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  1. 1. Welcome to our presentation! BRITISH CULTURE Group 7 : Lê Thị Soan Dương Nguyễn Thị Hoài Hương Phan Thị Hoàng Diễm Trương Thị Nữ Phan Thị Minh Thương Lê Thị Vân
  2. 2. THE GOVERNMENT <ul><li>OUTLINE </li></ul><ul><li>I. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>II. Body </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ministries & Departments </li></ul><ul><li>4. Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>5. Three parties </li></ul><ul><li>III. Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE CABINET About 20 ministers Chosen by the Prime Minister Include departmental & non-departmental ministers The Prime Minister
  4. 4. Functions - To initiate & decide on policy - The supreme control of government - The co-ordination of government departments
  5. 5. CABINET MEETINGS <ul><li>The Cabinet meets once a week in private and its proceedings are confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Reports are made of the meetings and circulated to government departments </li></ul>
  6. 6. CABINET MEETINGS <ul><li>They summarize the topics discussed and decisions taken but they never refer to individuals or what they said </li></ul><ul><li>After 30 years Cabinet papers may be made available for inspection in the Public Record Office at Kew, Surrey </li></ul>
  7. 7. CABINET OFFICE Functions - Running a busy communication network - Keeping ministers in touch with each other - Drawing up the agendas for cabinet meetings
  8. 8. CABINET OFFICE <ul><li>It also does the same things for cabinet committees </li></ul><ul><li>These committees are appointed by the cabinet to look into various matters in more detail than the individual member of the cabinet have time (or knowledge) for </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike members of “the government” itself, the people on these committees are not necessarity politicians </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who is British Prime minister? Prime ministers Member of either the Commons or Lords Leader of a great political party Inherited a majority in the Commons
  10. 10. <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>the highest political authority in the United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>leader a major political party </li></ul><ul><li>commands a majority in the House of Commons (the lower house of the Legislature </li></ul><ul><li>the leader of the Cabinet (the Executive) </li></ul><ul><li>Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>In the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of the political party. </li></ul><ul><li>In his executive capacity </li></ul><ul><li>appoints (and may dismiss) all other cabinet members and ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>co-ordinates the policies, activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service (Senior civil servants, bishops and judges) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>The PM acts as the public &quot;face&quot; and &quot;voice&quot; of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>the dissolution of Parliament; high judicial, political, official and Church of England appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>the conferral of peerages, knighthoods, decorations and other honors. </li></ul><ul><li>making the final decisions on major issues (the Euro or whether Britain should join a potential American attack on Iraq. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>The PM chairs a number of select committees (the Defence and Overseas Policy committee, the Constitutional Reform Committee, the Intelligence Services Committee … ) </li></ul><ul><li>The PM appears before the House of Commons and must answer questions put to him or her by the MP everyday. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Where does the Prime Minister live? </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, the official residence of the Prime Minister is at Number 10 Downing Street. </li></ul><ul><li>PM also has a house in the country called Chequers. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Chequers? </li></ul><ul><li>+ a country house belonging to the Government, located on Buckinghamshire, the south of UK. </li></ul><ul><li>+ hold a private conference of some of his Ministers or receive foreign visitors over a weekend. </li></ul><ul><li>+ entertain guests as a special privilege. </li></ul>
  15. 15. No 10 Downing Street
  16. 17. chequers
  17. 20. <ul><li>Who is the British PM at the present? </li></ul><ul><li>In the 2010 general election no single party won enough majority of seats to form the government alone. So, to form a government two or more parties had to join together. </li></ul><ul><li>David Cameron, the leader of the Conservative Party, formed a new government, in coalition with the Liberal Democrats. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>David Cameron - leader of the Conservative Party </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Nick Clegg - leader of the Liberal Democrats </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Vietnamese Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>the head of the executive branch of the Vietnamese government. </li></ul><ul><li>presides over the Vietnamese cabinet, and is responsible for appointing and supervising ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>appointed by the President from among the members of the National Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of Vietnam is not necessarily a member of parliament. </li></ul>
  21. 24. 3. Ministries/ Departments and the Civil Service 3.1 Introduction ministries/ departments 3.2 Types of departments + Ministerial departments + Non-ministerial departments 3.3 Department composition 3.4 Minister’s responsibilities 3.5 HM’s Treasury, Home office, Foreign office 3.6 United kingdom’s Civil service 3.7 Vietnam’s ministries
