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Ag 18 post-harvest

  1. 1. From: Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region ©APO 2006, ISBN: 92-833-7051-1 Reports of the APO seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables held in India, 5–11 October 2004 and Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Management of Agricultural/ Horticultural Products in Islamic Republic of Iran, 23–28 July 2005 Published by Asian Productivity Organization 1-2-10 Hirakawacho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0093, Japan Tel: (81-3) 5226 3920 • Fax: (81-3) 5226 3950 E-mail: • URL: and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy Tel: (390) 657056872 • Fax: (390) 657054960 Disclaimer and Permission to Use This document is a part of the above-titled publication, and is provided in PDF format for educational use. It may be copied and reproduced for personal use only. For all other purposes, the APO's permission must first be obtained. The responsibility for opinions and factual matter as expressed in this document rests solely with its author(s), and its publication does not constitute an endorsement by the APO of any such expressed opinion, nor is it affirmation of the accuracy of information herein provided. Bound editions of the entire publication may be available for limited purchase. Order forms may be downloaded from the APO's web site.
  2. 2. - i - Reports of the APO seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables held in India, 5–11 October 2004 and Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Management of Agricultural/Horticultural Products in Islamic Republic of Iran, 23–28 July 2005. This volume was edited by Dr. Rosa S. Rolle, Rome, Italy. The opinions expressed in this publication do not reflect the official view of the APO. For reproduction of the contents in part or in full, the APO’s prior permission is required. ©Asian Productivity Organization, 2006 ISBN: 92-833-7051-1
  3. 3. - ii - CONTENTS Acknowledgments Foreword Preface Part I Summary of Findings ................................................................................. 3 Part II Resource Papers 1. Recent Developments in Reducing Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region .............................................................................................. Dr. M. L. Choudhury 15 2. Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues and Challenges ................................................................ Dr. Rosa S. Rolle 23 3. Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Reducing Postharvest Losses and Adding Value ............................................................................ Dr. Rosa S. Rolle 32 4. Packaging and Transportation of Fruits and Vegetables for Better Marketing ....................................................................................... Dr. Somjate Sirivatanapa 43 5. Linking Production and Marketing of Fruit and Vegetables for Better Farm Incomes in the Asia-Pacific Region ........Grant Stephen Vinning and Joann Young 49 6. New Roles of Government in Improving Fruit and Vegetable Marketing at National and Local Levels ............................................... Dr. Bahaeddin Najafi 70 7. Measures to Assure Better Food Safety, Marketing, and Consumer Satisfaction in Fruits and Vegetables .......................................................... Cornelis Sonneveld 80 8. Postharvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables for Better Food Quality and Safety........................................................................................ Dr. Majid Rahemi 96 Part III Country Papers 1. Bangladesh ................................................................... Abul Fazal Badrud-doza 103 2. Cambodia ......................................................................................... Minea Mao 111 3. Republic of China ............................................................. Dr. Chao-chia Huang 117 4. Fiji ............................................................................................. Virendra Kumar 123 5. India (1) .................................................................................. Dr. Hafiza Ahsan 131 6. India (2) ................................................... Dr. Venkatarayappa Chikkasubbanna 143 7. Indonesia (1)........ Dr. Bambang Haryanto, Sri Royaningsih and Henky Henanto 152 8. Indonesia (2)................................... Dr. Bambang Haryanto and Andjar Rochani 158 9. Islamic Republic of Iran (1)................................................................................... ........................ Dr. Reza Moghaddasi, Mehrbanian Elaheh and Shervin Shariati 164 10. Islamic Republic of Iran (2) .................... Dr. Mohammad Shahedi Baghkhandan 169 11. Republic of Korea (1) ...................................................................... Han Suk Ho 175 12. Republic of Korea (2) ................................................................ Han Hyun-Soo 181 13. Malaysia ................................................................ Mohammad Nasir Bin Muda 187 14. Nepal (1)......................................................................... Khadga Bhakta Paudel 191 15. Nepal (2) .................................................................................... Shashi Adhikari 200 16. Pakistan ................................ Muhammad Ilyas Anjum and Iftikhar Ahmed Awan 209 17. Philippines (1) ............................................................... Dr. Edrallina P. Serrano 216 18. Philippines (2) ................................................................ Dr. Rosendo S. Rapusas 227
  4. 4. - iii - 19. Singapore.......................................................................... Goh Siew Lian Gracia 245 20. Sri Lanka (1) .......................................... Swarnasiri Dickwella Patabedige Cyril 253 21. Sri Lanka (2) .................................................................. Madinage D. Fernando 264 22. Thailand (1) ........................................................... Dr. Sungcom Techawongstien 276 23. Thailand (2)................................................................... Dr. Rumphan Koslanund 284 24. Vietnam (1) ................................................................................... Tran Thuy Hai 293 25. Vietnam (2) ................................................................................ Truong Vinh Yen 298 Part IV List of Participants, Resource Persons and Secretariat 1. Seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables ...................... 303 2. Seminar on Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Management ..... 307
  5. 5. - iv - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Asian Productivity Organization and participants at the seminar convened in New Delhi, in 2004, gratefully acknowledge the hospitality extended by Mother Dairy Food Processing Limited, and the Management of the Azadpur Market. The hospitality extended by Arjomandi Trading Company; Green Plants of Life Co. Ltd., and the Fruit and Vegetable Market situated within the Municipality of Tehran Iran were also greatly appreciated by the Asian Productivity Organization and participants at the seminar convened in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
  6. 6. - v - FOREWORD Recent regional economic growth and changes in dietary patterns have made both the production and consumption of fruit and vegetables increasingly important. The fruit and vegetable sector has a vital role in farm income enhancement, poverty alleviation, food security, and sustainable agriculture in Asia, especially in developing countries. This sector, however, suffers greatly from postharvest losses. Some estimates suggest that about 30–40% of fruit and vegetables are lost or abandoned after leaving the farm gate. Huge postharvest losses result in diminished returns for producers. International markets reject fruits and veg- etables containing unauthorized pesticides, with pesticide residues exceeding permissible limits, and with inadequate labelling and packaging. Similarly there have been increasing concerns over food-borne diseases and poisoning such as Escherichia coli or Salmonella outbreaks. Obviously, postharvest management determines food quality and safety, competitive- ness in the market, and the profits earned by producers. The postharvest management of fruit and vegetables in most developing countries in the region is, however, far from satisfactory. The major constraints include inefficient handling and transportation; poor technologies for storage, processing, and packaging; involvement of too many diverse actors; and poor infra- structure. In light of the incidence of the huge postharvest losses in the region and new chal- lenges faced under trade liberalization and globalization, serious efforts are needed to reduce postharvest losses, especially of fruit and vegetables. This would include linking operations and actors involved more closely and systematically, modernizing marketing infrastructure and technologies, capacity building of individual actors, and strengthening the policy/institu- tional settings for better marketing. The concerted efforts of all, including the private and public sectors, are required to alleviate these constraints. To discuss the issues and challenges in strengthening postharvest management of fruit and vegetables, the APO organized two seminars. The first seminar on the “Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables” was hosted by the Government of India in New Delhi from 5 to 11 October 2004 (hereafter called the India Seminar). This seminar dis- cussed recent developments in management of postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables, and issues and constraints in reducing postharvest losses. The second seminar on “Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Management of Agricultural/Horticultural Products”, was hosted by the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran from 23 to 28 July 2005 (hereafter called the Iran Seminar). The latter seminar focused on emerging marketing and food safety issues and challenges in the postharvest management of fruit and vegetables, and impedi- ments in addressing them. This publication is a compilation of the selected resource papers and country papers presented at the seminars. I hope that it will serve as a useful reference on the subject in the Asia-Pacific and elsewhere. The APO is grateful to the Government of India for hosting the India Seminar; and the National Productivity Council (NPC), and the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture for implementing the program. We express our gratitude for the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran for hosting the Iran Seminar; and the National
  7. 7. - vi - Iranian Productivity Organization (NIPO), andAgricultural Planning and Economic Research Institute (APERI) of the Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture for implementing the program. Special thanks are due to the resource speakers and the participants for their valuable contri- butions, as well as, Dr. Rosa Rolle, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome for editing the present volume. SHIGEO TAKENAKA Secretary-General Tokyo November 2006
  8. 8. - vii - PREFACE Postharvest priorities across the globe have evolved considerably over the past four decades, from being exclusively technical in their outlook, to being more responsive to consumer demand. Consumer-driven trends which have contributed to this shift include rising incomes in urban areas, changing dietary habits, more women in the work-place, reduced time for meal preparation and growing demand for safety, quality and convenience. Other factors such as globalization, urbanization and the need to achieve efficiencies and reduce costs have also contributed significantly to this shift in priorities and continue to re-shape and restruc- ture the fresh produce sector. Growing populations across the Asia-Pacific region continue to create demand for fresh produce and processed horticultural products. Meeting these requirements as well as those of export markets necessitates assuring quality and safety in both domestic and export supply chains. Capacities must therefore be developed across the region in order to respond to consumer and market demand and to avert the risk of large numbers of small farmers becoming marginalized. At the same time, Governments in the region must develop a vision for the development of the postharvest sector and facilitate activities within the sector in order to realize that vision. It has been a pleasure for the Agricultural Support Systems Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to provide technical support to the APO Seminar on the Reduction of Postharvest Losses in Fruits and Vegetables, convened during the period 5–11 October 2004 in India, and the Seminar on Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Management of Agricultural/Horticultural Products, convened in Iran on 23–28 July 2005. FAO is also pleased to collaborate with the APO in collaboratively publishing this compilation of the papers and proceedings of both seminars. It is our hope that serious consideration will be given to the recommendations of both seminars in shaping the future development of the postharvest sector of the Region. Geoffrey C. Mrema Director Agricultural Support Systems Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome November 2006
  9. 9. - 3 - Summary of Findings SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Asian Productivity Organization (APO) organized two seminars to address postharvest man- agement issues in the Asia-Pacific Region. The first seminar on the “Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables” was hosted by the Government of India in New Delhi from 5 to 11 October 2004 (hereafter called the India Seminar). The program was implemented by the National Productivity Council (NPC) with financial and technical collaboration of the Department of Agriculture and Coop- eration, Ministry of Agriculture. Fourteen participants representing 11 APO member coun- tries and by 5 resource persons attended. The second seminar on “Marketing and Food Safety: Challenges in Postharvest Man- agement of Agricultural/Horticultural Products”, was hosted by the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran from 23 to 28 July 2005 (hereafter called the Iran Seminar). The National Iranian Productivity Organization (NIPO), andAgricultural Planning and Economic Research Institute (APERI) of the Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture implemented the program. Twenty participants from 12APO member countries and 6 resource persons participated. Six observers from the host country also took part. The objectives of the India Seminar were to: discuss recent developments in postharvest losses in fruits and vegetables in member countries; identify issues and constraints to reduc- ing postharvest losses; and to define strategies and measures to reduce such losses. While the Iran seminar discussed: marketing and food safety issues and challenges in the postharvest management of fruits and vegetables; issues and impediments to improving the marketing and safety of fruits and vegetables; and measures to resolve these issues. The program of each seminar included the presentation and discussion of resource papers by experts, presentation country papers by participants, a workshop (group discus- sions) to reflect on and focus on the critical issues, and field visits designed to provide a first- hand appraisal of postharvest handling and processing of fruits and vegetables in the respective host countries. The Workshop convened during the India Seminar identified a number of technical issues which impact upon horticultural chain management and recommended solutions to address these technical issues. While outputs of the working groups at the Iran Seminar, were synthesized into a framework for postharvest development in APO member countries. The outputs of their findings at the respective seminars are summarized below: India Seminar Two working groups identified issues/problems in reducing harvest and postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables in the region and formulated recommendations to address them. The outputs of Group I and Group II are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively.
