Digital Prints   Heather Brown   January 2013
Digital Media                                                             Time-                                           ...
Paper-Based Digital Media                                                    Fine art            D. Goldblatt, Street Trad...
History of Digital PrintsTimeline courtesy DP3project.org
History of Digital Prints      • 1940s - First computer built in      England, Colossus      • Digital printers were met w...
What is a Digital Print? An image created by an electronic printingdevice with the information from a digital file.      +...
Paper Supports      • “Plain” bond paper: common in laser printers and office copiers, smooth, usually      white and stan...
Paper Supports      • Fine art paper: adopted from traditional printing, thick and heavy, rough      surface, and deckle e...
Paper Supports      • Cast-Coated paper: Smooth, white-pigmented coating of      starch, gelatin, PVOH, casein, and/or sty...
Paper Supports      • Resin-Coated paper: Coated on both sides with a polymer to prevent curling, top layer      contains ...
Paper Supports• Synthetic Papers: noncellulosic materials, small pockets of air (microvoids)create strength, tear and solv...
ColorantsPIGMENTS                                DYESsolid, insoluble particles              molecular and can be dissolve...
ColorantsCYAN                MAGENTA             YELLOW              BLACKAzo dyes –          Azo dyes –          Azo dyes...
Finishing TechniquesAdded after printing to protect the image from poor environmentalconditions and handling• Aerosol fixa...
Photomechanical Prints        Offset Lithography        • 1950, predominant process for        printing        •Large volu...
Digital Processes             Inkjet- FM                     Electrophotography- AM             Dye Sublimation           ...
Inkjet      • 1990-present, technology derived from ink      droplet telegraph transmissions (1867)      •Continuous – ori...
Inkjet Technology      Continuous
Inkjet Technology     Drop on Demand
Inkjet Identification        • Printed on all types of paper        •Droplets of variable distance, density, and size, smo...
Electrophotography                                                  • 1960-present, technology derived from               ...
Electrophotographic Technology
Electrophotograph Identification      • Printed on uncoated or coated paper, surface treated paper or plastic film      • ...
Dye Sublimation                                                   • Also called Dye diffusion thermal transfer            ...
Dye Sublimation Technology        Dye sublimation works with a single-color ribbon (4 passes, 1 for each color)        con...
Dye Sublimation Identification        • Continuous tone, dyes bound within the media        • Banding from the low-resolut...
Digitally-Exposed Photo Papers        • Late 1990s – digital enlargers        •Chromogenicmost common, but also Gelatin Si...
Preservation Challenges  1.   Identification/Categorization  2.   Quantity  3.   Variety! Combinations of inks, papers, fi...
Condition Issues      Overall fade      original                           faded                                          ...
Condition Issues      Color shift      original                           color shift                                     ...
Condition Issues      Yellowing      original                           yellowed                                          ...
Condition Issues      Gloss change                             original    reduced gloss                                  ...
Condition Issues      Blocked to glass                                                            Inkjet                  ...
Condition Issues      Abrasion                             original    abraded                                            ...
Condition Issues      Colorant smear                                                    InkjetImages courtesy DP3project.org
Condition Issues      Ink transfer      abraded print                      envelope with colorant                         ...
Condition Issues      Polishing                             original    increased gloss                                   ...
Condition Issues      Scuff                                                    Inkjet                                     ...
Condition Issues      Scratches                                                            Inkjet                         ...
Condition Issues      Cracking and flaking                                                    ElectrophotographyImages cou...
Condition Issues      Bleed      original                           bleeding ink                                          ...
Condition Issues      Bleed      original                           bleeding inkImages courtesy DP3project.org
Condition Issues      Delamination                  Dye sublimation printImages courtesy DP3project.org
Condition Issues      Delamination                 Inkjet print                                                    Electro...
Condition Issues           Print Characteristic                                      Sensitivity and deterioration        ...
Research• IPI DP3 Project – effects of the environment and enclosures, andpreservation measures within cultural heritage i...
Thank you…                    • Ryan Boatright                  • Barbara Lemmen                 • Debbie Hess Norris     ...