  22. 25. <ul><li>1.Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>A ministry or department is a specialized organization responsible for a sector of government public administration . </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate to the Cabinet, and Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 39 ministries, departments and about 100 ministers </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>2. Types of Government Department </li></ul><ul><li>Around 19 ministerial departments and 20 non-ministerial departments </li></ul><ul><li>a) Ministerial Departments- led politically by a Government Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Minister ( Secretary of State) </li></ul><ul><li>+ A member of the cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>+ In charge of matters in this department </li></ul><ul><li>+ Responsible for duties of its department to the Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>+ Generally supported by a team of junior ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>a senior civil servant( Permanent Secretary) lead administrative management </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate are Executive agencies. An Executive Agency has a degree of autonomy to perform an operational function and report to one or more specific Government Departments. </li></ul>
  24. 27. MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENTS <ul><li>Cabinet Office </li></ul><ul><li>Her Majesty's Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Home Office </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign & Commonwealth Office </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Culture, Media & Sport </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries & Food </li></ul><ul><li>Her Majesty's Customs & Excise </li></ul><ul><li>Department for Education & Employment Service </li></ul><ul><li>10. Department of the Environment; Transport and the Regions </li></ul><ul><li>11. Department of Health </li></ul><ul><li>12. Department for International Development </li></ul><ul><li>13 Department for Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>14.Department of Trade & Industry </li></ul><ul><li>15 Inland Revenue (tax authority) </li></ul><ul><li>16.Northern Ireland Office </li></ul><ul><li>17 Office of Science & Technology </li></ul><ul><li>18. Scottish Office </li></ul><ul><li>19.Department for Business, Innovation and Skills </li></ul>
  25. 28. b) Non-ministerial departments <ul><li>A non-ministerial department is a department or ministry of a government that is not headed by a Government Minister, but permanent secretaries or second secretaries or senior civil servant </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving public affairs such as  prosecution, charities, human rights and racial equality . </li></ul><ul><li>They carry out  executive functions on behalf of government ministers and/or departments. </li></ul><ul><li>The head of these departments is often appointed by a government minister.  </li></ul>
  26. 29. Non-ministerial Departments <ul><li>1. Central Office of Information (COI) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Charity Commission for England and Wales </li></ul><ul><li>3. Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt (CRND) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Crown Estate (CE) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Export Credits Guarantee Department (ECGD) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Food Standards Agency </li></ul><ul><li>7. Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Office of Fair Trading (OFT) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) </li></ul><ul><li>10. Ordnance Survey </li></ul><ul><li>11. Parliamentary Counsel Office (PCO) </li></ul><ul><li>12. Public Works Loan </li></ul><ul><li>13. Board (PWLB) </li></ul><ul><li>14. Serious Fraud Office (SFO) </li></ul><ul><li>15. The National Archives </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>3.Departmental Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Minister or Secretaries of State head a department. </li></ul><ul><li>Within that department, there are political appointments and official appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>Political appointments include junior ministers, parliamentary private secretaries, and the special advisors. Generally appointed by the Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Official appointments include </li></ul><ul><li>+ Departmental Permanent Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>+ Executive Agency Chief Executives </li></ul>
  28. 31. The pyramid of power in a typical government department Cabinet Minister Junior Ministers Senior Civil Servants headed by a Permanent Secretary
  29. 32. 4 . Ministerial responsibilities Collective responsibility Individual responsibility Support all govern- mental decisions Bear all responsi- bilities of department Resign if his/ her departmnet perform badly
  30. 33. 5.1 Her Majesty’s Treasury -HM Treasury <ul><li>Responsible for developing and executing the British government's  public finance policy and  economic policy . </li></ul><ul><li>The minister of the Treasury is called Chancellor of the Exchequer - the Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>- It is the only office of the four Great Offices not to have been occupied by a woman </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>George Osborne </li></ul>
  32. 35. The head office of HM’s treasury
  33. 36. 5.2. Home Office <ul><li>- Responsible for </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration and passports </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs policy </li></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><li>- Subordinate to the home office are many like: criminal records bureau, identity and passport service, uk border agency </li></ul><ul><li>- The home secretary is Theresa May </li></ul>
  34. 37. The head office of Home Office
  35. 38. 5.3 Foreign office -  FCO <ul><li>Responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office </li></ul><ul><li>The current Foreign Secretary is William Hague. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded as one of the three most prestigious appointments in the Cabinet, alongside those of Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary. </li></ul>
  36. 39. The head office of Foreign office