  10. 10. -4- PostharvestManagementofFruitandVegetablesintheAsia-PacificRegion Rough handling; untimely harvesting Table 1. Issues/problems in Harvesting, Preparation for Marketing, Storage and Transportation of Fruits and Vegetables, and Recommended Solutions Operation Harvesting index Issue/problem No established maturity index for some commodities; lack of maturity index for local and export markets Strategy Research and development with emphasis on quality, safety and sustainability Action Plan Develop maturity indices Responsibility Government, univer- sities, stakeholders in the handling chain, donors and develop- ment agencies (FAO), ADB Harvesting methods and time of harvesting Low adoption of established indices; price and distance to market influence adoption Develop farmer-friendly harvest indices Conduct extension activities Create awareness on appropriate harvest indices through training, preparation of manuals, posters, etc. APO, NPO, FAO, ADB Create awareness on appropriate methods and time of harvesting Conduct training, disseminate information and safety practices FAO, APO, NPO Lack of appropriate and/or poorly-designed harvesting tools, equipment and harvest containers Research and development focusing on design and effi- ciency of harvesting tools, and equipment Donors and develop- ment agencies, universities, research institutions Field sorting, grading and packing Inadequate field sorting, grading and packing protocols for commodities that lend well to field packing Establish sorting, grading and packing protocols for certain commodities Educate the farmers and stakeholders Training of farmers and stake- holders; information materials development and dissemination Government and related institutions and cooperatives, stakeholders, FAO Pre-cooling Lack of and costly pre-cooling facilities Create a good policy environment which promotes investment and formation of alliances/commodity- based clusters to overcome constraints of limited number of facilities Encourage subsidy from govern- ment and investment from the private sector Government, private sector, cooperatives
  11. 11. -5- SummaryofFindings Lack of knowledge about pre- cooling technology at commer- cial scale; lack of information on cost benefits of pre-cooling technology Research and development focusing on the use of pre-cooling on a commercial scale Request technical assistance to obtain cost-benefit information on pre-cooling technology applied on a commercial scale Development organizations like FAO, UNDP, USAID, EU, ADB Transporta- tion Poor infrastructure (roads, bridges) and lack of appropri- ate transport systems; lack of refrigerated transport Encourage investment from private sector and policy support from government Provision for logistics and manage- ment to lower cost and facilitate efficiency of distribution or move- ment of commodities Conduct cost-benefit studies on efficient and appropriate transport systems Government, NGO, development organi- zations (FAO, EU, USAID, UNDP, ADB) Conduct training, seminars; develop and disseminate informa- tion materials Poor temperature management, loading and unloading prac- tices Create awareness on proper transport system management APO, NPO, FAO Storage Shortage of storage facilities at the farm level and refrigerated storage at the markets, ports Create favorable policy environ- ment for investment Research and development to determine cost and benefit of storage systems Encourage financial support from government and private sector Conduct cost-benefit analysis on different storage systems Government, local private sector, donor agencies (EU, DFID, USAID, FAO) Poor temperature conditions, including sanitation of the storage room and facilities Create awareness on the correct operations and management of storage facilities Conduct training of storage opera- tors and other handlers APO, NIPO, FAO Lack of knowledge on tem- perature requirements and ethylene sensitivities of differ- ent commodities for mixed loading Research and development focusing on temperature, relative humidity, ethylene sensitivities of different commodities under storage Conduct studies and disseminate findings FAO, APO, NPO
  12. 12. -6- PostharvestManagementofFruitandVegetablesintheAsia-PacificRegion Table 2. Issues/problems in Grading, Packaging, Processing and Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables, and Recommended Solutions Issue Grading Problem Lack of national standards and poor enforcement of standards Strategy Develop national standards Action Plan Assessment, research and development; dissemination, implementation and maintenance through training and demonstration, etc. Responsibility Government & Standard regulating authority and farmers’ associations, APO, NPO, FAO, etc.Lack of skill, awareness/ financial resources Capacity building Awareness, motivation, training and government financial support Procurement centers/ Packing- house/ Grading Facilities Lack of collection centers/ packinghouses/grading facilities Government support for clustering Identify strategic locations SHG, Farmers’ association, Financial institutions (e.g., ADB, World Bank, etc.), Government Packaging and Labeling Inadequate packing technology/suitable packaging (for transportation, storage, and consumers) Develop/adapt from existing technologies Develop suitable packaging technology fit for sites/ Commercialization Government, NPO, APO, FAO, ADB, World Bank, etc. Lack of skill, and awareness of appropriate use of packaging/Financial resources Capacity building Awareness, motivation, training and government financial support for stakeholders for appropriate use of packaging technologies and materials Negative environmental impact of packaging Government regulation Development of regulatory policies and regulations Government and related institutions Lack of suitable labeling Formulation of regulatory system Develop appropriate regulatory policies/systems Government and related institutions
  13. 13. -7- SummaryofFindings Minimally processed; Fresh-cut; Ready-to- eat/cook Inadequate knowledge of access to appropriate technologies for anti- browning, protection from microbial contamination Capacity building and information dissemination especially to small processors Develop suitable technology Awareness and training for stakeholders especially small processors Secondary Processing Limited availability of suitable varieties for processing Develop suitable varieties Disseminate Information to small processors Collection and introduction of germplasm for breeding program Dissemination of information Inadequate appropriate processing technologies Research and Development Develop and/or adapt appropriate technologies Inadequate commercialization of new technologies and lack of basic infrastructure Government support (technical, policy and infrastructure, etc.) Establishing pilot plants Do cost/benefit cost and consumer studies Development of novel/niche products Research and Development Develop innovative niche products Commercialize indigenous products Inadequate suitable facilities/ infrastructures Research and Development Develop suitable facilities/ infrastructures Lack of processed product promotion Product awareness Promotion/Exhibition Fair Mass media announcement Exemption of tax and financial support to the industries Marketing Limited market information and lack of marketing strategies Inadequate market infrastructure Inability to market products in domestic and international markets Establish National/Regional information networking system Development of market centers at different levels Develop strategic alliances with multinational companies and corporations Develop market information systems and marketing strategies Construction of suitable market infrastructure Publicity and advertising through mass media Government, NPO, APO, FAO, ADB, World Bank, etc. Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector Government, Private sector
  14. 14. - 8 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region Iran Seminar The participants deliberated on issues and problems in horticultural chain manage- ment in the region and identified a number of actions to resolve them. The collective recom- mendations of the participants were synthesized into a framework for development of horticultural chain management in the region (Table 3). Issue 1. Inadequate two- way dialogue between government and stakeholders Causes Lack of vision backed by strate- gies by government for the horticultural value chain Recommendations 1. Develop a detailed strategic plan to support the vision for horticulture value chain 2. Develop specific industry strategic development plans 3. Form industry peak body councils com- prising producers, processors, wholesal- ers, retailers, logistic sector, exporters Responsibility 1. International organi- zations working through government 2. Relevant ministries to facilitate the formation of the councils Table 3. Regional Framework for Horticultural Chain Management 2. Poor decision making by all chain participants Lack of awareness that information exists, lack of information itself, lack of ability to use the information 1. Make participants aware through media campaigns, princi- pally radio and posters, that informa- tion exists 2. Provide production, marketing and technical information 3. Train users in the use of the information 1. Ministry ofAgriculture, Ministry responsible for food processing and industry 2. Ministry of Agricul- ture to facilitate the provision of the information, includ- ing market price reporting systems 3. International organi- zations, tertiary institutions, para- governmental organi- zations, NGOs 3. Poor basic infrastructure affecting production planning and postharvest infrastructure Poor planning, poor funding by government, few incentives 1. Use horticultural value chain vision 2. Provide financial incentives both in terms of front and back ends 3. Provide laws that provide investors with assurance of security 1. Vision: Ministry of Agriculture 2. Ministry of finance, banks, private sector 3. Relevant ministries. 4. International donors and lending institu- tion