The DP3 Project
Digital prints wudpac
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  • photomicrographs
  • History
  • History
  • History and uses
  • technology
  • identification
  • Pass around test prints
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  • Digital prints wudpac

    1. 1. Digital Prints Heather Brown January 2013
    2. 2. Digital Media Time- based media Various printed B. Nauman, Raw Material-OK OK OK (1990), single-channel video projection and substrate two videos on monitors with s sound, SFMoMA. Digital filesImages courtesy threyda.com, sfmoma.org, and blog.ub.ac.id
    3. 3. Paper-Based Digital Media Fine art D. Goldblatt, Street Traders and Montecasino, Fourways, Johannesburg (2001), pigmented inkjet print, MoMA. Family photos Commerci al print materialsImages courtesy moma.org, apple.com, and crwgraphics.com
    4. 4. History of Digital PrintsTimeline courtesy DP3project.org
    5. 5. History of Digital Prints • 1940s - First computer built in England, Colossus • Digital printers were met with SKEPTICISM because the process wasn’t human enough • 1960s – dot matrix printers and line plotters Colossus computer •1989- Iris fine art print as proof for four color offset • 1990- Giclée: “that which is squirted,” became synonymous with inkjet print • 1990s “photorealistic” inkjet prints: accurate and pleasing tone and color L. Harmon and K. Knowlton, Studies in reproduction, high dynamic range, low Perception, 1997 (original image 1967); computer- grain, high resolution, uniform gloss and generated print texture, stiffness, weight, plastic backing, fadeImages courtesy wikipedia.org and vam.ac.uk resistance, sleevability, stackability, handle
    6. 6. What is a Digital Print? An image created by an electronic printingdevice with the information from a digital file. + + + =
    7. 7. Paper Supports • “Plain” bond paper: common in laser printers and office copiers, smooth, usually white and standard cut, produced from woodpulp in mass quantities, with Optical Brightening Agents (OBAs)Image courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    8. 8. Paper Supports • Fine art paper: adopted from traditional printing, thick and heavy, rough surface, and deckle edges, good quality cotton rag; sized or coated for inkjet printingImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    9. 9. Paper Supports • Cast-Coated paper: Smooth, white-pigmented coating of starch, gelatin, PVOH, casein, and/or styrene butadiene; semigloss or gloss finishImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    10. 10. Paper Supports • Resin-Coated paper: Coated on both sides with a polymer to prevent curling, top layer contains TiO2 pigment and OBAs; the resin layer can take on a number of different textures that will be visible through any other surface coatings; has the look and feel of a traditional photoImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    11. 11. Paper Supports• Synthetic Papers: noncellulosic materials, small pockets of air (microvoids)create strength, tear and solvent resistant•Plastic Films: PET or PVC, generally smooth-surfaced thin films that aretransparent, translucent, or opaque•Woven Materials: Inkjet or Dye sublimation printing ontoclothing, banners, canvas, and other textiles•Rigid Supports: Aluminum, glass, Plexiglas, Dye sublimation printing for IDbadges Categories for coated papers Porous papers dry quickly and Swellable papers dry slowly and aren’t sensitive to RH, but and remain sensitive to RH, but allow pollutantsto penetrate; best protect the inks inside the for pigment-based inks polymer; best for dye-based inks
    12. 12. ColorantsPIGMENTS DYESsolid, insoluble particles molecular and can be dissolved in a vehicle>1000 nm 3 nmMust be milled and heated to reduce Tinctoral strength (brilliant colors)size (to prevent clogging printheadnozzle)Natural CMY colorants are not optimal Pure color renderingfor color controlTransparency in synthetic organic High transparencypigmentsLightfast Poor lightfastness?Relatively stable to the environment High surface area=vulnerable to the environmentBronzing and differential gloss Differential gloss possible
    13. 13. ColorantsCYAN MAGENTA YELLOW BLACKAzo dyes – Azo dyes – Azo dyes – Azo dyes –soluble in water or soluble in water or soluble in water or soluble in water orsolvents solvents solvents solventsPhthalocyanine Quinacridone Carbon black –dyes – water pigments – surfactantsolube solvent soluble necessary for dispersion Rhodamine colorants Metalized magentas