  37. 40. William Hague- Foreign secretary
  38. 41. 6.UK’s Civil service <ul><li>Civil service and its responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Who is civil servant? </li></ul><ul><li>Minister and civil servant </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Responsibilities of the civil service are to develop, implement, deliver government policies to the public as effectively as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service works in a wide range of areas involving all daily life matters so the staff of civil service has largest employers in the UK about 490000 civil servants </li></ul>
  40. 43. Civil servant <ul><li>Civil servants are the servant of the Crown. They implement the will of politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic features of a civil servant are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impartiality and political neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classic symbol of the civil servant – though few wear a bowler hat </li></ul>
  41. 44. Who has the greater influence? The Minister or the civil servant? <ul><li>In theory </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers set the policy agenda </li></ul><ul><li>-> Civil servants advise on policy option </li></ul><ul><li>-> Ministers make final decision </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>In practice </li></ul><ul><li>Most senior civil servant positions are only for people working in it for 20 years or more  get salary higher than their minister </li></ul><ul><li>Know well all matters in department </li></ul><ul><li>Now the head of civil service is Sir Gus O'Donnell </li></ul>
  43. 46. Ministries in Vietnam <ul><li>1. Ministry of national defence-Bộ Quốc phòng; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ministry of public security-Bộ Công an </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ministry of foreign affairs-Bộ Ngoại giao </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ministry of justice-Bộ Tư pháp </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ministry of finance-Bộ Tài chính </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ministry of industry and trade-Bộ công thương </li></ul><ul><li>7. Ministry of labour-war invalids-social affairs-Bộ Lao động - Thương binh và Xã hội; </li></ul><ul><li>8. Ministry of transport-Bộ Giao thông  Vận tải ; </li></ul><ul><li>9. Ministry of construction-Bộ Xây dựng; </li></ul><ul><li>10. Ministry of fishing-Bộ Thủy sản </li></ul><ul><li>11. Ministry of information and communication- Bộ Thông tin- truyền thông </li></ul><ul><li>12. Ministry of education and training-Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo; </li></ul><ul><li>13 .  ministry of agriculture and rural development- Bộ Nông nghiệp và Phát triển  Nông thôn ; </li></ul><ul><li>14. Ministry of culure, sport and tourism-bộ văn hóa, thể thao và du lịch </li></ul><ul><li>15. Ministry of planning and investment-Bộ Kế hoạch và Đầu tư; </li></ul><ul><li>16. Ministry of health- Bộ Y tế, </li></ul><ul><li>17. Ministry of science and technology-Bộ Khoa học và Công nghệ; </li></ul><ul><li>18. Ministry of natural resources and environment Bộ Tài nguyên và Môi trường; </li></ul><ul><li>19. Ministry of telecommunication- Bộ Bưu chính, Viễn thông; </li></ul><ul><li>20. Ministry of home affairs- Bộ Nội vụ. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Ministerial offices <ul><li>Government inspectorate-Thanh tra Nhà nước </li></ul><ul><li>2. The state bank of Vietnam-Ngân hàng Nhà nước </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Committee for Sport -Ủy ban Thể dục Thể thao </li></ul><ul><li>4. Committee for ethnic affairs- Ủy ban Dân tộc </li></ul><ul><li>5.  Committee for population, family and children -Ủy ban Dân số, Gia đình và Trẻ em </li></ul><ul><li>6. Office of government-Văn phòng Chính phủ </li></ul>
  45. 48. The pyramid of power in a typical government department in Vietnam Minister Deputy minister The head of ministerial office/ organization
  46. 49. LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>I. BACKGROUND: </li></ul><ul><li>- Plays a vital role in representing the interests of its citizens, delivering and commissioning local services and promoting the Big Society. </li></ul><ul><li>- Also have a crucial role to play in ensuring that day-to-day services to their communities are efficient and effective, offer good value for money and deliver what people actually want. </li></ul>
  47. 50. II . LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE : <ul><li>Across the country, local governmental bodies are organized into a mixture of one-tier and two-tier systems </li></ul><ul><li>Typical example: local authorities in England: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Single tier authorities are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Metropolitan authorities </li></ul><ul><li>- London Boroughs </li></ul><ul><li>- Unitary or shire authorities </li></ul><ul><li>b) Two tier authorities are comprised of: </li></ul><ul><li>- County councils </li></ul><ul><li>- District councils </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  48. 51. 1 . COUNTY COUNCILS <ul><li>- Were formed in the UK in the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>- Are the oldest divisions of the country in England and Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>- After local government reforms in the 1970s: </li></ul><ul><li>+ In Scotland: county councils were abolished </li></ul><ul><li> regional councils  unitary council areas. </li></ul><ul><li>+ In Northern Ireland: county councils were abolished </li></ul><ul><li> district councils. </li></ul><ul><li>+ In England: they generally form the top level in a two-tier system of administration </li></ul><ul><li>+ In Wales: they are unitary authorities. </li></ul>
  49. 52. 2. DISTRICT COUNCILS: <ul><li>Each county is divided into several districts. District councils cover smaller areas </li></ul><ul><li>District councils with borough or city status may be called borough councils or city councils instead of district council, but their role is exactly the same. </li></ul>