  15. 15. - 9 - Summary of Findings 4. Inappropriate and lack of adequate technology Poor linkage with universities; absence of all horticulture value chain participants in research and development and in decision making; lack of holistic approach in deci- sion making; poor extension services; lack of support funding 1. Make research by universities and research and develop- ment institutions more commercially oriented through a rewards system 2. Greater use by international organi- zations in making available existing appropriate technol- ogy 3. Fund greater dissemi- nation of existing technology and research results 4. Increase the capacity of the extension service in production, postharvest handling, and marketing 1. Funding by relevant ministries 2. International organizations 3. Universities, and research and development institutions 5. Low level of organization Unwillingness to collaborate; lack of understanding of the benefit of collaboration; lack of collaboration amongst relevant ministries 1. Adherence to the vision and its support- ing developmental strategies 2. Use facilitators with communication skills as a precondition to getting further aid 3. Government legisla- tion to support vertical (contract) and horizontal (cluster farms) 1. International donors through govern- ment 2. All levels of gov- ernment legislation – national, regional, and local 6. Small and scattered nature of horticulture Land tenure legisla- tion 1. Legislation 2. Use facilitators to show the benefits of grouping 3. Build better public utilities (roads, water, and electricity) 1. Relevant levels of government from national to regional through to local government 2. International donors through govern- ment 3. National, regional and local govern- ments
  16. 16. - 10 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region 1. Have explicit standards covering domestic and international markets with appropriate inspection capabilities 2. Train all horticulture value chain partici- pants 3. Provide incentives for private sector involve- ment 4. Undertake awareness campaigns 5. Ensure relevant and true-to-type seed availability through governmentally ap- proved seed sellers 6. Quality standards to be formulated by stake- holders with a facilitat- ing role by govern- ment 7. Appropriate inputs 7. Unsafe food Poor water quality, chemical and microbiological hazards, poor worker hygiene, poor market sanita- tion, lack of legisla- tion 1. Enact food safety legislation with meaningful working regulations and trained personnel to enforce the Act 2. Implement GAP, GMP, HACCP schemes 3. Provide appropriate food safety and quality laboratories, along with trained scientists 1. Relevant ministries 2. International agen- cies through govern- ment 3. Government and private sector 8. Poor quality Poor inputs (water, seed, fertilizer, agricultural chemi- cals), poor han- dling, lack of standards, lack of maturity indices, inappropriate packing along with poor and expensive packaging material, poor integrated (cold) chains, minimum involve- ment of the private sector, environmen- tal factors 1. International agencies through relevant ministries 2. Relevant ministries 3. Ministry of Finance 4. Consumer associa- tions funded by government. Relevant ministries 5. Relevant ministries 6. International agencies through government to increase capacity of stakeholder organizations to self- regulate 7. Private sector regu- lated by government 9. Inability to initiate and sustain linkages with international markets Poor standards, no vision, little promo- tion, few incentives, lack of economies of scale, lack of competitiveness, market information, non-membership of WTO, instability of supply 1. Ensure meaningful volumes, quality, stability and timely commitment to deliver 2. Comply with interna- tional benchmarks 3. Make greater use of international market researchers & market development special- ists 1. Private sector facili- tated by government through appropriate infrastructure 2. International organi- zations 3. Government through international organi- zations 4. Government using outside experts
  17. 17. - 11 - Summary of Findings THE WAY FORWARD The Framework developed constitutes a sound first step toward improving postharvest in the Asia-Pacific Region. Moving this framework into an action plan requires a number of subse- quent steps. The Framework must firstly be disseminated within member countries through the conduct of national seminars. Discrete sections of the framework should then be used as a basis for the development of specific working plans. Issues pertinent to food safety, quality and international marketing for example, might be separately tackled. Assistance from inter- national agencies should be sought. Closer collaboration of like projects, especially in the area of postharvest should be promoted with the sharing of efforts and especially the sharing of results. Regional network- ing initiated by member countries could be facilitated through international agencies. 10. Low and erratic producer prices Poor grower involvement in the value chain, poor planning by grow- ers, poor market information 4. Have strong chain linkages that reduce losses and ensure competitiveness 5. Develop strategies that emphasize trade within the member countries’ immediate regions and include harmonization of standards between collaborating countries 6. Develop and ensure the success of a number of pilot scale projects within a specific time frame in order to establish a demonstra- tion affect 7. Expedite membership of WTO 1. Relevant ministries and private sector 2. Relevant ministries, private sector, NGO’s 3. Relevant ministries, private sector, NGOs 1. Refer to vision and specific industry strategies development plans 2. Encourage develop- ment of value chains 3. Establishing collabora- tive marketing organi- zations such as cooperatives, self help groups, and farmer associations 4. Establish farmer markets
  18. 18. - 15 - Recent Developments in Reducing Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region 1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN REDUCING POSTHARVEST LOSSES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION Dr. M. L. Choudhury Horticulture Commissioner Ministry of Agriculture Government of India New Delhi, India INTRODUCTION Food security, both in terms of availability and access to food, poses a challenge to rapidly growing populations, in environments of dwindling land and water resources. The horticul- tural sector has established its credibility for improving land use, and generating employment and nutritional security. Horticulture, which includes the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants and plantation crops has emerged as a major economic activity in Asia and Pacific. The Asia-Pacific region contributes to more than 50% of the world’s acreage under fruits and vegetables and produces a diversity of fruits such as apples, bananas, oranges, grapes and mangoes in addition to tropical and sub-tropical fruits such as pineapples, papayas, guavas, litchi and passion fruit. For the most part, fruits and vegetables are not considered to be primary sources of carbohydrate, protein and fat. However, those with storage roots and tubers are rich in carbo- hydrate, particularly starch, in amounts comparable to the cereal crops, and can be used as staple foods. Leguminous vegetables supply as much as 14% protein, while dry seeds supply even more. The lipid content of most vegetables is less than 0.1%. Most fruits, vegetables and root crops are rich in minerals, carotene (Pro-vitamin A) and vitamin C, and are reason- ably good sources of trace elements such as copper, manganese and zinc, which act as enzyme cofactors. The nutrient content of fruits and vegetables varies in accordance with the fruit or vegetable variety, cultural practices, stage of maturity, postharvest handling and storage conditions. Natural physiological and biochemical activity in fruits and vegetables results in compositional changes following harvest. Apart from their nutritive value, other constituents of fruits and vegetables which deserve attention include antioxidants, bioflavonoids, flavor compounds and dietary fibre. Often, the leafy portion of some important vegetables is discarded while the fleshy portion is consumed with little recognition for the fact that rich sources of nutrients such as calcium, iron, vitamin-C and carotene go to waste (Table 1). Apart from the common and generally costly fruits, a large number of indigenous fruits, examples of which include ‘Aonla’ and ‘Baelfruit’ are rich sources of ascorbic acid (Vitamin-C) and riboflavin (Vitamin-B2 ). Some tropical fruits and vegetables are known to have therapeutic properties and are popularly used in traditional medicine in several countries of the region.