    14. 14. Finishing TechniquesAdded after printing to protect the image from poor environmentalconditions and handling• Aerosol fixatives: popular in early days of Inkjet printing, less common now; most likely solvent-based acrylics with additives• Liquid coatings: natural resin or synthetic polymer (film forms) to both sides of the print• Lamination: a thin film applied with pressure and/or heat; many laminates incorporate UV absorbers• Face mounting: Plexi adhered to face of the print with a polymerizing silicone or a pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive (Diasec)
    15. 15. Photomechanical Prints Offset Lithography • 1950, predominant process for printing •Large volume, high quality commercial prints • Halftone dots in a rosette pattern; misregistration frequent Frequency Modulated Halftone Amplitude Modulated HalftoneImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    16. 16. Digital Processes Inkjet- FM Electrophotography- AM Dye Sublimation Digitally-exposed photographic papersImages courtesygraphicsatlas.org
    17. 17. Inkjet • 1990-present, technology derived from ink droplet telegraph transmissions (1867) •Continuous – originally for printing proofs • Iris fine art prints, 1989 •Piezo printing: a ceramic electric tile deflects unneeded ink through pressure Pigment-based inkjet print under UV radiation; OBA’s fluoresce •Drop on Demand – 1994, photorealistic printing • Thermal or “bubble jet”: ink vaporized through heat and forced out of the head •Piezo printingImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    18. 18. Inkjet Technology Continuous
    19. 19. Inkjet Technology Drop on Demand
    20. 20. Inkjet Identification • Printed on all types of paper •Droplets of variable distance, density, and size, smooth edges • Droplets sharp and oblong on RC paper • Droplets diffuse and undefined on porous and fibrous supports • Satellite droplets between larger ones • Differential gloss and bronzing Photomicrograph showing ink dropsImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    21. 21. Electrophotography • 1960-present, technology derived from experimentations with electrostatic charges(1937) •Four impressions for color •Halftone process for value (distance). • Pigment based (dry) or dye-based (wet) Dry toner electrophotographic print under toner UV radiation; anti-counterfeiting feature appears in the margins •Dry toners imbedded within polymer beads •Liquid toners solvent-based, 98- 99% Isopar (aliphatic hydrocarbon)Image courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    22. 22. Electrophotographic Technology
    23. 23. Electrophotograph Identification • Printed on uncoated or coated paper, surface treated paper or plastic film • Rosette pattern of dots • Dry toner has visible particulates with speckles in white areas, powdery appearance •Differential gloss Photomicrograph showing dry toner particlesImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    24. 24. Dye Sublimation • Also called Dye diffusion thermal transfer (D2T2): 1995-present • D1T1: direct thermal • D1T2: direct thermal transfer •Only used for photographs, not documents • Kiosks, personal printers, ID Detail of the perforated edge of a dye sub badges, ceramic mugs, and textiles printImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    25. 25. Dye Sublimation Technology Dye sublimation works with a single-color ribbon (4 passes, 1 for each color) containing dye heated by a special head that runs the width of the paper. When the head heats up, it vaporizes (sublimates) the dye in that location. Out of 256 possible levels, the temperature adjusts the quantity of dye transfer. The dye, now in gaseous form, is absorbed into the paper. Since the paper receives the dye layers separately, the print can result in a smooth, seamless image, up to 11 x 17” in size.Image courtesy DP3project.org
    26. 26. Dye Sublimation Identification • Continuous tone, dyes bound within the media • Banding from the low-resolution heat array used to transfer dyes •Microscopicbumps from imbedded dirt cause a characteristic dull gloss • Subtle iridescence, relief, and differential gloss •Backprinting may be a clue to the process Photomicrograph banding and bumpsImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org
