computer. 5. Question : ________Salmi and Chloe Lim ______________ with their friends on Yahoo.com? (be___chat) Answer : Yes, they are/ Yes, they‘re chatting with their friends on Yahoo.com. No, they are not/ No, they aren‘t/No, they aren‘t chatting with their friends on Yahoo.com. 107
    • 6. Question : ________Tamilselvi ______________ to post the invitation on the wall of her Facebook? (be___plan) Answer : Yes, she is/ Yes, she‘s planning to post the invitation on the wall of her Facebook. No, she is not/No, she‘s not planning to post the invitation on the wall of her Facebook.Task 17 A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 4 E. 2Task 18Passage (a) Internet and other computer technologies as a hiring requirement inthe educational field.Passage (b) What a great way to engage students in the classroom.Passage (c) Many students use Internet tools on a regular basisPassage (d) The Internet is here to stayPassage (e) you will be helping to build their resume.Task 19Reading Passage (a)- DReading Passage (b)- BReading Passage (c)- AReading Passage (d)- BReading Passage (e) 108
    • Who would use Technology Use it?a Blogs Provide updates about new Students, development professionalsb RSS feeds Information on topics of interest General public, students, researchersc Wikis Get knowledge or information studentsd Social Bookmarking research ResearchersTask 20Reading Passage (a)It is important that educators are aware of what the Internet has to offer asexperience and familiarity with the Internet and other computer technologies isbecoming a hiring requirement in the educational field.Reading Passage (b)It is a great way to engage students in the classroom as many of the tools arecollaborative, and they are all hands-on.Reading Passage (c)Many students use Internet tools on a regular basis and using them is similar totalking to them in their language.Reading Passage (d)The Internet is here to stay and It‘s been over a decade that ‗average users‘ havehad access to the Internet and it‘s become part of the daily lives of millions ofpeople.Reading passage (e)It will help build resume. Businesses and organizations are more interested inthese types of tools as they want to get ahead of the curve. 109
    • TEST 1 1. D 2. F 3. B 4. E 5. A 6. CTEST 2Para 1 – bPara 2 – ePara 3 – aPara 4 – dPara 5 - cUNIT 3: LISTENING TRANSCRIPT One of the advantages of CALL is that it offers a powerful self-accessfacility, that is, it helps to generate autonomous learners who will experiencefreedom of choice. The tools that learners find in computers allow them toassume mastery of their own learning experience. Students can call up theprograms held by computers whenever they want; besides, computers aresensitive to the learners level of proficiency. Another advantage of CALL is that it gives a new role to teachingmaterials. Out of the context of CALL, teaching materials are passive. Beforecomputers were used in the classroom context, nothing the student said or didcould influence in any deep sense the linear progression of the content. InCALL, materials adapt themselves to the requirements of the individual student;that is, they become interactive. 110
    • In the field of methodology, we also find one advantage and onecorrespondent disadvantage. The advantage is that CALL, like other newtechnologies, brings about changes in the teaching methodologies of English.There are cases, though, in which computers are just used to give old materials anew aspect. This is the case of teachers who put students in front of thecomputer just to make fill-in-the-gap exercises. The advantages mentioned up to the present moment make us aware ofan important fact in relation to CALL- we have to be constantly analysing whetherthe uses to which CALL is put are just reinforcing current practices or if, incontrast, they are promoting curriculum renewal. In order to fully benefit from thepotential of the computer for language learning, language teaching specialistshave to promote a complementary relationship with computers. The teacher abandons his informative role to take on a more active part inthe teaching process; and this is allowed to him thanks to computer co-operation,since the computer is now going to be the new source of information. This resultsin an innovative teaching methodology in which the dichotomyteacher/transmissor-student/receiver is broken. Now, teachers are going topromote communication/interaction with -and mainly among- students; in order toattain this objective, they are going to encourage students to take risks, leavingaside penalties for producing incorrect bits of language. One final aspect that we should analyse in relation to the implementationof computers in English language teaching is ultimately an ethical question- Whatis the kind of environment that is going to be created by means of the computer?.Personally, I consider that the creation of autonomous learners should not beassociated to the concept of human alienation. The CALL classroom should notbe conceived as a room in which every learner is studying in isolation in front ofhis/her computer. Teachers must think of activities that enable groupwork/human interaction and computers to be compatible. Otherwise, men associal beings will be replaced by men as alienated computer slaves. Research and practice suggest that, appropriately implemented, network-based technology can contribute significantly to:1)Experiential Learning- The World Wide Web makes it possible for students tohave a huge amount of human experience. They can learn by doing thingsthemselves and become the creators not just the receivers of knowledge 111
    • 2)Motivation -Computers are most popular among students because they areassociated with fun and games and also they are fashionable. Student motivationis therefore increased, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered,which make them feel more independent.3)Enhanced Student Achievement-Network-based instruction can help pupilsstrengthen their linguistic skills by positively affecting their learning attitude andby helping them build self-instruction strategies and promote their self-confidence.4)Authentic Materials for Study-All students can use various resources ofauthentic reading materials either at school or from their home. Those materialscan be accessed 24 hours a day at a relatively low cost.5)Greater Interaction- Random access to Web pages breaks the linear flow ofinstruction. By sending E-mail and joining newsgroups, ESL students cancommunicate with people they have never met. They can also interact with theirown classmates. Furthermore, some Internet activities give students positive andnegative feedback by automatically correcting their on-line exercises. 112
    • UNIT 4 A WAY OF LIFELEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to:1. practice turn-taking by using various ways of interrupting.2. listen to conversations and identify specific ways of interrupting.3. read and identify the main ideas and supporting details in the text.4. identify topic sentences and supporting details.5. write a summary.CONTENTTurn-takingIn a conversation, we take turns to speak.Task 1Practice the conversation below.Siti : Did you watch the new reality show on TV last night?Amy : Which one? There are so many reality shows nowadays especially those portraying the fabulous life of western celebrities.Siti : I couldn‘t agree more. However I do feel that showing these celebrities‘ life style may influence the way people in our country lead their life like they way they dress.Amy : You‘re right. But if you look at it this way, some of the reality shows give some useful ideas about how to bond among family members and how they resolve problems faced by any of the family members. This would benefit the viewers.Siti : Could I just say something here? Those reality shows would probably benefit the adult viewers but I‘m afraid that the youngsters may not see those values. 113
    • Amy : Really! What do you mean? Siti : My niece keeps asking her mother to buy her new clothes with matching accessories because she wants to look fabulous like the celebrities she saw on TV. Amy : Did your sister buy her the clothes? Siti : No, she didn‘t. But she said it was difficult to explain to her daughter that they can‘t afford to spend so much money on clothes as they have bills to pay. Task 2 Practice the conversation in Task 1 with a partner. Task 3 Talk about the following topics with a partner: 1. The influence of western culture on the way teenagers dress. 2. Should Valentine‘s Day be celebrated by Muslims? Interrupting In taking turns to speak, you may want to interrupt the speaker. There are many ways to interrupt a speaker. Task 4A A. Complete the conversation by filling in the blanks with appropriate words. Jane : I think pop culture is wreaking havoc among our youths. Hui : Yes, you‘re __________________. The sad thing is that many people don‘t realize it. 114