  19. 19. - 16 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region Table 1. Micro Nutrient Content of Edible and Leafy Portions of Vegetables CALCIUM IRON CAROTEN VITAMIN-C (Mg/100g) (Mg/100g) (µg/100g) (Mg/100g) COLOCASIA 40 0.42 24 0 COLOCASIA LEAVES 227 10.0 10,278 12 DRUMSTICK 40 0.18 110 120 DRUMSTICK LEAVES 440 7.0 6,780 220 KNOL KHOL 20 1.54 21 85 KNOL-KHOL GREEN 740 13.5 4,146 157 RADISH 35 0.4 3 15 RADISH LEAVES 265 3.6 5,295 81 TURNIP 30 0.4 0 43 TURNIP GREEN 710 28.4 9,396 180 STATUS OF POSTHARVEST HANDLING Asia and the Pacific region have witnessed rapid growth in horticultural development. Changes in dietary habits owing to increasing incomes continue to accelerate demand for horticultural produce in the region. This increased demand must be met in an environment of shrinking land and water resources. At the same time, developments in science and technology could provide an opportunity for intensifying the production of horticultural produce. Poor infrastructure for storage, processing and marketing in many countries of the region contributes to a high proportion of waste, which average between 10 and 40%. Major infrastructural limitations also continue to impose severe constraints to domestic distribution as well as to the export of horticultural produce. Considerable waste occurs owing to the fact that small farmers lack resources and are unable to market their produce and implement suitable postharvest handling practices. Spoilage of fresh produce is also accelerated by the hot and humid climate of the region. Postharvest management and processing of horticultural produce has assumed considerable significance in light of increasing demand for fruits and vegetables in the region. The World Food Conference convened in Rome in 1974, drew attention to the concept of postharvest food loss reduction as a significant means to increase food availability. The Special Action Program for Food Loss Prevention, of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initially focused on durable food grains, owing to their promi- nence in developing country diets. An Expert Consultation on Food Loss Prevention in Perishable Crops, mainly covering fruit and vegetables was held in Rome in 1980. Although India is a major producer of horticultural crops, many Indians are unable to obtain their daily requirement of fruits and vegetables and the Human Development Index (HDI) is very low. Considerable quantities of fruits and vegetables produced in India go to waste owing to improper postharvest operations and the lack of processing. This results in a considerable gap between gross food production and net availability. It should be noted that the production of fruits and vegetables is of significance only when they reach the consumer in good condition and at a reasonable price. The concept of placing exclusive emphasis on increased production of fruits and vegetables is self-defeating. It is important to see how much of the produce goes through marketing channels and finally reaches the consumer. Efforts should be made to integrate production with postharvest
  20. 20. - 17 - Recent Developments in Reducing Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region management since postharvest loss reduction and utilization have considerable bearing on food availability. It is known that food loss reduction is normally less costly than equivalent increases in food production. Reduction of postharvest losses is essential in increasing food availability from existing production. The success of production lies in the proper distribu- tion of produce and its subsequent utilization by the consumer with zero waste in the process i.e., 100% utilization of production in one form or another should be the motto. Opportunities exist in both domestic and international markets for fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. This paper discusses the need for a sound foundation in developing integrated postharvest management systems for fruits and vegetables, with proper infrastructural facili- ties and logistical support. CAUSES OF POSTHARVEST LOSSES Postharvest losses are caused by both external and internal factors. External Factors Which Lead to Postharvest Losses Mechanical Injury Fresh fruits and vegetables are highly susceptible to mechanical injury owing to their tender texture and high moisture content. Poor handling, unsuitable packaging and improper packing during transportation are the cause of bruising, cutting, breaking, impact wounding, and other forms of injury in fresh fruits and vegetables. Parasitic Diseases The invasion of fruits and vegetables by fungi, bacteria, insects and other organisms, is a major cause of postharvest losses in fruits and vegetables. Microorganisms readily attack fresh produce and spread rapidly, owing to the lack of natural defense mechanisms in the tissues of fresh produce, and the abundance of nutrients and moisture which supports their growth. Control of postharvest decay is increasingly becoming a difficult task, since the number of pesticides available is rapidly declining as consumer concern for food safety is increasing. Internal Factors Physiological Deterioration Fruit and vegetable tissues are still alive after harvest, and continue their physiological activity. Physiological disorders occur as a result of mineral deficiency, low or high tempera- ture injury, or undesirable environmental conditions, such as high humidity. Physiological deterioration can also occur spontaneously owing to enzymatic activity, leading to overripeness and senescence, a simple aging phenomenon. SCOPE AND STRATEGIES The unnecessary waste of valuable commodities can be checked by processing into value added products. Considerable scope exists for both domestic and export trade in fruits and vegetables in India. This will, however, only be achieved with improved distribution systems and processing of these highly perishable horticultural commodities. The food processing sector is employment driven and it is reckoned that an investment of Rs.1000 crores can provide employment to 54,000 persons in that industry. The even marketing of fruits from
  21. 21. - 18 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region areas of abundance to places of scarcity will stabilize fruit and vegetable prices. Proper postharvest management practices for minimizing losses and for improving marketing are generally not followed in India. Raw Material No matter how perfect postharvest operations are, good returns cannot be obtained from poor quality raw materials. The selection of suitable varieties is, therefore, essential. Linking production to postharvest operations is essential to optimizing results. Pre-harvest parameters such as selection of proper planting material, crop management, and disease and pest control must be geared toward producing high quality produce. Once the crop is ready for harvest, attention must be paid to the harvesting technique/procedure. Poor harvesting practices can lead to irreparable damage to horticultural produce. It is therefore necessary to standardize maturity indices and harvesting techniques for each and every fruit and vegetable in order to minimize damage at the time of harvest. Packing Stations There is an absolute lack of the concept of packing house establishments in India. Fruits and vegetables are generally packed in the field without any pretreatment. Some are even transported without any packaging. In developed countries on the other hand, fruits and vegetables are generally selected, cut, placed in bulk containers and transported to packing stations where they are trimmed, sorted, graded, packed in cartons or crates and cooled. They are temporarily placed in cool storage for subsequent loading or are loaded directly onto refrigerated vehicles, and transported to market. A number of important operations are also carried out at packing stations. These include SO2 fumigation, fungicidal dipping, surface coating with wax, degreening of citrus, ripening and conditioning, vapor heat treatment etc. Due to the lack of proper packaging systems in India, large volumes of the inedible portions of vegetables such as cauliflower, peas etc. are transported to wholesale markets from the field. They are discarded to various degrees and large quantities of biomass which could be used as value added products are wasted. Removal of these inedible vegetable por- tions prior to marketing would reduce both transportation costs and environmental pollution. These inedible vegetable parts ultimately undergo decomposition, cause sanitation problems and produce gases which are detrimental to the environment. Farmer’s cooperatives and other agencies should, therefore, be encouraged to establish packing stations at nodal points to augment the marketing of fresh horticultural produce. Primary Processing Unlike durable crops such as cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fresh fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, and must be marketed immediately after harvesting without primary processing. Fruit and vegetables generate large quantities of valuable waste that ends up as garbage. However, if they are gainfully utilized at the proper time they can become value added products. Vegetables such as cauliflower, peas, leafy vegetables, etc. can be minimally processed at packing stations immediately after harvesting, through the removal of inedible parts, following which they can be marketed in metro city markets in unit packs. Between 10 and 60% of the fresh fruits and vegetables marketed and purchased by consumers in India are rejected as inedible. In villages or small towns the inedible portions of fruits and vegetables are either fed to animals or are discarded as garbage by consumers in metro cities. Primary processing of food crops other than horticultural crops has its origin from the dawn of civilization. It was a necessary step to the consumption of foods such as rice, wheat,
  22. 22. - 19 - Recent Developments in Reducing Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region oilseeds, etc. Processing not only renders these commodities edible, but also adds value to them. Value-addition to horticultural crops was never considered essential, owing to the fact that many of these fruits and vegetables, e.g., tomato, melon, cucumber, carrot, etc. could be directly consumed after harvesting. Today, there is considerable interest in processing to add value, as well as to reduce losses in fruits and vegetables. Packaging Packaging is an integral element in the marketing of fresh horticultural produce. It provides an essential link between the producer and the consumer. Owing to its favorable properties, wood has remained the main packaging material for fruits and vegetables. Timber conservation is, however, critical in order to maintain an ecological balance, and there is an urgency to identify substitutes for the use of timber in an effort to protect forest resources in many developing countries. Packaging has been identified as one of the most important areas where substitution of wood is not only possible but also obviously desirable. Considerable work has been done by different agencies in introducing alternative types of packaging. Cor- rugated fibre board (CFB) containers consume one third of the wood required for producing timber boxes of the same size. CFB boxes can also be fabricated from kraft paper produced from bamboo, long grasses and many other types of agricultural residues like bagasse, paddy, cotton stalk, jute stick, wheat straw and recycled paper and cardboard. Packaging produced from timber is often used as a source of firewood, owing to the severe shortage of fuel wood in India. CFB cartons on the other hand are recycled as pulp or paper. Thus switching over from wood to CFB boxes for the packaging of horticultural produce is a very practicable and environmentally friendly option. Increased use of corrugated cartons for local distribution of produce could be accom- plished with improvement in the quality of boxes produced in India. The ventilated CFB box which contains ventilated partitions, and which was developed at the IARI was found to be ideal for the packaging and transportation of fruits, owing to the comparably minimal level of bruising observed in these boxes. Cushioning materials used in the packaging of fruits and vegetables in wooden boxes include dry grass, paddy straw, leaves, sawdust, paper shreds etc., all of which end up as garbage and add to environmental pollution in cities. Moulded trays or cardboard partitions used in CFB boxes are, however, easily recycled. Palletization Loading and unloading are very important steps in the postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables but are often neglected. The individual handling of packaged produce in India leads to mishandling and to high postharvest losses in India. With the introduction of CFB boxes, serious consideration should be given to the introduction of palletization and me- chanical loading and unloading of produce particularly with the use of fork-lift trucks, in order to minimize produce mishandling. Storage The lowest temperature that does not cause chilling injury is the ideal storage tempera- ture for fresh fruits and vegetables. Mechanical refrigeration is generally used for the storage of fruits and vegetables. Mechanical refrigeration is, however, energy intensive and expen- sive, involves considerable initial capital investment, and requires uninterrupted supplies of electricity which are not always readily available, and cannot be quickly and easily installed. Available cold storage in India is used primarily for the storage of potatoes. Appropriate cool storage technologies are therefore required in India.