  50. 54. 3. UNITARY AUTHORITIES: <ul><li>In London, each borough is a unitary authority, but the Greater London Authority (the Mayor and Assembly) provides London-wide government with responsibility for certain services like transport and police. </li></ul><ul><li>In April 2009, the government introduced unitary governments in seven regions in England; reducing 44 local authorities down to just nine </li></ul><ul><li>to simplify the system, as local residents were increasingly confused about which local authority was responsible for local services. </li></ul><ul><li>In Scotland, there is a unitary system with one level of local government. </li></ul><ul><li>+ The largest unitary authority: the City of Glasgow </li></ul><ul><li>+ The smallest unitary authority: Orkney. </li></ul><ul><li>In Northern Ireland, there are local councils, but most services are carried out by other organizations </li></ul>
  51. 55. 4. TOWN AND PARISH COUNCILS: <ul><li>Parishes were originally villages centered on a local church. </li></ul><ul><li>They became a unit of local government in the 19 th century.) </li></ul><ul><li>Today, they are the smallest unit of local government in England. There are over 8,000 parish councils or meetings. </li></ul><ul><li> They're responsible for services like allotments, public toilets, parks and ponds, war memorials, and local halls and community centers. They are sometimes described as the third tier of local government. </li></ul><ul><li>In Wales: called them community councils - the lowest level of subdivision below unitary authority areas, have the same function. </li></ul><ul><li>In Scotland: have community councils with fewer powers. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no equivalent in Northern Ireland. </li></ul>
  52. 56. 5. FINANCE <ul><li>Local authorities in Great Britain (but not Iceland) raise revenue from: </li></ul><ul><li>Central government grants, which finance about 85% of spending </li></ul><ul><li>Non- domestic rates </li></ul><ul><li>The council tax </li></ul><ul><li>Fees and charges </li></ul>
  53. 57. 6. FUNCTIONS & SERVICES Arrangement Upper tier authority ( county councils ) Lower tier authority (district councils) Shire counties waste management, education, libraries, social services, transport, strategic planning, consumer protection housing, waste collection, council tax collection, local planning, licensing, cemeteries and crematoria Unitary authorities housing, waste management, waste collection, council tax collection, education, libraries, social services, transport, planning, consumer protection, licensing, cemeteries and crematoria † Metropolitan counties housing, waste collection, council tax collection, education, libraries, social services, transport, planning, consumer protection, licensing, cemeteries and crematoria † Greater transport, strategic planning, regional development, police, fire housing, waste collection, council tax collection, education, libraries, social services, local planning, consumer protection, licensing, cemeteries.
  54. 58. British political parties Conservative <ul><li>History: Developing from the group of MPs known as the Tories in the early 19th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional outlook: right of center; standing for hierarchy authority and minimal government interference in the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1979: reforming of education, welfare, housing... to increase consumer choice or to introduce ‘’market economies’’ </li></ul>
  55. 59. Conservative <ul><li>Organization: leader has relatively great degree of freedom to direct policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in Jan 1995: John Major </li></ul><ul><li>Voters: the richer sections of society and a large minority of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>Money: mostly donations from business people. </li></ul>
  56. 60. Labor party <ul><li>History: forming at the beginning of the 20 century from an alliance of trade unionists and intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>First government in 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional outlook: left of center; standing for equality, for the weaker people, more government involvement in the economy; more concerning to provide full social services than to keep income tax low. </li></ul>
  57. 61. Labor party <ul><li>Since 1979: opposition to conservative reforms; recently, emphasis on community ethnics and looser links with trade unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization: </li></ul><ul><li>- In theory, policies have to be approved bu annual conference. </li></ul><ul><li>- In practice, leader has more power than this implies. </li></ul>
  58. 62. Labor party <ul><li>Leader in Jan 1995: Tony Blair </li></ul><ul><li>Voters: working class, a small middle class intelligentsia . </li></ul><ul><li>Money: more than half from trade union. </li></ul>
  59. 63. Liberal Democratic party <ul><li>History: forming in the late 1980s from a union of the Liberal and the Social Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: </li></ul><ul><li>- Regarded as in the center or sightly left of center. </li></ul><ul><li>- has always been strongly in favour of the EU </li></ul><ul><li>- P laces more emphasis on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>- B elieves in giving greater powers to local goverment and in reform of the electoral system. </li></ul>
  60. 64. Liberal Democratic party <ul><li>Leader in Jan 1995: Paddy Ashdown </li></ul><ul><li>Voter: from all classes, but more from the middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Money: private donations </li></ul>
  61. 65. Vietnamese political party <ul><li>History: found on Feb 3,1930. </li></ul><ul><li>The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a single-party state_ communist party of Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>The central role of the Communist Party of Vietnam was reasserted in all organs of government, politics and society. </li></ul>
  62. 66. Vietnamese political party <ul><li>Voters: all classes in society (from eighteen years old). </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in 1930: Ho Chi Minh </li></ul>