    • Jane : That‘s __________________ . Pop culture usually glorifies what has usually Agreeing been seen as having a negative  You’re absolutely right! I influence on society. But it is done in a couldn’t agree more. subtle way. That is why people don‘t  Great idea! realize that they are being influenced.  I agree with your Hui : I don‘t quite ____________________ suggestion to ……. with you there. I think it is quite obvious how negative ways of behaving are Disagreeing  No, that’s not true. portrayed in pop culture. Jane : __________________, it is obvious  I don’t quite agree with only to people who can see through it you. but not for people who think that  I see your point but I ……. everything in the magazines or movies is ‗cool‘. B. Practice the dialogue with a partner. Task 5A A. Identify the functions of the two questions in the following conversation. Write (C) at the back of the question that is asking for clarification and (I) at the back of the question that is asking for more information. Asking for Clarification  I’m not sure I understand Ben : Many people now eat fast food as what you mean. Could you their daily meals. It‘s a part of talk a little bit more about western culture that people have that? happily adopted. They don‘t realize  So you want to open a new what that can do to them. site. Is that right?  Would you mind explaining Shah : What do you mean? that a little bit more, please? : Well, there‘s no doubt that fast food Asking for Information is fast and convenient but they  What is included in the should think of the effects of fast food plan? on their bodies. Just look at the rate  How much is the cost of of obesity in the country where the printing these charts in fast food chains come from. colour?  Did Azlan tell you to say that? 115
    • Ben : Where is that? Shah : America, of course! More than half of Americans are categorized as obese. Ben : What‘s the situation like in Malaysia? Shah : I read in the papers that the obesity rate is increasing here. B. Create a dialogue with a partner using the dialogue given above as a model. The dialogue must include questions or sentences that ask for clarification or information. Task 6 Fill in the blanks with the sentences given in the shaded box below.A Then discuss what they are used for. Such as? Can I suggest something? Go ahead. Well, that sounds good, too. Nisha : Shall we go and watch a movie? Asking for permission to interrupt Izad : I don‘t feel like it. Can we do something  I’m sorry, but can I else? interrupt you for a minute? Nisha : Oh, OK. What do you want to do?  Can I add another thought for you? Izad : Let‘s eat. The food court is full of choices.  Before you go on, can I say something? Nisha : That sounds good. Encouraging  I’m listening. Kim : _________________________________  That’s a great idea.  Go on. 116
    • Nisha : _________________________________ Kim : Let‘s do something new. Nisha : _________________________________ Kim : Let‘s watch the orchestra at Dewan Philharmonic Petronas. Izad : Isn‘t that expensive? Kim : No. The chamber concert is on today. The ticket costs RM10 only. Nisha : _________________________________ LISTENING Task 7A You are going to listen to a dialogue between Nani and Sya. Listen carefully and write the ways of interrupting used in the dialogue. Dialogue Ways of interrupting Nani : Have you read the newspaper lately? Sya : No. Was there any interesting 1. Asking for more news? information. Nani : There‘s news about an artist who used twitter to write bad comments about people she doesn‘t like. Sya : Is that true? What did she write? 2. 117
    • Nani : Well, she used very bad words to describe one artist whom she believed was badmouthing her. I don‘t think she should write that on twitter because so many people can read it.Sya : You‘re right. Her actions are 3. unacceptable. You know, this kind of behaviour has become a culture in our country. Many people, even kids in school, are using twitter to write bad things about their friends.Nani : That‘s really bad. 4. Why are they doing that? 5.Sya : Because they find that twitter can be used to channel their anger and frustration towards other people and, being kids, they‘re still immature.Nani : Can I add something? I really 6. think that children nowadays are given too much freedom by their parents and this lack of supervision leads to this bad way of expressing their negative feelings.Sya : Absolutely. Supervision is a major 7. issue among parents today as they‘re all busy with their work and have less time to monitor their children.Nani : Mmm. You have a point there. 8. Being a mother, I myself feel that 118
    • it‘s hard to monitor all my son‘s activities. Sya : It is difficult because we‘re 9. working mothers. However, I believe that we should let them use the internet when we‘re at home. So that we can see what they‘re doing. Nani : Is that right? Do you mean that we 10. should be in front of the computer while they use the internet? Sya : Yes. My daughter has a Facebook account. I make sure she knows what to be included and what not to be included in her Facebook. Nani : Right. I‘ll do the same. Thanks. Sya : You‘re welcome. Task 8 Read the dialogues and underline parts of the dialogues that indicateA ways of interrupting. Write the ways of interrupting in the column provided. Dialogue a) Ain : Children nowadays don‘t visit their grandparents anymore. They‘re too busy watching TV and playing video games. Sara : Could I just add something here? I personally feel that parents should be responsible for the children‘s way of behaving. 119
    • Dialogue b)Liza : Where‘s Aishah?Mira : She went out to celebrate Valentine‘s Day with her boyfriend.Liza : Did she say that?Mira : Yes. She told me she‘s going to KLCC with Azam to celebrate Valentine‘s Day.Liza : Really?Mira : That‘s exactly what she said to me.Dialogue c)Zaza : We have to think about our performance for the speaking class. We have to perform something unique and different from the others.Misha : Ah! So you want us to perform something that nobody would do?Zaza : Yes, I think we should perform a musical role-play like High School Musical.Misha : I love the idea of performing a musical role-play. However, I don‘t think we should perform something like High School Musical. Let‘s do something that represents our culture and tradition like P. Ramlee the Musical. 120
    • Task 9A You are going to listen to a conversation among Azie, Rina and Wati about ways of viewing religion among people. Listen to the conversation again and complete the chart given. What the person said Ways of interrupting Who Agreeing Disagreeing Asking for clarification Asking for information Asking for permission to interrupt Encouraging READING Together with your partner, discuss the following questions. 1. What is your understanding of the term ―tradition‖? 2. Why is it important to preserve one‘s own tradition? 121
    • Past Traditions Brought To LifeRead the following passage. As you read, try to guess the meanings of the wordsin bold.1 They came in droves to pay homage to the sea that sustains or hadsustained them and their forefathers. From fishermen, to farmers, businessmen,politicians, students, homemakers to wealthy Melanau people living in other parts of Sarawak and some abroad, all came home dressed in their best traditional costumes to celebrate the Mukah Kaul Festival for three 5 days.2 And the ―leader‖ of the Melanau community state chief led the celebrations held at the Kala Dana beach area, where thousands converged to celebrate the Mukah Kaul Festival. It is always celebrated in the month of April to mark the beginning of the fishing season after the end of the monsoon 10 that keeps many fishermen from going to sea with their boats anchored safely along the shores.3 Before the fishing community ventures for a new season, they always pay homage to the sea by offering eggs, glutinous rice, betel leaves and many Melanau delicacies, among other things. In ancient times, the Melanau community were pagan and they believed the offerings to their ―keepers‖ will 15 bring them a good harvest and tidings during the fishing season.4 But with the conversion of many to Islam and Christianity, the thanksgiving ceremony is more of a tradition now with no religious significance. These days, the Mukah Kaul Festival is a place to meet old friends and relatives and at the same time enjoy the activities held at the beach as well as 20 savour local delicacies, especially sago-based dishes. 122
    • 5 The focus of the festival in the past used to be the Tibau or the giant swing where the youngsters and elders would swing in clusters high above the sand with some going higher and higher while others just falling off as they were unable to cling onto their mates. In ancient times, the Tibau was used by the village elders to determine the strength of youngsters who were being 25 groomed to become fishermen. When youngsters swung on the Tibau, the old folks would know immediately whether the young lads were fit to be fishermen 6 who could takeon the choppy seas on fishing trips. Besides testing the strength of able bodied youngsters, the swing, found in many villages in Mukah, had another purpose in the past. Village 30 maidens who were looking for mates would swing on the Tibau in the late evenings and nights, and sat comfortably on the ropes. The men who wanted to make any of the girls their wife would jump onto the swing. As the swing went higher and higher, the girls would push away the men whom they didn‘t 7 like off the swing and hold on to the ones they chose. 35 However, the present day Melanau woman does not conform to this ancient practice anymore and would instead allow her family to find her a suitable husband. Still, there are those who seek thrills and fun, who will not think twice about jumping onto the Tibau with their loved ones. 40 (Adapted from: New Straits Times, May 20, 2008. p.11) Task 10 State the meanings of the following words in the context of theA passage. a. homage (line 1) ___________________________________________________________ b. sustains (line 1) ___________________________________________________________ c. forefathers (line 2) ___________________________________________________________ d. converged (line 8) ___________________________________________________________ 123