  23. 23. - 20 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region On Farm Storage On farm storage is required in remote and inaccessible areas of India, to reduce losses in highly perishable fresh horticultural produce. The high cost and high energy requirements of refrigeration, and the difficulty of installing and running refrigerated facilities in remote areas of India, precludes the use of refrigerated storage in many parts of India. Low-cost, low-energy, environmentally friendly cool chambers made from locally available materials, and which utilize the principles of evaporative cooling, were therefore developed in response to this problem. These cool chambers are able to maintain temperatures at 10–15o C below ambient, as well as at a relative humidity of 90%, depending on the season. Fruits and vegetables are stored in plastic crates within the chamber. The shelf life of the fruit and vegetables maintained in the cool chamber was reported to be increased from 3 days at room temperature, to 90 days. Control Atmosphere/Modified Atmosphere Storage Controlled atmosphere (CA) or modified atmosphere (MA) storage involves adjust- ment of the atmospheric composition surrounding commodities by removal (mainly O2 ) or addition (mainly CO2 ) of gases from the environment surrounding the fruits and vegetables. MA does not differ in principle from CA storage except for the fact that the concentrations of the gases are less precisely controlled. Basic requirements for CA storage include a gas tight chamber and control of the concentrations of CO2 and O2 . When combined with refrigera- tion, CA markedly enhances the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Containerization The use of containers for the transportation of goods was recently introduced into India. Relatively little attention has, however, been given to the use of containers for the transport of fresh horticultural produce. Containerization provides an excellent system for the shipment of goods from one place to another. Refrigerated containers are used in the transportation of fruits, vegetables and flowers in many developing countries. The design and fabrication of ventilated containers which incorporate evaporative cooling systems should be considered for the Indian context. One of the greatest advantages of the container is that it can be placed on truck or rail, without interfering with the movement of the vehicle. Palletization and containerization will go a long way in developing local and international trade. Rapid Transportation Systems Railways and roads are two important transportation systems for the movement of goods in India. The use of railways for the transportation of fruits and vegetables in India could be greatly enhanced by: making provisions for cooling and ventilation, providing im- proved handling facilities at platforms and providing storage space to accommodate the goods upon arrival at their destinations. Similarly road services could be considerably improved by widening roads, upgrading surfaces and through the introduction of one way traffic. Long waits at level crossings should be avoided by introducing flyovers at intersections in order to increase the speed and movement of goods by road. Facilities such as sheds, for temporary cool storage should be available on highways and major roads. Cold/Cool Chain The adoption of cold chain systems has been pivotal to trade in fruits and vegetables in developed countries. The maintenance of low temperatures at different stages of handling
  24. 24. - 21 - Recent Developments in Reducing Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region helps in reducing losses and in retaining the quality of fruits and vegetable. High cost and the lack of abundant uninterrupted power supplies, make it impossible to develop cold chain systems in India. Consideration should, however, be given to the development of alternative cooling systems based on evaporative cooling techniques. Systems of this type would at least reduce postharvest deterioration and extend the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables. Indigenous Fruit Processing India produces a range of indigenous tropical fruits, of excellent flavor and color. Many of these fruits are, however, underutilized. A large number are, however known for their therapeutic/medicinal and nutritive value. Consumers today are becoming increasingly conscious of the health and nutritional benefits of the food they consume, and there is an increasing tendency to avoid the consumption of chemically treated foods. Indigenous fruits can play an important role to in satisfying the demand for nutritious, delicately flavored and attractive natural foods of high therapeutic value. Some of the fruits produced in India are, however, unappealing in the fresh form, but offer considerable potential for processing and marketing. Bael fruit for example, which has a hard shell, mucilaginous texture and numerous, is not popularly consumed as a dessert fruit in India. Kokum is yet another fruit which is not acceptable in the fresh form owing to its high level of acidity, while fresh anola has a strong astringent taste. Though some value-added fruit products are currently being manufactured on a small scale, no systematic approach has been made to utilize the potential of indigenous fruit on a large scale, owing primarily to the lack of adequate quantities of raw materials. The development of orchards and the systematic collection of raw materials are of utmost importance in developing fruit processing indus- tries. Rather than competing in markets where products are already established, India must break new ground and create markets for value-added products from its indigenous fruit, which could offer a competitive advantage. Processing of Unmarketable Fruits and Vegetables and Factory Waste Considerable volumes of unmarketable and physically damaged fruits and vegetables that are without infection can be converted into value added products by processing. Bye- products of fruit and vegetable processing could also be gainfully utilized. PUBLIC AWARENESS Public awareness campaigns must be implemented in order to increase awareness of the costs and implication of losses after harvest/production. Fixed targets must also be established to curb postharvest losses, along the same lines as those used in family planning and other time bound national programs. Public awareness campaigns should involve scientists, as well as extension and social worker organizations, and should incorporate the use of audio visual aids and the mass communication systems, including both print and electronic media. The Government of India is committed to providing a massive thrust to food process- ing and other agro-based industries in an endeavor to increase the income of farmers, create employment opportunities, diversify the rural economy and foster rural industrialization. This sector has a critical role in improving agricultural productivity, reducing waste in fruits, vegetables and other perishable food items, and improving food availability for the domestic market as well as for export markets. Fresh and processed fruits and vegetables offer oppor- tunities for both the domestic market and for international trade. In today’s liberalized policy environment, India is well placed for both local and foreign investment in the food process- ing sector.
  25. 25. - 22 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region DIVERSIFICATION AND VALUE ADDITION In the past, fruits and vegetables were processed primarily into jams, jellies, chutneys, etc. Canning and dehydration were considered to be the most sophisticated methods of process- ing, prior to the discovery of rapid freezing. Cold storage has considered the only method suited to extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables, until the development of modified and controlled atmosphere storage. Relatively little emphasis was placed on the handling of fresh fruits and vegetables. In recent times, considerable emphasis has been placed on the handling of fresh fruits and vegetables. Canning has become practically obsolete and methods such as aseptic pack- aging, cryogenic freezing, deep freezing accelerated freeze drying, controlled and modified atmosphere storage, shrink wrapping etc. have been increasingly used in extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. These technologies must be adopted if India is to keep apace with the rest of the World. CONCLUSION A number of deficiencies currently exist in the postharvest management and processing of fruits and vegetables in India. Action must be taken in order to upgrade systems, in order to reduce the levels of postharvest losses in India. In a civilized world, when millions go hungry, it would be a crime to allow postharvest losses to continue. It is unfortunate that in India, policy makers and planners set targets for increased production without making any effort to reduce postharvest losses. Expenditure on crop production is required on an annual basis, while the establish- ment of infrastructural facilities for postharvest operations is a one time capital investment which must be undertaken and compensated for by the annual savings from reducing postharvest losses. Proper infrastructure, logistics and management and human resources are essential to improving postharvest management and marketing of fruits and vegetables.
  26. 26. - 23 - Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region 2. IMPROVING POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Rosa S. Rolle Agricultural Industries Officer Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service Rome, Italy INTRODUCTION The Asia-Pacific Region accounts for approximately 30% of the world’s land area. Three countries of that region: China, India and Indonesia are among the four most populous nations globally. The Region is characterized by a gradient of developmental levels which bears a strong correlation to achievements in postharvest management and capacity for agro- industrial development in its member countries. The fruit and vegetable sector across region is increasingly shifting toward the adop- tion of a market-oriented focus. This shift in focus within the sector must be facilitated and supported by enabling technologies and infrastructure, postharvest handling skills, proper logistics and organization, as well as proper marketing and management skills and a support- ive policy and regulatory environment. This paper will review recent trends across the region, issues and challenges which impact upon horticultural chain management and marketing and will discuss the role of governments in facilitating horticultural chain manage- ment and marketing in the region. GENERAL TRENDS IN THE REGION Countries of the Asia-Pacific Regions show wide variation in their income classification (Table 1). High income countries such as Japan, the Republic of China, and the Republic of Korea have, to a large extent, been successful in implementing postharvest management systems which minimize losses in perishables, while middle income countries such as the Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia are putting in place systems and strategies designed to upgrade postharvest capacities. Many low and middle income countries continue to focus on capacity building in order to minimize losses in fruits and vegetables as they struggle to overcome technical, infrastructural and managerial constraints and maintain quality and safety. Rising incomes, consumer demand for safety, quality and convenience, increasing levels of fruit and vegetable imports, increasing rates of urbanization, scientific and techno- logical developments, and the growth of fast food chains and supermarkets necessitate that countries across the region put in place appropriate policies, regulatory frameworks and infrastructure, and build capacity in postharvest management and marketing, if their fruit and vegetable sectors are to remain competitive.
