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1. Describe the atomic structure of an atom and name all it’s components.
2. Explain how an ION differs from an atom.
3. Explain the difference between “bound” and “free” electrons.
4 Explain the function of the “Valence ring”
5. Define the following items: Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors.
6. Describe the two theories of electron flow.
7. Define in detail “voltage” and how is it measured.
8. Define in detail “current” and how is it measured.
9. Define in detail “resistance” and how is it measured.
10. Explain the relationship between current and resistance.
11. List and describe the various factors that effect resistance.
12. Explain what ohms law is and how it can be used.
13. Describe the effects of “current flow” through a conductor.
14. Describe in detail the two general categories of “electricity”.
15. Describe the two types of “dynamic electricity”.
1. Draw and label the parts of a Series Circuit and a Parallel Circuit.
2. Explain the characteristics of “Voltage” and how it differs between a Series
Circuit and a Parallel Circuit.
3. Explain the characteristics of “Current” and how it differs between a Series
Circuit and a Parallel Circuit.
4. Explain the characteristics of “Resistance” and how it differs between a Series
Circuit and a Parallel Circuit.
1. Describe two power sources used in a vehicle.
2. Explain the term “load” and how it is used in a circuit.
3. Describe the two types of resistors and how each is used.
4. Explain the color code of a resistor that is: “Brown, Orange, Red, Silver.
5. Describe a “stepped resistor “ and how it differs from a “fixed resister”.
6. List and describe three types of “variable resistors”.
7. Explain how a “NTC” thermistor differs from a “PTC” thermistor.
8. List six types of switches used in automobiles.
9. Describe the two circuits used in a relay.
10 Explain how a “relay” differs from a “solenoid”.
11. Explain how current flows into a “capacitor”.
12. Explain the term “semiconductor”.
13. Draw, label, and describe the basic function of a “diode”.
14. Draw, label, and describe the basic function of a “bi-polar transistor”.
15. Explain the term “Integrated Circuit”.
16. List three types of “circuit protective devices”.
17. Describe the basic construction of a “fuse” or “fuse element”.
18. Explain how a “fuse element” differs from a “fusible link”.
19. Describe the basic construction of a “circuit breaker”.
ANALOG AND DIGITALMETERS
1. Explain how reading an Analog meter differs from a Digital meter.
2. Explain the following electrical units of measure symbols ( M, K, m, u ).
3. List three types of meters.
4. Describe how voltmeters are connected to a circuit.
5. Explain how “meter loading” affects the circuit.
6. Describe “meter impedance” and how it effects a circuit?
7. List the fixed impedance value of a digital voltmeter.
8. Explain how the impedance of a digital meter differs from an analog meter.
9. Describe how ammeters are connected to a circuit.
10. Explain how analog ohmmeters differ from digital ohmmeters in setup.
11. Explain what precautions one should take while connecting an ohmmeter to a
WIRE, TERMINAL AND CONNECTOR REPAIR
1. Explain which type of wire is used when current flow is high.
2. Explain what is mean by system polarity and how is it used today.
3. Explain how the colors of the wire insulation are used and give an example.
4. Explain how wire is sized, different sizing systems, and provide examples.
5. Name the correct type of solder used for electrical repair repair and why
6. Outline the procedure for “Tinning an Iron”.
7. List the rules for good soldering.
8. Outline in detail the correct procedure for splicing a new wire end on.
9. When and why is a heat gun used?
1. Describe the basic construction of a lead-acid battery.
2. Explain what materials are used to make up the: positive plate, negative plate, and
3. Describe the basic chemical operation of a single cell that makes a battery.
4. List the voltage output of both a single battery cell and a six cell automotive
battery. Be exact.
5. Explain the four basic battery “capacity ratings” systems.
6. List the gases that are produced during the charging process from both the positive and
the negative plates.
7. Explain why repeated “overcharging” or “cycling” is harmful to a battery.
8. List the three basic battery tests / inspections that can be performed.
9. List ten (10) items inspected while performing a “visual inspection”.
10. Explain the terms “battery drain” and “parasitic loads”.
11. Describe the procedure of checking parasitic drain on a car.
12. List the maximum parasitic drain allowed.
13. Describe why and how baking soda is used on an automotive battery.
14. List two methods of checking a battery’s “state of charge.
15. List the specific gravity readings of a battery that has the following states of
charge: 100%, 50%, 0%.
16. Explain the term “specific gravity” and how it is measured.
17. List the open circuit voltages of a battery with the following states of charge 100%, 50%, 0%.
18. Describe the “open circuit voltage” test procedure.
19. What is the minimum charge a battery needs to perform a Heavy Load Test.
20. Explain in detail the “Heavy Load” or “Capacity” test procedure.
21. What is the maximum time a Heavy Load Test should be performed?
22 How much of a load is placed on a battery that has a 500 CCA rating?
23. What action should be taken if battery voltage drops to 8.7 volts during a heavy load test?
What if the voltage was 10.3 volts?
TOYOTA STARTING SYSTEMS
1. List the two staring system circuits.
2. List the components that make up the “control circuit”.
3. List the components that make up the “motor circuit”.
4. Explain in detail how a “Conventional Starter” differs from that of a “Gear Reduction
5. Explain why an “overrunning clutch” is needed and how it works.
6. Explain how the “starter drive pinion” engages (pushed out) with the ring gear when
the ignition key is turned to the “Start” position.