    • e. ventures (line 13) ___________________________________________________________f. ancient (line 15) ___________________________________________________________g. pagan (line 16) ___________________________________________________________h. tidings (line 17) ___________________________________________________________i. conversion (line 18) ___________________________________________________________j. savour (line 22) ___________________________________________________________k. clusters (line 24) ___________________________________________________________l. cling (line 26) ___________________________________________________________m. groomed (line 28) ___________________________________________________________n. choppy (line 20) ___________________________________________________________ 124
    • o. conform (line 37) ___________________________________________________________ Task 11 Together with your partner, take turns to identify whether theA following statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. The Mukah Kaul Festival is a thanksgiving ceremony celebrated _________ by the Melanau community. 2. The Melanau people from all walks of life came to Sabah to _________ celebrate the Mukah Kaul Festival. 3. The Mukah Kaul Festival was held at the Kota Dana beach area. _________ 4. The festival is always celebrated in the months of March and _________ April to mark the beginning of the fishing season. 5. The fishermen were prevented from going to sea because of the _________ bad weather. 6. After returning from the sea, the fishermen always pay homage to _________ it by offering food and delicacies. 7. The Melanau community believes that the offerings will bring _________ them a lot of fish during the fishing season. 8. Today, the Mukah Kaul Festival still holds a religious significance _________ to most people in the Melanau community. 9. The Tibau was used by the village elders to identify future _________ fisherman among the Melanau youth. 10. The Tibau was also used by the village women and girls for _________ physical exercises and playing games. 125
    • Task 12 Answer the following questions. Discuss with your partner.A 1. What is the Mukah Kaul Festival? ___________________________________________________________ 2. Why is it always celebrated in the month of April? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Why did the Melanau fishing community pay homage to the sea before venturing out for a new fishing season? ____________________________________________________________ 4. In the past, what were the purposes of the Tibau? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Today, how is the Mukah Kaul Festival celebrated? ____________________________________________________________ 6. In your opinion, why does the present day Melanau woman not conform to this ancient practice anymore but would instead allow her family to find a suitable husband for her? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 126
    • WRITINGTask 13Write a paragraph about some of the old traditions in your society. Why are theystill being practiced today? Do you agree with them? Present and discuss thiswith the rest of the students in class.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 127
    • LANGUAGE FOCUS Gerunds and Infinitives Task 14 Which response would you choose for the situations below? Mina was asked to When Junita was in Rizal wants to improve recall her visit to a England, she ate the oily his Tamil language and batik factory in fish and chips very thinks that he can do so Terengganu three regularly that it was by talking in Tamil to his years ago but she almost a habit. friends. However, before could not remember it. he could do so, his a. She loved eating the friends left. a. She forgot to visit oily fish and chips in the batik factory. England. a. Rizal tries to speak b. She forgot visit the b. She loved to eat the Tamil to his friends. batik factory. oily fish and chips in b. Rizal tries speaking c. She forgot visiting England. Tamil to his friends. the batik factory. c. She loved to eating the c. Rizal to try speak oily fish and chips in Tamil to his friends. England. Task 15A Fill in the blanks with an infinitive or a gerund form of the verb. 1. Sarah refused ___________________________ (participate) in the discussion. 2. Those who dared _____________________________ (voice) their opinions were praised. 3. She recalls __________________________ (see) him at the museum yesterday. 4. He struggled ___________________________ (finish) his assignment. 128
    • 5. Azlan risks _______________________ (lose) his job because of his frequent absence from work. 6. Chong admitted _______________________ (make) an error in the letter. 7. Adibah managed ________________________ (call) her father just in time for the wedding. 8. I like ________________________ (go) to the Sunday market. 9. She considered ________________________ (visit) her relatives in Sarawak instead of going to Thailand. 10. They need _______________________ (save) for the new house. Task 16A Discuss the following situations with a partner. Find a suitable verb followed by a gerund or infinitive that you can use to convey the meaning as described in the situations given. Example: Situation: Aliyah is interested in crafts. She will go to the National Craft Centre next weekend. Aliyah plans to visit the National Craft Centre next weekend. 1. Situation: The ais batu campur looks really delicious. Siti finds it hard to ignore it and ends up eating it. Siti couldn‘t _________________________________________________ 2. Situation: It is not known whether Mohamad really knew A. Samad Said. He said he did. Mohamad __________________________________________________ 129
    • 3. Situation: Ravi asked Hasni to help him. Hasni said that she will. Hasni ______________________________________________________4. Situation: Rose goes to the theatre regularly. She says that we should go too. Rose ______________________________________________________5. Situation: Suilin does not listen to loud music. She has a strong dislike for it. Suilin ______________________________________________________Modal 17 Complete the dialogue below with an Task Auxiliaries appropriate modal auxiliary. A: My wedding is two months away! WhatTask 17 _____________________ I wear? I don‘t even know what I ___________________ wear! Talk with a partner and try to predict the likelihood of the B: Come and sit down and we following events happening to ______________________ plan this together. you: Now, let‘s look through this bridal magazine  Living in a foreign which I just bought for you. country.  Changing your daily A: I want to wear white. diet according to a Japanese menu. B: That‘s fine. You _________________wear white but I think you ________________ also wear the songket. It __________________ be a shame if you don‘t because that is what people wear in a Malay wedding. A: But I ________________ be sweating in the songket! B: Well, you ____________ but you _____________ appreciate our tradition. Don‘t worry, I ____________ make sure that we have the fans on full blast! 130
    • Task 18A For each dialogue, work with a partner. Choose a role each. Read out your lines and fill out the blanks to complete the dialogues. Dialogue 1: A: I love the Hari Raya celebrations. B: Me too. But I wish people are more considerate when parking their cars while visiting each other. A: I agree with you. They _________________ park their cars properly. B: Look at that one. It ____________________ be parked with its side sticking out like that. A: Someone ___________________ easily knock into it. B: Hey, that one over there is Ahmad‘s car. A: He has parked it on the wrong side of the road. B: He _______________ have been in a hurry. A: That‘s not a good excuse to park like that. B: There he is! I __________________ tell him to move it. Dialogue 2 A: Many children are attracted to the western culture. B: It _____________________ be the influence of TV and the internet. A: Yes. Their values have changed as well as their attitudes toward our culture. B: I wonder what we ___________________ do about it. 131
    • A: I think children ___________________ be made aware of how our personal and cultural values shape our identities. We have a rich cultural heritage and we ___________________ encourage our children to appreciate it. Task 19 Rewrite the following sentences using appropriate modal auxiliariesA without changing the meaning. 1. Are you able to help me? ___________________________________________________________ 2. My father used to speak in English when he was angry. ___________________________________________________________ 3. He is going to leave for the airport in an hour. ___________________________________________________________ 4. The engagement has to precede the wedding. ___________________________________________________________ 5. You are not allowed to touch the batik exhibitions. ___________________________________________________________ 6. We are supposed to tolerate each other‘s religion. ___________________________________________________________ 7. We have got to appreciate our culture. ___________________________________________________________ 8. Fatihah is about to make a complaint at the counter. ___________________________________________________________ 132