  27. 27. - 24 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region 0 50 100 150 200 250 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 YEAR 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Table 1. Income Classification of Selected Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region Low Income Low-Middle Income Upper Middle High Income Cambodia China Malaysia Singapore India Fiji Japan Vietnam Iran Korea Philippines Hong Kong Sri Lanka Thailand Source: World Bank Indicators 2003 TRENDS IN THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SECTOR The past ten years have witnessed progressive growth in fruit and vegetable production in the Asia-Pacific Region (Figure 1). According to FAO statistics, in 2004 the region accounted for approximately 31% of global fruit production and 42% of global vegetable production, with India being by far the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the region. Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand are also significant producers of fruits in the region, with Thailand accounting for approximately 45% of canned pineapples in world trade. Figure 1. Trends in Fruit and Vegetable Production in the Asia Pacific Region (Source: FAOSTAT) The vast majority of the region’s fruit and vegetable production is consumed in local markets. According to FAO Statistics, the region produced 211 million MT of fruits in 2002, and exported a mere 15 million MT. Similarly 589 million megatons of vegetables were produced in the region in 2002, of which 12 million tonnes were exported. Major fruit and vegetable export markets reside within the region, although significant quantities of prepared fruits and vegetables are exported to the United States and the United Kingdom. Fruit and in particular vegetable imports into the region, however, continue to show an increasing trend 250 200 150 100 50 0 (MILLIONMT) (MILLIONMT) Fruit Vegetables 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 YEAR 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
  28. 28. - 25 - Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region (Figure 2). In many cases, these imports are competitors of local produce in that they are less costly and of better quality than the local produce. Figure 2. Vegetable Imports into Selected Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region (1995 and 2003) (Source: FAOSTAT) PRODUCERS AND TARGET MARKETS Fruit and vegetable producers in the region can be broadly grouped into four categories: small farmers; groups of farmers, clusters or cooperatives; commercial farmers and foreign entities or multinationals (Figure 3). These producers target different markets, and show a gradient in their production capabilities, access to technologies, markets information and infrastructure. Small farmers, who operate farms of less than 1 hectare, with limited access to re- sources and technology, dominate the fruit and vegetable production sector across the region. Poor quality produce and high levels of postharvest losses (Table 2) occur primarily due to the use of poor quality inputs, poor cultural practices at the production level, lack of knowl- edge and skill in harvesting, postharvest handling, packing and packaging, inadequacies in basic and postharvest specific infrastructure in terms of pre-cooling facilities, transport, storage and marketing, lack of processing facilities, high transportation costs, poor integra- tion of activities along the chain and complex marketing channels. The situation is further aggravated by the warm humid climates of most countries within the region. Vietnam Thailand Sri Lanka Philippines Pakistan Nepal Mongolia Korea Iran Indonesia India Fiji Bangladesh 0 100 200 300 400 Vegetable Imports (Thousand MT) 2003 1995
  29. 29. - 26 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region Figure 3. Categories of Producers in Countries across the Asia-Pacific Region These small farmers generally focus on production activities, and show relatively little interest in postharvest and marketing activities which are primarily undertaken by middle- men, traders and assemblers. Their major markets include highly disorganized traditional markets such as wholesale and wet markets, though many supply the requirements of institu- tions, supermarkets and fast food chains. With very limited access to financial resources and technology and low returns from their agricultural production, these farmers show relatively little interest in upgrading their traditional practices and the quality of their inputs. Table 2. Estimated Levels of Postharvest Losses in the Asia-Pacific Region Country Estimated Level of Losses (%) India 40 Indonesia 20–50 Iran >35 Korea 20–50 Philippines 27–42 Sri Lanka 16–41 Thailand 17–35 Vietnam 20–25 The growing need to supply institutional markets, supermarkets and hypermarkets in the region with produce of standardised quality, has stimulated the development of partner- ships among suppliers in order to meet volume requirements, to assure consistency of supplies, and to enhance efficiency in marketing. Commodity clusters, farmer organizations, and cooperatives are some examples of such partnerships. Many of these entities in lesser developed countries of the region are facilitated by infrastructural support and input from governments. In the more advanced countries of the region such as the Republic of China, the Level of Market Information Level of Postharvest Infrastructure Level of Technology Exporter owned or leased Commercial farmers Cooperatives /clusters/ Small Rainfed Irrigated Modern and Traditional Markets Modern Markets Export
  30. 30. - 27 - Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region Republic of Korea and Thailand, cooperatives operate modern marketing systems which integrate a cold chain, alongside the traditional marketing system. Buyer-supplier partnerships such as contract farming arrangements also facilitate fruit and vegetable marketing in many countries across the region, while providing farmers access to skills, technologies, and infrastructure. The lettuce cluster in the Philippines (Box 1) pro- vides a good example of the success of both clustering and buyer-supplier partnerships. This latter partnership is facilitated and supported by infrastructure provided by the Government. Well equipped commercial farmers and multinationals generally undertake fruit and vegetable production for export markets. Much of this export trade is intra-regional, although limited quantities of horticultural produce and their processed products are exported interna- tionally (Figure 4). Figure 4. Major Export Markets for Fresh and Processed Fruits and Vegetables INFRASTRUCTURE Increased distances between production areas and markets, brought about by urbanization, necessitates the transit of produce over long distances from rural to urban centres, to feed the constantly increasing populations in these centres. Proper road infrastructure, appropriate transportation infrastructure as well as proper packing and packaging technologies are criti- cal to minimizing mechanical injury during the transit of produce from rural to urban areas. Innovative transportation systems, such as the use of a tram-line in the Philippines (Rapusas, 2004) have greatly facilitated small farmers in remote areas in overcoming infrastructural obstacles in accessing inputs and in supplying fresh produce to markets at reduced cost. Piloting of this system was supported by the national government, and is currently operated by a cooperative (Rapusas, 2004). Cold chain programs are being piloted in the Philippines, and Indonesia. Such programs are already operational in more advanced countries such as Thailand, the Republic of China, and the Republic of Korea. All of these national programs are government supported and are operated by private sector entities such as cooperatives. Low income countries of the region have developed and implemented innovative, low cost energy efficient cool storage systems, in an effort to minimize storage losses. The zero- energy cool chamber for cooling fruits and vegetables in India (Choudhury et al., 2004) and modified cellar storage technology for the storage of mandarin oranges in Nepal (Paudel, 2004) are examples of such innovations. Research and development into the design and use of these systems has been largely supported by governments. (MT) 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 USA UK Asia Fresh Fruit Fruit Juice Prepared fruit (MT) 12 12 123123123123123123123123123123 12 USA UK Asia Fresh or dried Frozen Prepared 450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1212 12 1212 1212
  31. 31. - 28 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region SAFETY AND QUALITY Current trends point to increasing consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in urban cen- tres, owing to rising incomes, and growing consumer demand for produce that is safe, of high quality and conveniently packaged. To this end, some of the more advanced countries of the region have been proactive in implementing Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Agri- cultural Practices in fresh fruit and vegetable handling. Much work, however, needs to be done across the region in order to promote quality and safety consciousness, and in particular to assure the use of water of appropriate quality in pre- and post-harvest operations, as well as the appropriate use of pesticides, herbicides fungicides and fertilizers during the production of fruits and vegetables. The implementation of regulatory frameworks which govern food safety and quality, laboratories and quality assurance services is required in many countries across the region. PROCESSING Considerable opportunity exists for processing in rural areas across the region. Lack of organized production-processing linkages, limited/antiquated processing infrastructure and technologies, and inadequate packaging; however, pose major constraints to processing activities. Partnerships among these entities could greatly enhance their operations. The minimal processing of fruits and vegetables is an area which offers considerable potential for development of the fruit and vegetable sector, given the current growth in export market opportunities for minimally processed fruit in the region (Figure 5). Minimally processed produce, however, deteriorates at a much faster rate than does intact fruits and vegetables. Stringent quality management systems such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) as well as proper packag- ing and temperature management are, therefore, required to assure its safety and freshness. Box 1: The Case of Lettuce Clustering in the Philippines On the island of Mindanao, small vegetable growers in different villages of the high- land province of Bukidnon have begun producing vegetables such as lettuce, carrots and garden peas for local traders at the vegetable trading post at CDO, which is situated 75 km away from the farms. A year later, an additional market (a vegetable processor supplying large fast food outlets in the metropolis) was identified in Manila, and ap- proximately 400 kg of lettuce were transported by air on a weekly basis from Mindano to that market. Apart from the high cost of airfreight, lettuce delivered to the processor did not meet the 61% yield specified in the marketing contract, owing to the need for 16 to 20% trimming. Attaining the high quality standards of the fast food processor was a formidable challenge to the grower. However, given the grower’s determination to suc- ceed in the farm enterprise and the processor’s recognition of this willingness, recom- mendations pertinent to the use of refrigeration and shipping were made by the processor, in order to reduce freight cost. The processor, in addition, readily offered technical advice on the improvement of production and postharvest practices to the grower. The requirement to supply a 20-foot refrigerated van with 3.5 Mt of lettuce on a weekly basis, led to the formation of a cluster of lettuce growers. This cluster of grow- ers, “the lettuce cluster” shared production technologies to come up with a common
  32. 32. - 29 - Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region quality standard, and began making weekly shipments to the processor in Manila. With the use of refrigerated transportation, the trimmings were significantly reduced to a maximum of 10% and the processor’s yield recovery specification of 61% was success- fully met. This supply chain was facilitated by equipment inputs in the form of cold chain infrastructure from the government. Its successes have also provided the impetus for other independent, small lettuce growers to join in the cluster. This development has given the cluster a window of opportunity to expand its production volume and, in turn its captive market. Rapusas (2004) Figure 5. Trends in the Export of Prepared Fruit and Vegetables from the Asia- pppppppppPacific Region during the Period 1995–2003 CHALLENGES AND IMPEDIMENTS From the fore-going discussion, it is clear that horticultural chain management in the region is the primary responsibility of private sector entities which are supported and facilitated by Governments. Poor quality produce due to inadequate and/or inappropriate infrastructure for postharvest handling, processing and marketing as well as inadequate levels of skills in harvest- ing, postharvest handling, logistics, and marketing constrain horticultural chain management and thus negatively impact on the quality and competitiveness of fruits and vegetables across the region. Furthermore, lack of economies of scale, inconsistency of supply, safety concerns and limited skills in cold chain management pose particular challenges to competitively meeting the volume and quality requirements of modern marketing systems and export markets. At the same time, fresh fruits and vegetables must be accessible to the large populations in local markets, who generally have low purchasing power. Overcoming these challenges will necessitate: • Increased investment in research, development, training and extension programs across the region in order to build capacity in horticultural chain management and marketing 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 YEAR (MTx100)
  33. 33. - 30 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region • A macro-economic and policy environment that is supportive of development of the fruit and vegetable sector • Proper regulatory frameworks which govern horticultural chain management and the quality of fresh produce • Institutions and appropriate capacity to facilitate the implementation of these frameworks. • Improved organization of farmers and farming systems • Increased access of small farmers and processors to credit and market information NEW ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS The current market orientation of the postharvest sector necessitate that governments put in place institutional support mechanisms in order to facilitate farmers and the private sector in enhancing the competitiveness of the fresh produce and value-added products that they pro- duce and market. In this regard, Governments must articulate a long term vision and strategy for development of the fruit and vegetable sector. This strategy must integrate consideration for all elements of the supply chain of fruits and vegetables, from the producer to the con- sumer in local, national, regional and international markets, in order to ensure that production is linked to market demand, thereby facilitating and supporting private sector linkages to new market opportunities. Within the context of a national vision and strategy, Governments must provide a facilitating policy environment as well as incentives for investment in postharvest and value addition to fruits and vegetables. Such incentives should include support for the development of skills in postharvest management, logistics, marketing and value-addition; support for research and development; the provision of technical assistance; the provision of direct sub- sidies for private sector investment in postharvest specific infrastructure and the provision of credit that is responsive to the needs of producers and processors. Since much of the production takes place in the rural sector, emphasis must be placed on fostering agri-business development in rural areas. In this regard, governments must also invest in the development of agri-business networks in rural areas. Governments across the region are increasingly being required to provide legal and regulatory frameworks which govern horticultural chain management and fruit and vegetable quality and safety.Assuring adherence to and enforcement of the principles promoted through these frameworks will, however, necessitate that governments provide the necessary support mechanisms to the sector. Such mechanisms include ensuring the availability of support facilities such as laboratories, quality assurance and quality control services. Given the current shift in marketing trends in the region, governments will be increas- ingly required to support and strengthen small and marginal farmers, who produce and sell to wet markets, so as to ensure that they are not marginaliszed with changes in fruit and vegetable marketing systems. This must be done by providing them with training, addressing their technical constraints and building institutions that respond to their needs. At the same time, it will be necessary for governments to upgrade the infrastructural facilities used by them for marketing their fresh produce, so as to ensure that these outlets remain competitive as sales outlets for fresh fruits and vegetables.