    27. 27. Digitally-Exposed Photo Papers • Late 1990s – digital enlargers •Chromogenicmost common, but also Gelatin Silver Prints and other color processes • Papers modified for short exposure times and spectral range of a laser • Computer output image exposed by laser,cathode ray tube or light-emitting diodes • Images can be digitally manipulated before printing • 1994 Durst Lambda printer, large scale •Specular illumination shows that the dyes are in the emulsion layer Magnified image of a digitally-processed C-print showing a poor resolution digital image and digitalImage courtesy graphicsatlas.org exposure unit
    28. 28. Preservation Challenges 1. Identification/Categorization 2. Quantity 3. Variety! Combinations of inks, papers, finishes, optical brighteners, anti-static agents, biological inhibitors, etc.Solutions•Relative humidity should be kept at a stable point below 50%. Whenever possible theRH should be maintained between 30%-40% with minimal fluctuations, though neverbelow 15%-20%.• Temperature should be maintained between 65 and 70 F and seasonal fluctuationsshould be kept to a minimum.• Filter out UV and air pollutants• Match colorant and media correctly (brands) and buy long-lasting materials wherepossible• Use only enclosure materials that have passed the PAT test
    29. 29. Condition Issues Overall fade original faded Inkjet Dye subImages courtesy DP3project.org
    30. 30. Condition Issues Color shift original color shift InkjetImages courtesy DP3project.org
    31. 31. Condition Issues Yellowing original yellowed Inkjet Dye subImages courtesy DP3project.org
    32. 32. Condition Issues Gloss change original reduced gloss InkjetImages courtesy DP3project.org
    33. 33. Condition Issues Blocked to glass Inkjet ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    34. 34. Condition Issues Abrasion original abraded Inkjet ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    35. 35. Condition Issues Colorant smear InkjetImages courtesy DP3project.org
    36. 36. Condition Issues Ink transfer abraded print envelope with colorant Inkjet ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    37. 37. Condition Issues Polishing original increased gloss InkjetImages courtesy DP3project.org
    38. 38. Condition Issues Scuff Inkjet Dye subImages courtesy DP3project.org
    39. 39. Condition Issues Scratches Inkjet ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    40. 40. Condition Issues Cracking and flaking ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    41. 41. Condition Issues Bleed original bleeding ink Inkjet Dye subImages courtesy DP3project.org
    42. 42. Condition Issues Bleed original bleeding inkImages courtesy DP3project.org
    43. 43. Condition Issues Delamination Dye sublimation printImages courtesy DP3project.org
    44. 44. Condition Issues Delamination Inkjet print ElectrophotographyImages courtesy DP3project.org
    45. 45. Condition Issues Print Characteristic Sensitivity and deterioration Image-forming substance on Abrasion/blocking probable SURFACE Image-forming substance WITHIN Abrasion/blocking less probable surface Image-forming substance DYE- Sensitivity to light/water HIGH BASED Image-forming substance Sensitivity to light/water LOWER PIGMENT-BASED Image-forming substance contains HIGH sensitivity to heat, flexing, blend of thermoplastic waxes or folding resins Media is made up of one layer LOWER sensitivity to flexing/folding Media has multiple layers HIGH sensitivity to flexing/foldingTable 11.1 modified from M. Jürgens, The Digital Print: Identification and Preservation
    46. 46. Research• IPI DP3 Project – effects of the environment and enclosures, andpreservation measures within cultural heritage institutions• Tessa Gadomski B.A. Thesis at UD - Appropriate techniques for surfacecleaning inkjet prints (2009)•Mark McCormick-Goodhart: Aardenburg Imaging & Archives – qualitytesting of digital print media•Henry Wilhelm – permanence research and free download of his book, Thepermanence and care of color photographs: traditional and digital colorprints, color negatives, slides, and motion pictures (1993)
    47. 47. Thank you… • Ryan Boatright • Barbara Lemmen • Debbie Hess Norris • Gawain Weaver and• The WUDPAC 2014 Contemporary Photography Group: Jessica Ford, Courtney Von Stein, and Marlene Yandrisevits
    48. 48. The DP3 Project

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