    • 9. Who is going to prepare the speech tomorrow? ___________________________________________________________ 10. A leader is supposed to be fair in his judgments. ___________________________________________________________WRITING A SUMMARYA summary is intended to highlight objectively the main points of another writer‘swork. Although written in your own words, the summary does not include youropinions of the piece you are considering. Since the summary eliminates thosedetails that are not needed to convey the major points, it is naturally shorter thanthe original. In general, a summary is from one fourth to one half the length ofthe original.Steps in Writing a Summary1. Read the piece for understanding first.2. Try to find the main idea in the reading text. It is usually in the first paragraph. Next, skim through the text, glancing at any headings and graphics. Then, read the conclusion.3. Identify the topic sentences and key words (words that are underlined, italicized, or capitalized). These will clue you in on the main ideas.4. Jot down the organization of the original and follow that pattern in your summary. Make an outline that includes the main idea and the supporting details. Arrange your information in a logical order, for example, most to least important or chronological. Your order may not be the same as that of the original, but keep related supporting points together. 133
    • 5. Write your summary, presenting the main idea, followed by supporting details. Be objective. You should not include your own opinions. 6. Revise and edit your summary to be sure that you have properly documented important words and phrases from the original text.A Task 20 Work in pairs. Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow. 1. They came in droves to pay homage to the sea that sustains or had sustained them and their forefathers. From fishermen, to farmers, businessmen, politicians, students, homemakers to wealthy Melanau people living in other parts of Sarawak and some abroad, all came home dressed in their best traditional costumes to celebrate Mukah Kaul Festival for three days. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ What are the supporting details? 2. The Mukah Kaul Festival is celebrated by thousands of the Melanau people living in Sarawak. It is always celebrated in the month of April to mark the beginning of the fishing season after the end of the monsoon that keeps many fishermen from going to sea with their boats anchored safely along the shores. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ 134
    • What are the supporting details? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________3. Before the fishing community ventures for a new season, they always pay homage to the sea by offering eggs, glutinous rice, betel leaves and many Melanau delicacies, among other things. In ancient times, the Melanau community were pagan and they believed the offerings to their ―keepers‖ will bring them a good harvest and tidings during the fishing season. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ What are the supporting details? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________4. With the conversion of many to Islam and Christianity, the thanksgiving ceremony is more of a tradition now with no religious significance. These days, the Mukah Kaul Festival is a place to meet old friends and relatives and at the same time enjoy the activities held at the beach as well as savour local delicacies, especially sago-based dishes. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ What are the supporting details? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________5. The Tibau or the giant swing was the focus of the festival in the past. It was where the youngsters and elders swung in clusters high above the sand with some going higher and higher while others just falling off as they were unable to cling onto their mates. In ancient times, the Tibau was used by the village elders to determine the strength of youngsters who 135
    • were being groomed to become fishermen. When youngsters swung on the Tibau, the old folks would know immediately whether the young lads were fit to be fishermen who could take on the choppy seas on fishing trips. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ What are the supporting details? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________6. Besides testing the strength of able bodied youngsters, the swing, found in many villages in Mukah, had another purpose in the past. Village maidens who were looking for mates would swing on the Tibau in the late evenings and nights, and sat comfortably on the ropes. The men who wanted to make any girls their wife would jump onto the swing. As the swing went higher and higher, the girls would push away the men whom they didn‘t like off the swing and hold on to the ones they chose. What is the topic sentence? ___________________________________________________________ What are the supporting details? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 136
    • Task 21 Read the passage titled ―Past Traditions Brought To Life‖ in Section Aagain and summarize it in not more than 100 words.Task 22Get your partner to read your summary and discuss the following questions: 1. Does your summary make the same point as the text? 2. Have you omitted anything important? 3. Does your summary read smoothly with all parts clearly related? 137
    • SELF ASSESSMENTTEST 1Various factors (e.g. a television program, a management system, fashion, trend,beliefs etc.) are said to be shaping culture. Find examples on the Internet wheresomething is said to be shaping culture and write down at three factors thatinfluence today‘s culture. Identify one specific example for each factor.TEST 2The website http://www.malaysia.alloexpat.com/ provides various information toexpatriates living in Malaysia. Read the description of "Malaysian Culture" onthis website.Write a short review on the accuracy of the information provided.Summary Tick here if you Main Skill Sub Skills Notes have understood Listening Identifying specific ways of interrupting Speaking Practice turn-taking when talking in a conversation Using different ways of interrupting in a conversation Reading Reading a text entitled ‗Past Traditions Brought to Life‘. Reading comprehension Vocabulary Writing Identifying topic sentences Identifying supporting details Writing a summary 138
    • REFERENCES(May 20, 2008). Past traditions brought to life, New Straits Times, p. 11.ANSWER KEYTask 1Read the conversation aloud and listen.Task 2Practice the conversation with a partner.Task 3Talk about the given topics with a partner.Task 4 Jane: I think pop culture is wreaking havoc among our youths. Hui: Yes, you‘re ____right_______. The sad thing is that many people Jane: don‘t realize it. That‘s ___true_________ . Pop culture usually glorifies what has usually been seen as having a negative influence on society. But it is Hui: done in a subtle way. That is why people don‘t realize that they are being influenced. Jane: I don‘t quite _____agree_________ with you there. I think it is quite obvious how negative ways of behaving are portrayed in pop culture. ___No______, it is obvious only to people who can see through it but not for people who think that everything in the magazines or movies is ‗cool‘.Task 5 Ben: Many people now eat fast food as their daily meals. It‘s a part of western culture that people have happily adopted. They don‘t realize Shah: what that can do to them. Ben: What do you mean? (C) 139
    • Well, there‘s no doubt that fast food is fast and convenient but they should think of the effects of fast food on their bodies. Just look at theShah: rate of obesity in the country where the fast food chains come from.Ben: Where is that? (I)Shah: America, of course! More than half of Americans are categorized asBen: obese. What‘s the situation like in Malaysia? (I) I read in the newspapers that the obesity rate is increasing here.Task 6Nisha: Shall we go and watch a movie?Izad: I don‘t feel like it. Can we do something else?Nisha: Oh, OK. What do you want to do?Izad: Let‘s eat. The food court is full of choices.Nisha: That sounds good.Kim: _Can I suggest something?_____________________________Nisha: _Go ahead.__________________________________________Kim: Let‘s do something new.Nisha: _Such as?___________________________________________Kim: Let‘s watch the orchestra at Dewan Philharmonic Petronas.Izad: Isn‘t that expensive?Kim: No. The chamber concert is on today. The ticket costs RM10 only.Nisha: _Well, that sounds good, too.____________________________Task 7 Dialogue Skills of interruptingNani : Have you read the newspaper lately?Sya : No. Was there any interesting 1. Asking for information news?Nani : There‘s news about an artist who used twitter to write bad comments about people she doesn‘t like.Sya : Is that true? What did she write? 2. Asking for clarificationNani : Well, she used very bad words to describe one artist whom she believed was bad mouthing her. I 140