7. List and describe the five items included in a “Visual Inspection”.
8. Explain in detail the steps taken in order to perform a “Current Draw Test”.
9. Explain the procedure and the need for a voltage drop test of the “Motor Circuit”
1. Describe the construction and operation of a capacitor.
2. Name the three types of capacitors.
3. Describe the three uses of capacitors.
4. Name and explain both current flow theories.
5. Describe how a semicondor differs from a conductor or an insulator.
6. What are two common types of semiconductor material.
7. Explain what “Doping “ is and how N-Type or P-Type material is made.
8. Describe the function and construction of a “Diode”.
9. Explain the term PN junction.
10. Describe the depletion region of a diode.
11. What is the voltage drop (the voltmeter reading) of a diode?
12. Explain the terms “Forward” and “Reverse” Bias.
13. Describe Rectification and how diodes are used.
14. Explain the difference between half-wave and full-wave rectification.
15. Describe the function of a De-spiking (Voltage Suppression) diode.
16. Explain the operation of a De-spiking (Voltage Suppression) diode.
17. Describe the function of an Isolation diode.
18. Explain the operation of an Isolation diode.
19. Explain how a “Zener Diode” differs from a conventional diode.
20. Explain the term “Zener Point” (Avalanche Point) and what happens at this point.
21. Explain how a “Light Emitting Diode” (LED) differs from a conventional diode.
22. What is the voltage drop (the voltmeter reading) of an LED?
1. Describe the basic construction of a Bipolar Transistor.
2. Draw a PNP Transistor and label its parts.
3 Explain the two current paths of a bipolar transistor.
4. Explain the purpose of the arrow on the emitter and why is the direction of it
5. If the arrow on the emitter is pointing toward the base. What type of transistor is
it and what voltage signal (positive or negative) is needed to the base in order to
forward bias the transistor?
6. Explain and provide an example of “transistor gain”.
7. Describe what an integrated circuit is.
COMPUTERS AND LOGIC CIRCUITS
1. Explain both the purpose and different types of inputs used by the computer.
2. Name the type of output signal most often used by the computer.
3. Name the components that are typically used as output devices.
4. Explain the difference between Analog and Digital Signals.
5. Explain both the purpose and complete name of an A/D converter.
6. Draw both an Analog and Digital signal.
7. Explain the binary numbering system and why it is used.
8. Explain the function of the Microprocessor.
9. Describe the purpose of the RAM (Random Access Memory)
10. Describe the purpose of the ROM (Read Only Memory)
11. Describe the purpose of the PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)
12. Explain the basic function and list the truth table of an “AND” logic gate circuit.
13. Draw the equivalent mechanical circuit of an “AND” logic gate circuit.
14. Explain the basic function and list the truth table of an “OR” logic gate circuit.
15. Draw the equivalent mechanical circuit of an “OR” logic gate circuit.
16. Describe the basic function and list the truth table of a “NOT” logic gate circuit.
17. Describe the basic function and list the truth table of a “NAND” logic gate circuit.
18. Describe the basic function and list the truth table of a “NOR” logic gate circuit.
19. Describe are the two basic components of a “FLIP-FLOP” logic gate circuit.
SENSORS & ACTUATORS
1. Describe the term “Digital Signal” and provide an example.
2. List three types of “Resistive senors” and provide an example of each.
3. List three “types of Voltage generating sensors” and provide an example of each.
4. List three types of “Switch sensors” and provide an example of each.
5. List two types of “Actuators” and provide an example of each.
6. Describe the operation of both types of “thermistors” and draw an example of the
7. Explain the operation of a “Piezo Resistive” sensor.
8. Explain how a “Piezo Resistive” sensor differs from a “Piezo Electric” sensor.
9. Describe the operation and construction of the two basic types of Oxygen Sensors.
10. Outline the construction and common uses of a “Magnetic Inductance” sensor.
11. Outline the construction and common uses of a “Phototransistor” switch.
12. Explain the operation of a “Reed” switch and how they are used.
13. Describe the basic operation of a “stepper motor” and how they are used.
14. Explain two ways in which solenoids can be controlled.
Exhaust Oxygen Content Sensing (OX1)
Exhaust oxygen sensors are used on Toyota
EFI and EFI/TCCS equipped engines to
provide air/fuel ratio feedback information to
the ECU. This information is used to
constantly adjust the air/fuel ratio to
stoichiometry during warm idle and cruise
operating conditions. The stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio delivers one pound of fuel for
each 14.7 pounds of air entering the intake
manifold and results in the most efficient
combustion and catalyst operation. When the
electronic control system is using
information from the oxygen sensor to adjust
air/fuel ratio, the system is said to be
operating in closed loop.
Exhaust oxygen sensor efficiency is
dependent upon its operating temperature.
The sensor will only generate an accurate
signal when it has reached its minimum
operating temperature of 750'F. Therefore,
the oxygen sensor is typically located in the
exhaust stream at the manifold collector.
This location is close enough to the exhaust
valves to maintain adequate operating
temperature under most driving conditions
and allows a representative exhaust sample
from all cylinders.
Open and Closed Loop Operation
In addition to promoting efficient combustion
and catalyst operation, a stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio also promotes excellent fuel
economy. This relatively lean mixture is
desirable during cruise and idle operation;
however, other operating conditions often
require a richer air/fuel ratio. When the
electronic control system ignores signals
from the oxygen sensor and does not correct
the air/fuel ratio to 14.7:1, the system is said
to be operating in open loop.
In order to prevent overheating of the catalyst
and ensure good driveability, open loop
operation is required under the following
• During engine starting
• During cold engine operation
• During moderate to heavy load operation
• During acceleration and deceleration
During open loop operation, the ECU ignores
information from the exhaust oxygen senso