  34. 34. - 31 - Improving Postharvest Management and Marketing in the Asia-Pacific Region REFERENCES APO, 2004. Seminar Highlights. Proceedings of theAPO Seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables. In Press. Choudhury, M.L. Susanta K.R. and Kumar, R. 2004. Recent developments in reducing postharvest losses in the Asia-Pacific region. Proceedings of the APO Seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables. In Press. Manalili, N., and Wheatley, C. 2002. Report of a Regional Workshop on a Global Initiative on Postharvest. FAO Headquarters, Rome. Paudel, K.D. 2004. Nepal Country Report. Proceedings of the APO Seminar on Reduction of Postharvest Losses of Fruit and Vegetables. In Press. Rapusas, R. 2004. The Philippine vegetable industry: Status and measures for reducing postharvest losses. Mrema, G.C. and Rolle, R.S. 2003. Status of the postharvest sector and its contribution to agricultural development and economic growth. Proceedings of the 9th JIRCAS International Symposium on Value Addition to Agricultural Products, Y. Mori, T. Hayashi and E. Highley, eds. Pp.13–20.
  35. 35. - 32 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region 3. PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FOR REDUCING POSTHARVEST LOSSES AND ADDING VALUE Dr. Rosa S. Rolle Agricultural Industries Officer Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service Rome, Italy INTRODUCTION The fruit and vegetable sector has grown substantially both in volume and in variety of out- puts traded globally. Rising incomes, falling transportation costs, improved technologies and evolving international agreements, have all contributed to this level of growth. This increased level of fruit and vegetable production has, unfortunately, not been matched by developments in supply chain management, or by vertical integration of production with processing in many developing countries. Processing activities are of critical importance to expansion and diversification within the fruit and vegetable sector in that they increase market opportunities for fresh fruits and vegetables and add value while minimizing postharvest losses. Furthermore, processing im- proves the viability, profitability and sustainability of fruit and vegetable production systems by increasing farm incomes, and generating rural employment and foreign exchange. Traditional processing technologies such as thermal processing (bottling and canning), freezing, dehydration (salting, brining and candying) drying, and fermentation are widely applied in the processing of fruits and vegetables at various levels (artisanal, intermediate and high) and scales (cottage, small, medium and large). Tropical juices and fruit pulps, canned pineapples, tomato paste and canned and dried mushrooms are examples of fruit and vegetable products produced using traditional processing technologies and which are increasingly entering in international trade. Dried and canned mushrooms produced in China, currently account for 52% of world trade in processed mushrooms, while canned pineapples produced in Thailand accounts for approximately 45% of that product in world trade. Minimal processing technologies, specialized packaging and natural preservation systems are increasingly being applied in the preservation of fruits and vegetables for both developed and developing country markets, in response to growing consumer demand for convenience and for “fresh-like” fruits of high quality which are nutritious, flavorful and stable. These processing technologies focus on adding value with comparatively little prod- uct transformation while increasing product diversity. While minimal and traditional processing technologies present considerable opportu- nities for innovation and vertical diversification in the fruit and vegetable sector, relatively few small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are able to tap into and benefit from these oppor- tunities. Many SMEs lack the capacity to operate competitively in the current globalized market environment owing to problems of scale, the poor quality of input supplies, poor access to technology, limited technical expertise and research capacity, low production
  36. 36. - 33 - Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Reducing Postharvest Losses and Adding Value efficiency, high marketing cost, lack of knowledge and consequently inability to comply with international standards for processed products. After a review of cost-effective traditional and modern fruit and vegetable processing technologies appropriate to developing countries, this paper will discuss issues and con- straints to improving the management of processing operations, and will highlight strategies to overcome these constraints, while citing successful case studies. TRADITIONAL FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Traditional processing technologies, applied in the conservation of horticultural produce employ a gradient of technologies, ranging from artisanal to intermediate to high technolo- gies. Major categories of processed products produced with the use of these technologies include fruit preserves, fruit and vegetable juices, fermented products (wines and vinegars), candied products and frozen and dried products. Figures 1 and 2 summarize the major categories of traditionally processed fruit products produced in the Asian region in 2003. Figure 2. Categories and Quantities of Processed Vegetable Products Produced in the Asian Region in 2003 (Source: FAOSTAT) Figure 1. Major Categories of Processed Fruit Products Produced in the Asian Region in 2003 (Source: FAOSTAT) Production (000 Mt) Prepared Dried Juice Canned In vinegar Frozen Dehydrated Preservative 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Developing Asia Asia Tropical Dried Prepared Fruit Juice Dried Production (000 Mt) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Developing Asia Asia
  37. 37. - 34 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region While these processing technologies are generally effective in rendering fruits and vegetables microbiologically stable, they alter the flavor, color and texture characteristics of the product. Freezing Freezing is a fairly widespread technology which when properly carried out causes minimal changes in the shape, texture, flavor and color of foods. Vegetables are generally frozen subsequent to a blanching step, while fruit can be frozen either in a fresh state or in syrup. Many fruits and vegetables will retain good quality for up to 12 months, when stored at temperatures of –180 C. The keeping quality of frozen products is, however, dependent on their storage conditions. Energy requirements for freezing operations are high and thus the cost of this technol- ogy and the storage of its products are high. China is by far the largest producer of frozen vegetables in the region. Figure 4. Leading Producers of Canned Pineapple in Developing Asia in 2003 (Source: FAOSTAT) Figure 3. Frozen Vegetable Production in Developing Asian Countries (2003) (Source: FAOSTAT) Production (Mt) 0 200 400 600 800 Thailand Philippines Malaysia Indonesia India China Canned Pineapples 0 100 200 300 400 500 Thailand Philippines Indonesia India China Frozen Vegetable Production (Mt) 2003
  38. 38. - 35 - Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Reducing Postharvest Losses and Adding Value Thermal Processing Thermal processing is still the major technology applied in the shelf-stable preserva- tion of fruits and vegetables. Thermal processing can be carried out at a range of technical levels, from the cottage through to the industrial level, and is widely applied in the production of jams, jellies and canned and bottled fruits and vegetables. Recent developments in thermal processing technologies include the use of aseptic processing systems which make use of sterile laminated packaging. While these developments have improved product quality, they have increased product price. Leading producers of canned pineapples in developing Asia are presented in Figure 4. Drying Technologies Drying technologies applied in fruit and vegetable preservation range from simple and appropriate technologies such as sun and solar drying to state of the art technologies such as freeze drying, drum drying and spray drying. Dried fruit and vegetable products have the advantage of reduced weight and reduced transportation cost. Many of the conventional drying techniques applied in the preservation of fruits and vegetables lead to losses in nutritional value, color, flavor, aroma and texture. A considerable volume of research is therefore currently focused on the development of alternative drying technologies which are economic in use and which retain product quality. Thailand is by far the largest producer of dried fruit in the region, while China is the sole producer of dried vegetables (Figure 5). Figure 5. Leading Producers of Dried Fruit in Developing Asia (2003) (Source: FAOSTAT) Dehydration Treatments Salting, and brining of fruits and vegetables, and the candying of fruit are dehydration treatments based on the principle of osmosis. These processes essentially involve introducing the fruit or vegetable into an aqueous solution of increased osmotic pressure (i.e., high sugar or salt content) whereby its tissue is impregnated with the solute. Dehydration treatments of this type facilitate the removal of water, with limited expo- sure to heat, and can thus be applied in combination with other technologies such as drying and freezing (Figure 6), to reduce cost (Behsnilian et al., 2003). When combined with Vietnam Thailand Philippines Indonesia India China 0 20 40 60 80 100 Dried Fruit Production (000 Mt) 2003