    • don‘t think she should write that way and send it on twitter because so many people can read it.Sya : You‘re right. Her actions are 3. Agreeing unacceptable. You know, this kind of behaviour has become a culture in our country. Many people even kids in schools are using twitter to write bad things about their friends.Nani : That‘s really bad. 4. Encouraging Why are they doing that? 5. Asking for informationSya : Because they find that twitter can be used to channel their anger and frustration towards other people and being kids, they are still immature.Nani : Can I add something? I really think 6. Asking for permission to that children nowadays are given interrupt too much freedom by their parents and this lack of supervision leads to this bad way of expressing their negative feelings.Sya : Absolutely. Supervision is a major 7. Agreeing issue among parents today as they‘re all busy with their work and have less time to monitor their children.Nani : Mmm. You have a point there. 8. Encouraging Being a mother, I myself feel that it‘s hard to monitor all my son‘s activities.Sya : It is difficult because we are 9. Agreeing working mothers. However, I believe that we should let them use the internet when we‘re at home. So that we can see what they‘re doing.Nani : Is that right? Do you mean that we 10. Asking for clarification should be in front of the computer while they use the internet? 141
    • Sya : Yes. My daughter has a Facebook account. I make sure she knows what to be included and what not to be included in her Facebook.Nani : Right. I will do the same. Thanks.Sya : You‘re welcome.Task 8Dialogue a)Ain : Children nowadays don‘t visit their grandparents anymore. They‘re too busy watching TV and playing video games.Sara : Could I just add something here? (Asking permission to interrupt) I personally feel that parents should be responsible for the children‘s way of behaving.Dialogue b)Liza : Where‘s Aishah?Mira : She went out to celebrate Valentine‘s Day with her boyfriend.Liza : Did she say that? (Asking for information)Mira : Yes. She told me she‘s going to KLCC with Azam to celebrate Valentine‘s Day.Liza : Really? (Encouraging)Mira : That‘s exactly what she said to me.Dialogue c)Zaza We have to think about our performance for the speaking class. We: have to perform something unique and different from others.Misha : Ah! So you want us perform something that nobody would do? (Asking for clarification)Zaza Yes, I think we should perform a musical role-play like the High School: Musical.Misha : I love the idea of performing a musical role play. (showing agreement) However, I don‟t think we should perform something like the High School Musical. (showing disagreement) Let‘s do something that represents our culture and tradition like P. Ramlee the Musical. 142
    • Task 9 Ways of interrupting Who What the person saidAgreeing Rina Oh, yes, you‘re right. Azie You‘re right there.Disagreeing Rina I don‘t see how it can be other than a set of beliefs.Asking for clarification Rina Do you mean to say that it can be seen as both?Asking for information Rina Which one is it then?Asking for permission Wati May I say something?to interruptEncouraging Rina Go on. Azie Yes, of course.Task 10 No Word Meaning a) homage a group b) sustains support c) forefathers ancestors d) converged come together e) ventures go out f) ancient long time ago g) pagan belonging to a religion that worshipped many gods h) tidings good news i) conversion change religion j) savour enjoy k) clusters together in a group l) cling hold on m) groomed trained n) choppy rough waves o) conform follow 143
    • Task 11 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. FTask 12 1. A festival celebrated in the month of April to mark the beginning of the fishing season. 2. to mark the beginning of the fishing season after the end of the monsoon that keeps many fisherman from going to sea with their boats anchored safely along the shores. 3. they believed the offerings will bring them a good harvest and tidings during the fishing season. 4. to determine the strength of youngsters who were being groomed to become fisherman. 5. place to meet old friends and relatives and at the same time enjoy the activities held at the beach as well as savour local delicacies expecially sago-based dishes.Task 13Answers will vary depending on which tradition is being discussed. Students canuse the two questions given to focus their discussion.Task 14 1. c 2. a, b 3. a 144
    • Task 15 1. to participate 2. to voice 3. seeing 4. to finish 5. losing 6. making 7. to call 8. going 9. visiting 10. to saveTask 16 1. Siti couldn‘t resist eating the ais batu campur. 2. Mohamad claimed to know A. Samad Said. 3. Hasni agreed to help Ravi. 4. Rose suggests going to the theatre. 5. Suilin hates listening to loud music.Task 17 1. should 2. should 3. can 4. can 5. should 6. will 7. will 8. would 9. should 10. willTask 18Dialogue 1 1. should 2. shouldn‘t 145
    • 3. can 4. may 5. willDialogue 2 1. could 2. can 3. should / must 4. must / shouldTask 19 1. Can you help me? 2. My father would speak in English when he was angry. 3. He will leave for the airport in an hour. 4. The engagement must precede the wedding. 5. You may not touch the batik exhibition. 6. We should tolerate each other‘s religion. 7. We must appreciate our culture. 8. Fatihah shall make a complaint at the counter. 9. Who will prepare the speech tomorrow? 10. A leader should be fair in his judgements.Task 201. Topic sentence They came in droves to pay homage to the sea that sustains or had sustained them and their forefathers. Supporting details From fishermen, to farmers, businessmen, politicians, students, homemakers to wealthy Melanau people living in other parts of Sarawak and some abroad, all came home dressed in their best traditional costumes to celebrate Mukah Kaul Festival for three days.2. Topic sentence The Mukah Kaul Festival is celebrated by thousands of the Melanau people living in Sarawak. Supporting details It is always celebrated in the month of April to mark 146
    • the beginning of the fishing season after the end of the monsoon that keeps many fishermen from going to sea with their boats anchored safely along the shores.3. Topic sentence In ancient times, the Melanau community were pagan and they believed the offerings to their ―keepers‖ will bring them a good harvest and tidings during the fishing season. Supporting details Before the fishing community ventures for a new season, they always pay homage to the sea by offering eggs, glutinous rice, betel leaves and many Melanau delicacies, among other things.4. Topic sentence With the conversion of many to Islam and Christianity, the thanksgiving ceremony is more of a tradition now with no religious significance. Supporting details These days, the Mukah Kaul Festival is a place to meet old friends and relatives and at the same time enjoy the activities held at the beach as well as savour local delicacies, especially sago-based dishes.5. Topic sentence The Tibau or the giant swing was the focus of the festival in the past. Supporting details 1. It was where the youngsters and elders swung in clusters high above the sand with some going higher and higher while others just falling off as they were unable to cling onto their mates. 2. In ancient times, the Tibau was used by the village elders to determine the strength of youngsters who were being groomed to become fishermen.6. Topic sentence Besides testing the strength of able bodied youngsters, the swing, found in many villages in 147
    • Mukah, had another purpose in the past. Supporting details Village maidens used the swing to look for mates.Task 21Use the points in the topic sentences identified in Task 5.20 as a guide.Task 22The discussion should be focused on the questions provided.Tape ScriptsTask 7 Nani : Have you read the newspaper lately? Sya : No. Was there any interesting news? Nani : There‘s news about an artist who used twitter to write bad comments about people she doesn‘t like. Sya : Is that true? What did she write? Nani : Well, she used very bad words to describe one artist whom she believed was bad- mouthing her. I don‘t think she should write that way and send it on twitter because so many people can read it. Sya : You‘re right. Her actions are unacceptable. You know, this kind of behaviour has become a culture in our country. Many people, even kids in schools, are using twitter to write bad things about their friends. Nani : That‘s really bad. Why are they doing that? Sya : Because they find that twitter can be used to channel their anger and frustration towards other people, and being kids, they are still immature. Nani : Can I add something? I really think that children nowadays are given too much freedom by their parents and this lack of supervision leads to this bad way of expressing their negative feelings. Sya : Absolutely. Supervision is a major issue among parents today as they‘re all busy with their work and have less time to monitor their children. Nani : Mmm. You have a point there. Being a mother, I myself feel that it‘s hard to monitor all my son‘s 148
    • activities.Sya : It is difficult because we are working mothers. However, I belief that we should let them use the internet when we‘re at home. So that we can see what they‘re doing.Nani : Is that right? Do you mean that we should be in front of the computer while they use the internet?Sya : Yes. My daughter has a Facebook account. I make sure she knows what to be included and what not to be included in her Facebook.Nani : Right. I will do the same. Thanks.Sya : You‘re welcome.Task 9Azie : Some people see religion as a way of life.Rina : Really? I see religion as a set of beliefs.Azie : There you go. Different people view it differently.Rina : Which one is it then?Azie : Well, I don‘t think there is any right or wrong answer here.Rina : Do you mean to say that it can be seen as both?Azie : Well, yes. You see, it is a set of beliefs that guides the way we live.Rina : Go on.Azie : When you believe in Islam, you live by its principles. When you believe in Christianity, you have a way of life that reflects the teachings of Christianity.Rina : Oh, yes, you‘re right.Wati : May I say something?Azie : Yes, of course.Wati : You have to be careful though. Some people may not like their religion being described as just a ‗set of beliefs‘. To them it is more than that.Azie : You‘re right there.Rina : I don‘t see how it can be other than a set of beliefs.Wati : We have to try to look at it from other people‘s perspectives too, not just our own. 149
    • UNIT 5 JOB SATISFACTIONLEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. listen and answer questions based on interviews; 2. manage discussions on the situations given; 3. read and comprehend passages; and 4. write a resume applying for a job.ContentListeningGood Listening StrategiesThere are three stages of listening:Pre-listeningYou might get ready to listen by thinking about:  the speaker and the speaker‘s purpose,  your purpose for listening: to learn specific information or to understand most or all of the message, and  your knowledge/ experience with the subject: think about what you already know about the subject and predict the language and information you might expect to hear, including specific words and phrases.Based on these clues, predict what you will be hearing:  the format (how the message is organized and in what sequence)  key words or phrases  the information or opinionsTalk about the process and strategies you might use for listening effectively:  Determine the combination of strategies that will be useful in this situation. 150
    •  If listening in a non-native language, think about how you would listen in your native language; clarify any cultural information that may be necessary to comprehend the message. While-listening While you listen you‘ll need to monitor your comprehension:  Use visual clues to help you understand: the setting, the interaction, facial expressions, and gestures (if there is any)  Check the accuracy of your predictions  Decide what is and is not important to understand  Ask for help if you do not understand o Ask for clarification or repetition from the speaker or ask if what you understood is correct o Ask additional questions to check your understanding Post-listening After you listen these strategies might help you synthesize, interpret and evaluate what you have heard:  See if you can paraphrase what you heard  Consider what you heard and how it fits with what you know  Discuss or respond to what you heard through writing or group discussion.  Identify facts vs. opinions, more and less important details, supported vs. unsupported ideas (Adapted from:eff.cls.utk.edu/toolkit/support_listening_strategies.html) LISTENING Task 1A You will be listening to a radio interview between the radio host, Gina Sulaiman, and Jason Khoo, a Job Space columnist from The Asian Workplace Magazine. You will listen to the radio interview three times. 151
    • 1. Read and understand all the questions in the listening task. For the first listening, try to understand the following: Who are the speakers? What is the topic under discussion? What does the task require you to do?2. While listening to the interview, answer the following questions: No. Questions Answer a. What is the topic discussed in the interview? b. State two complaints on the Gen Y employees? c. What is the age group for the Gen Y? d. Why is there a trend of job hopping among the Gen Y employees? e. List two ways that companies can entice employees to stay longer in one company?3. Listen to the radio interview once again. Check your answers to the above questions. In pairs, discuss three reasons as to why it is important for employees to have flexible hours and to be able to be working from home. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 152
    • Speaking My Dream JobTask 2What is your dream job? Why is it your dream job? Write a simple descriptionabout your dream job and ask your partner to guess what it is. You can use thefollowing guidelines in your description.  Does the job require a lot of training/ experience?  Is it well-paid?  Is it indoors/outdoors?  Does it involve other people?  Is it dangerous?  Does it involve travelling?Task 3After giving a thought on your dream job, think of the criteria that will make yousatisfied as an employee in a particular organization.In groups, study the following categories on the job satisfaction. Each group hasto choose one category and construct interview questions from the categorychosen. 153
    • Categories for Job Satisfaction InterviewAfter you have constructed the interview questions, each group will take turns toconduct an interview on job satisfaction. Group members will become the panelof interviewers and act as a human resource manager and executives. Theinterviewees are representatives from other groups.While listening to the job satisfaction interviews, list some of the questions posedand the kind of responses given.No. Categories Questions Responses1. Mission and Purpose2. Teamwork and Communication 154
    • 3. Opportunities for growth4. Compensation5. Respect for Employees6. Workplace and ResourcesReadingTask 4 : The following people seem to face problems at their workplace. Readthe following situations and think of possible solutions to the problems. How do I cope with a building manager My supervisor thinks that I‘m a good worker but my manager thinks I‘m problematic. She attacks me in meetings, humiliates me in front of my office mates and criticizes me in e-mail messages. She does this to all new personnel and some of them have actually resigned. My supervisor can‘t seem to help me and as such I feel worthless and upset at being treated like a scapegoat. What should I do? -Desperado- Possible Solution: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………... 155
    • Lazy work colleagues Unproductive at workI work in a group of four in an I hate getting out of bed andimportant project. It‘s really hard going to work. At the workplace, Ito get them to do things that need just go through the routine of myto be done. They are calculative work unenthusiastically and ifand sometimes I have to keep possible, I try to avoid tasks givenreminding them over and over to me by my boss. At the end ofagain to do their work. They are the day, I feel totally drained.really testing my patience. What What‘s wrong with me?do you think I should do?READING - Breathless- -Exasperated- Possible Solution: ……………Possible Solution: ……………... ………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………..Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. Workplace Satisfaction 1 People want work to be ―a good place to be.‖ Norita Hamdan, Health and Wellness Coordinator for Makeup Art Cosmetics in Roseputih, comments that you should work with people you enjoy, and who are in a good mood. It‘s being very enthusiastic going to work, and your head hitting the pillow at night with a smile on your face. The 5 relationships we experience at work can make or break us. A Psychotherapist points out that you have to pick your boss and your co- workers very carefully. The ‗Emotional Intelligence‘ factor that is of so much interest today is definitely important, for the leaders and for the employees so that they can relate effectively and understand others as 10 well as establish good relationships to both personal and workplace satisfaction. 2 Studies have proven that some of the most important elements in workplace satisfaction are good pay and rewards, good working conditions, good relationships on the job, and, above all, recognition, 15 appreciation and involvement. Melta Molding Systems of Shah Alam is already well-known for its care and attention to workers. For more than 156