  39. 39. - 36 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region refrigeration, these treatments increase the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables over that of fresh produce. Vacuum impregnation technology, which involves combining osmotic treatment with vacuum conditions, has been shown to improve both the texture and appearance of osmoti- cally treated fruits and vegetables. Figure 6. Osmotic Treatment as a Component Step of the Process Chain (Source: Behsnilian et al., 2003) Fermentation Fermentation is the slow bioconservation process of foods induced by microorgan- isms, or by enzymes of microbial, plant or animal origin. It is one of the oldest forms of food preservation/processing technologies in the world. Fermentation technologies in developing countries have evolved through years of experience rather than through scientific break- throughs. A variety of fruits and vegetables are preserved by fermentation (Table 1). Table 1. Fermented Fruit and Vegetable Products Produced in the Asian Region Name and region Type of product Pickled fruit and vegetables Fermented dried vegetables Indian sub-continent Acar, Achar, Tandal achar, Garam nimboo achar Lemon pickle, lime pickle, mango pickle Gundruk South East Asia Asinan, Burong mangga, Dalok, Jeruk, Kiam-chai, Kiam-cheyi, Kong-chai, Naw-mai-dong, Pak-siam-dong, Paw-tsay, Phak- dong, Phonlami-dong, Sajur asin, Sambal tempo-jak, Santol, Si-sek-chai, Sunki, Tang-chai, Tempoyak East Asia Bossam-kimchi, Chonggak-kimchi, Dan moogi, Dongchimi, Kachdoo kigctuki, Kimchi, Mootsanji, Muchung-kimchi, Oigee, Oiji, Oiso baegi, Tongaechu-kimchi, Tongkimchi, Totkal kimchi Cha-tsái, Hiroshimana, Jangagee, Nara snkei, Narazuke, Nozawana, Nukamiso-zuke, Omizuke, Pow tsai, Reid in snow, Seokbakji, shiozuke, Szechwan cabbage, Tai-tan tsoi, Takana, Takuan, Tsa Tzai, Tsu, Umeboshi, Wasabi-Zuke, Yen tsai Pickled fruit and vegetables Fermented in brine Pickled fruit and vegetables Drying Freezing Water Content 80–90% Water Content 40% Osmotic Agent Concentrate Water Fruits, Vegetables Concentrated Solutions OSMOSIS TREATMENT DILUTE SOLUTION TREATED PRODUCTS Drying Freezing
  40. 40. - 37 - Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Reducing Postharvest Losses and Adding Value Figure 6. Leading Producers of Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables in Developing Asia in 2003 (Source: FAOSTAT) Minimal Processing Minimal processing employs an integrated approach wherein the handling, process- ing, packaging and distribution of raw fruits and vegetables is properly managed with the application of appropriate food safety principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). A hurdle approach is often applied in order to enhance the microbial stability and sensory quality of minimally processed products. The basic principle of this approach being that microorganisms are inhibited by combined preservative factors (referred to as hurdles). Low temperature storage, mild heat treatments, control of water activity, control of redox potential through appropriate packaging, the application of preservatives such as sorbate, benzoate, and ascorbic acid are commonly applied hurdles in the minimal processing for fruits and vegetables. Figure 7 depicts an example of the hurdle concept as applied to a minimally processed refrigerated product, wherein mild heat treatment, a chemical preserva- tive, packaging and refrigerated conditions render the product storable. Many fermented products are of limited shelf-life owing to the unavailability of appropriate post-fermentation treatments which terminate the fermentation processes and extend the shelf-life of these products. MODERN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Growing consumer demand for convenience and for safe foods of high quality with “fresh- like attributes,” has led to considerable innovation and diversification in fruit and vegetable processing. New product lines which include high care products such as trimmed and packed beans, ready prepared salads, pre-prepared stir fry mixes and prepared fruits are increasingly entering in supermarkets in developing countries and in export trade. While value-addition of this type generally requires relatively little product transformation, it necessitates investment in technology, equipment, management systems, and stringent adherence to food safety prin- ciples and practices if product quality is to be ensured. Leading producers of minimally pro- cessed fruits and vegetables in developing Asia are shown in Figure 6. Thailand Vietnam Philippines Indonesia India China 0 500 1000 1500 Production (000 Mt) Prepared vegetable Prepared fruit
  41. 41. - 38 - Postharvest Management of Fruit and Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region Water of an appropriate quality and cold storage during the processing, packaging, distribution and retailing are key requirements of minimal processing operations. Minimal processing applications which employ the hurdle concept are generally inex- pensive, energy efficient, simple and satisfactory for the in situ preservation of fruits and vegetables. Figure 7. Schematic Representations of Hurdles: pH, preservatives (P) and Mild Heat Treatment T(t) Applied to a Minimally Processed Fruit under Refrigerated Conditions (Tapia et al., 1996, as reported by Barbosa et al., 2003) Non-Thermal Processing Technologies A number of non-thermal physical processes such as high intensity pulsed electric fields, high intensity pulsed light, high hydrostatic pressure and food irradiation offer consid- erable potential for future use in the minimal processing of fruits and vegetables. The high cost of many of these technologies precludes their application in many developing countries. ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS FACED BY PROCESSING OPERATIONS Increasing urbanization and the opening of access to world markets under globalization has raised the demand for storage, quality, convenience and safety characteristics of processed fruit and vegetable products. Meeting these criteria poses a major challenge for SMEs engaged in fruit and vegetable processing. Many of these enterprises are unable to comply with international standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), HACCP certification, quality assurance, and labelling, packaging and environmental standards owing to a number of technical, infrastructural and institutional factors. Technical Issues Some of the technical factors which negatively impact on fruit and vegetable process- ing operations in SMEs include: • Inappropriate and/or obsolete processing equipment • Low processing efficiency • Lack of technical support services • Difficulty in sourcing equipment of an appropriate scale, and suited to the fruit and vegetable varieties produced • Inadequate quality control systems Institutional Issues These technical constraints are compounded by a number of institutional constraints. In addition to an inadequacy of government policies which promote and support fruit and PACKAGE CONTINUOUS REFRIGERATION HURDLE PRESERVATION STORAGE pH P T(t)
  42. 42. - 39 - Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Reducing Postharvest Losses and Adding Value vegetable food processing, these include inconsistent and insufficient supplies of raw materi- als of high quality, limited infrastructure, limited access to external inputs and limited marketing infrastructure. Raw Materials and Infrastructure Agricultural production in most developing countries is seasonal and variable. Raw materials are often produced on a small scale for subsistence, rather than for commercial purposes, and are thus not often the best suited raw materials for processing. The procure- ment of consistent supplies of raw materials for processing consequently poses difficulty. The bulkiness and high perishability of fruits and vegetables, coupled with high transporta- tion costs, underdeveloped road infrastructure and the unavailability of cool storage facili- ties, generally leads to considerable losses during transport from farm to the processing site, and increases the cost of inputs. Other basic infrastructural facilities such as clean water and reliable energy supplies, which are necessary for the development of any food processing industry, are not always accessible and available. Access to External Inputs Relatively little attention is given to the food processing sector by planners and policy makers in many developing countries. The capacity for innovation within the industry is limited by the lack of support for research and development. University, national and regional laboratories are generally poorly equipped, and the research conducted by these institutions is often poorly linked to processing activities. Lack of information and network- ing pose a major hindrance to research and development. Operational business and marketing skills are often very limited and basic knowledge on international standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), HACCP, quality assur- ance, labelling, packaging and environmental standards is very weak. Training programs for upgrading these skills are generally very limited and are offered on a sporadic basis with little potential for continuity and follow-up support. SMEs generally have little economic power, are usually incapable of supporting research and often do not have the resources required to seek technical assistance. Often they are reliant on extension services which are inadequate both in training and in availability. Poor access to credit and high interest rates, often limit their ability to invest in equipment and to acquire consumable items. Marketing Infrastructure and Marketing Systems Limited availability of transportation and road networks, pose problems in accessing raw materials and in marketing processed products. Poor quality and packaging, and the lack of market research geared toward product improvement considerably reduce the competi- tiveness of processed products in local markets. The incapacity to adhere to the stringent quality standards and labelling requirements and the lack of economies of scale also poses a major barrier to accessing foreign markets. STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS CONSTRAINTS TO FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING Enhancing the competitiveness of SMEs in fruit and vegetable processing will necessitate strategies designed to upgrade raw material supplies, increase processing efficiency, develop economies of scale and upgrade technical and management skills.