    • twenty-five years, Melta President Haiqal Zubir was promoting and building a workplace that is healthy, clean and aesthetically pleasing, and a workforce that is highly productive and loyal. According to the 20 President, people love to work there and they work hard so much so that it has become an unspoken ethic. Employees have access, to a medical doctor, a chiropractor, a naturopath and a registered massage therapist. They also enjoy subsidized and healthy vegetarian meals, a non-smoking environment, and a pesticide-free landscaped ground. 253 Ramon Pillay, Plant and Production Manager for Malaysia Steel works in Johor, points out on another essential for workplace satisfaction. ―There has to be a feeling that what you‘re doing counts,‖ he says, ―and that your efforts are recognized and supported.‖ Opportunities for developing important skills such as problem-solving 30 and communications skills help Malaysia Steel employees enjoy more responsibility and more awareness that what they do ―makes a difference.‖ Madihah Sulaiman, coordinator of Staff Development for the Perak‘s Workers Association, suggests that workers today have put more responsibility for their own morale more than in the past. They 35 should be provided with flexible working hours, a comfortable building and workplace, a learning environment and Employee Assistance support in order to feel satisfied at work.4 At a Private Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, the challenge of rapid change is met with optimism. The manager states that you need to 40 have and encourage a ‗developmental attitude‘. An environment of openness, willingness to listen and understand, and mutual support at all levels is what is needed to find satisfaction even in the midst of such change. Rozita Rashid, Executive Director of Kaswi Job Skills in Penang says that one of the most important factors in job satisfaction is 45 attitude – being able to embrace change, seeing it as opportunity, being willing to find out how to make it work. Stress management experts recommend the restructuring of organizations to promote greater control for employees, resulting in less stress and greater commitment. ―Open door‖ policies, an ‗egalitarian‘ culture (no special privileges for 50 executive), and a team approach all go a long way towards developing the awareness that ―I have some control over my fate‖.5 Overall, money counts, but pride, respect, and appreciation count even more. And the support of management – both by supplying resources and growth opportunities, and with leaders ―walking the talk‖ 55 with integrity – is central to the success of an organization. If the boss understands that a happy employee is a productive employee- that absenteeism, illness and turnover will go down while loyalty, creativity and productivity will go up, and that they‘ll be way ahead by providing the environment for this, the company will move forward. 60 157
    • Task 5: Complete the crossword puzzle.A 3 2 7 1 C B E 6 8 P S N H 5 W E T T 4 N T P L Clues 1. Khairy does not seem _____________ about his new job. 2. The building where I work at is old but it is _______________ appealing to anyone who appreciates work of art. 3. Due my bad back pain, I went to see a ___________________ to get treatment. 4. The new hotel has a _____________ for nature lovers who love to view the natural habitat of insects and birds. 5. The company is building a gymnasium as part of the ___________ campaign for its employees. 6. There was a note of _______________ when he talked about the company‘s future. 7. The workers were able to _________________ changes in the company due to their positive attitude. 8. The President of the company was a man of the highest ______________ as he practices what he preaches. 158
    • Task 6: Complete the tasks.A 1. What do you think the expressions below mean? i. ―head hitting the pillow at night with a smile on your face‖ ii. ―it‘s an unspoken ethic‖ iii. ―makes a difference‖ iv. ―are responsible for our own morale‖ v. ―open door policies‖ vi. ―walking the talk‖ 2. Answer the following questions. i. Why is the ―Emotional Intelligence‖ factor important for the leaders and employees? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ii. What makes the Melta Molding Systems possess a highly productive and loyal workforce? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ iii. How do employees at Malaysia Steel Works know that what they do ―makes a difference‖? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ iv. What has contributed to the workers at a private hospital in Kuala Lumpur being able to accept rapid changes in a company? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 159
    • v. How can companies promote less stressful and more committed working conditions amongst their employees? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ vii. Based on the passage, how can you summarize the expression ― a happy employee is a productive employee‖? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________Language Focus The Passive Voice Rule 1 The passive voice is used when we wish to stress the importance of the action or the object rather than the doer.Active: I am sure Sarah can Passive: I am sure the in-house organise the in-house training programme can training programme. be organised by Sarah. 160
    • Rule 2 The passive voice is used when the agent (doer) is unknown or not clear.Active: Someone observed her Passive: Her lesson was observed lesson yesterday. yesterday. Rule 3 The agent is mentioned in the passive voice to complete the sense of the sentence.Active: Prof. Tony Wright wrote Passive: The story was written by the story. Prof. Tony Wright.Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:Present simpleactive: clean (s)/see (s) etc. Somebody cleans this roomevery day.passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc. This room is cleaned everyday.  Many accidents are caused by careless driving.  I‟m not often invited to parties.  How is this word pronounced?  161
    • Past simple active: cleaned/saw etc. Somebody cleaned this room yesterday. passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc. This room was cleaned yesterday.  We were woken up by a loud noise during last night.  ‗Did you go to the party?‘ ‗No, I wasn‟t invited.‘  How much money was stolen? Task 7: Change the following sentences into the passive voice.A Example: People always praised him for his works of art. He was always praised for his works of art. 1. The teacher has scolded her students for being disobedient. ___________________________________________________________ 2. The poor boy sold his bicycle to pay his school fees. ___________________________________________________________ 3. Mrs. Lee ordered Kumar out of the classroom for disrupting the class. ___________________________________________________________ 4. They are going to hand in their essays tomorrow. ___________________________________________________________ 5. Semester 7 TESL students will stage a Shakespearean play next week. ___________________________________________________________ 6. That famous professor wrote a book on child psychology. ___________________________________________________________ 162
    • 7. The counselor advised the student to stop smoking. ___________________________________________________________8. They assumed that the answer was correct. ___________________________________________________________9. Someone will take you to the manager‘s office. ___________________________________________________________10. People always speak well of that doctor. ___________________________________________________________WRITINGFORMAL LETTER OF APPLICATIONTask 8Below are examples of phrases used in business letters. Complete thesentences with words in the box. Apply unfortunately hearing response complain 20th June confirm enclose grateful pleaseda. Thank you for your letter dated__________ which I received yesterday.b. I would be ___________ if you could provide me with some information about the intensive courses which your college is offering.c. I ___________ my curriculum vitae and certificates for your attention. 163
    • d. ____________ I am not available for the interview on the date you suggest in your letter. e. I would be ___________ to attend an interview at any time convenient to you. f. I am writing to ___________ about the faulty equipment that I bought from your company last week. g. We look forward to ___________ from you soon. h. We would be grateful if you could ___________ your reservation for the seminar room in writing. i. I am writing in ____________ to your advertisement in The New Straits Times. j. I would like to _____________ for the position of Assistant Graphic Artist in your company. Task 9A Match each of the sentences from the exercise above to one of the functions below. Place the alphabets in the boxes provided. Note that there are two sentences for function 3. 1. beginning a letter 2. applying for a job 3. asking for information 4. giving good news 5 giving bad news 6. closing a letter 7. complaining 164
    • 8. asking for confirmation9. saying that you are sending something with the letterTask 10Helmy Saputra is interested in applying for the post of Flight Steward. Readhis letter of application and improve the letter based on some of the phrasesprovided. JUMBO AIRLINES No.3, Jalan Kempas 2B, Flight Steward Proton City, Tg. Malim Perak D.R.Jumbo Airlines is currently Jumbo Airlines,looking for friendly, service- P.O.Box 58923, Jalan Semangat,oriented males who take pride Petaling Jaya. 6th June 2008in their performance andappearance. Dear Mr or Mrs,Applicants must have thefollowing: Applying for flight steward I saw your advertisement in the New Sun Times and I want to be a  20-30 years of age flight steward in your company.  Possess at least SPM I am 23 years old and I have a Diploma. I have put my c.v. with Grade 1 this letter so that you would know my background and what I am  Able to converse well in good at. I would love to attend an interview whenever and the English language wherever you like. Why don’t you send me an application form and and Malay Language. more information about the work of a steward? Other languages an Hoping to hear from you soon! advantage. Lots of love, HelmyInterested candidates can writeto:Jumbo Airlines Inc,P.O.Box 58923, Jalansemangat, Petaling Jaya,Selangor 165
    • Task 11 You are interested in a career as a college lecturer. You see thefollowing advertisement in the newspaper. Write a letter of application attachingyour certified certificates. KINGSTON COLLEGE LECTURERMust# possess a degree in education# have good communication skills# enjoy working with young adults# be interested in a career in educationWrite in to: The Principal, Kingston College, 189 Jalan Tun Ismail, 31350 Ipoh.State your particulars, qualifications and relevant experience if any. 166
    • SUMMARY Tick here if Main Skills Sub Skills you have Notes understoodListening Listening to a radio interview Listening ComprehensionSpeaking Speaking about dream job Job satisfaction interviewReading Reading Vocabulary Reading ComprehensionWriting Phrases in business letter Improving a letter of application Formal letter of applicationGrammar The Passive Voice 167
    • SELF ASSESSMENTExercise 1Fill in the blanks with the correct verb in the brackets.1. Many accidents _____________________ (cause) by dangerous driving.2. Yoghurt _____________________ (make) from milk.3. The house _____________________ (damage) a few days ago.4. Theres no need to worry. You ____________________ (take) there soon.5. You _____________________ (invite) to the party. Why didnt you go ?6. An art gallery is where great paintings __________________ (display).7. In Malaysia, general elections _____________________ (hold) every five years.8. Originally the book _____________________ (write) in Chinese and later it _____________________ (translate) into English.9. I was driving quite fast but I _____________________ (overtake) by lots of other cars.10. Its a big company. One thousand people ________________ (employ) there.11. More than half of the Earth ____________________ (cover) by water.12. Water ____________________ (cover) more than half of the Earth.13. The main door to the faculty ____________________ (lock) at 5pm every day. 168
    • 14. While I was on holiday, my luggage ___________________ (steal) at the airport.15. The cruise ship ____________________ (sink) rather quickly but all passengers ____________________ (save).16. The parcel ___________________ (post) last Thursday and it ____________________ (arrive) the very next day.17. My family house is quite old. It _____________________ (build) in 1819 by my great grandfather. He _____________________ (build) it with his own bare hands.18. A new school _____________________ (build) near the junction. Work started three months ago and _____________________ (expect) to open next year.Exercise 2Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use either active orpassive verb.Example: Have you ever been robbed? (I/rob/yesterday) I was robbed yesterday 1. Last night, there was somebody behind us. (I think / we / follow) ___________________________________________________ 2. This room looks different. ( I / paint / it / ) ___________________________________________________ 3. I can‘t find my ring. ( I think / it / steal ) ___________________________________________________ 169
    • 4. I can‘t find my book. ( somebody / take / it ) ____________________________________________________ 5. Amy has a better position now. ( She / promote / last month ) ____________________________________________________ 6. Sue cant sleep in her room now. ( she / redecorate / it ) ____________________________________________________ 7. The printer broke down yesterday, but now its fine. ( it /repair/ immediately) ________________________________________________ 8. A tree was lying across the road. ( it / blow down / by the storm ) __________________________________________________Exercise 3Identify and correct the errors in the following sentences. Rewrite the sentencesinto the passive voice. 1. A good film was show in the cinema yesterday. _________________________________________________ 2. Are you sure the door were shut just now? _________________________________________________ 3. Korean is teaching at this faculty. _________________________________________________ 4. The police was shoot in the crossfire. _________________________________________________ 170
    • 5. The student‘s speech can easily been understood. _________________________________________________ 6. I had not inform about the new meeting venue. _________________________________________________ 7. The baby was being awake by the loud noise at 4am. _________________________________________________ 8. Many songs are being rendered at the party last night. _________________________________________________ 9. Not much can being wrote about the new actor as he is a very private person. _________________________________________________ 10. The students was being split up into groups of three. _________________________________________________REFERENCESLeela Chakrabarty, L. & Nor Azmi Mostafa. (2009). Read up and write down:English for communication 2. Tanjung Malim, Perak: UPSI Publisher.Pollard, A. & Triggs, P. (1997). Reflective teaching in secondary education.London: Cassell. 171
    • ANSWER KEYTask 1 1. Speakers: Gina Sulaiman, a radio host, and Jason Khoo, a Hob Space Columnist in the Asia Week Magazine Topic: Gen Y at the workplace Task: Listen for specific information 2. a. Gen Y at the workplace b. They don‘t work hard enough and can be very demanding c. 18-25 year olds (mostly) and 26-34 year olds d. No longer the issue of loyalty; people are willing to leave jobs when they are dissatisfied e. Contemporary design in the workplace, environmentally friendly place, mobile working environment and flexible working hours 3. accept any suitable answersTask 2 Accept any logical/relevant answersTask 3Mission and Purpose:  Do you have a good understanding of the mission and goal of this organization?  Do you know how your work directly contributes to the success of this organization? Teamwork and Communication:  Is teamwork practiced and encouraged in this organization?  Are you able to voice your opinion to your immediate boss? 172
    • Opportunities for growth  Do you receive training to enable you to perform well in your job area?  Do you find your job stimulating?Compensation  Are you satisfied with your current pay?  When was the last time that you got your bonus?Respect for Employees  Do you feel being respected at your workplace?  Do you feel your talent is being valued at work?Workplace and Resources  Is your workplace comfortable for you?  Do you have enough resources that enable you to perform well in your job?Task 4 Accept any possible solutionsTask 5 1. Enthusiastic 2. Aesthetically 3. Chiropractor 4. Naturalpath 5. Wellness 6. Optimism 7. Embrace 8. Integrity 173
    • Task 6Question 1 i. Feeling very satisfied with your day at work. ii. Everyone seems to know what they are supposed to do. iii. Able to contribute productively to the company. iv. Responsible for the values that you put into your work. v. Less procedures and red tapes in meeting with immediate bosses. vi. Leaders do what they preach.Question 2 i. To relate effectively and understand others to build good relationships. ii. The company builds a workplace that is healthy, clean and aesthetically pleasing.iii. Their efforts are recognized and supported. Opportunities for developing problem solving and communication skills were provided.iv. Establishing an environment of openness, willingness to understand and mutual support at all levels.v. Support from the management through resources and growth opportunities as well as good pay, respect and appreciation for their employees contribution to the company.vi. Accept any logical/relevant answer.Task 7 1. The students have been scolded by the teacher for being disobedient. 2. The bicycle was sold by the poor boy to pay his school fees. 3. Kumar was ordered by Mrs. Lee out of the classroom for disrupting the class. 4. Their essays will be handed in tomorrow. 5. Shakespearean play will be staged by final semester TESL students. 6. The book on child psychology was written by that famous professor. 7. The students were advised by the counselor to stop smoking. 8. The answer was assumed correct by them. 9. You will be taken to the manager‘s office by someone. 10. That doctor has always been spoken well of. 174
    • Task 8 a. 20th June b. grateful c. enclose d. unfortunately e. pleased f. complain g. hearing h. confirm i. response j. applyTask 9 1. a 2. j 3. b 4. e 5. d 6. g 7. f 8. h 9. cSelf AssessmentExercise 1 1. are caused. 2. is made 3. was damaged 4. will be taken 5. were invited 6. are displayed 7. are held 8. was written / was translated 9. was overtaken 10. are employed 11. is covered 12. covers 175
    • 13. is locked or will be locked or is going to be locked 14. was stolen 15. sank / were saved or is sinking / have been saved 16. was posted / arrived 17. was built / built 18. is being built / is expectedExercise 2 1. I think we were followed or I think we were being followed. 2. I painted it or I have painted it. 3. I think it was stolen or I think it has been stolen. 4. Somebody took it or somebody has taken it. 5. She was promoted last month. 6. She is redecorating it. 7. It was repaired immediately. 8. It was blown down by the stormExercise 3 1. A good film was shown in the cinema yesterday. 2. Are you sure the door was shut just now? 3. Korean is taught at this faculty. 4. The police was shot in the crossfire. 5. The student‘s speech can easily be understood. 6. I was not informed about the new meeting venue or I had not been informed about the new meeting venue. 7. The baby was awaken by the loud noise at 4am. 8. Many songs were rendered at the party last night. 9. Not much can be written about the new actor as he is a very private person. 10. The students were split up into groups of three. 176