Towards Accessible  Touch Interfaces          Tiago Guerreiro               Hugo Nicolau              Joaquim Jorge       ...
Mobile evolution …
Leading to …Touch Interfaces
pleasant
Tactile feedbackloss of tactile  feedback
Loss of physical stability
hard to select targets
it occurs to everyone
… and motor impaired
require less strength
Adapt to users’ needs
Provide the knowledge tobuild better touch interfaces
We performed …
Tested several … Interaction Techniques
Screen areas …                 … corners
Screen areas …                 … edges
… and target sizes 7 mm           12 mm   17 mm
Tapping
Crossing
Exiting
Gesturing
15 participants                        28-64 years old                      C4-C7 lesion level                          6 ...
Results
Error Rate       X
Precision
Movement Error
Movement Time    t0          tn
Tapping
Target Size                 50%                 40%Error Rate (%)                 30%                 20%                 ...
Corners and Edges precision
Vertical error rate   7mm          12mm    17mm    45%           28%   27%    39%           28%   24%    43%           19%...
Distance error rate    17mm                        28%                         20%                              12%       ...
Crossing
Target Size                 50%                 40%Error Rate (%)                 30%                 20%                 ...
Exiting
Target Size                 80%                 70%                 60%Error Rate (%)                 50%                 ...
Gesturing
Edges                          60                          50Movement Error (pixels)                          40          ...
Movement Error (pixels)                               0                                   50                              ...
MixingAllTechniques
All Techniques                 80%                 70%                 60%Error Rate (%)                 50%              ...
Interact with edge support
Interact with edge support                       22%                 36%
Acquiring edge targets
Acquiring edge targets
Edge or Middle
Edge or Middle
Interacting mid-screen
Interacting mid-screen50%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0%      7mm               12mm                 17mm      Crossing   Ges...
Interacting mid-screen50%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0%      7mm               12mm                 17mm      Crossing   Ges...
543210    Exiting   Tapping   Crossing   Gesturing
Conclusions
What is the best size foreach interaction technique?
12 mm
However, error rates are still …        High
What is the best screenarea for each interactiontechnique?
Regarding target position …Support
What is the best interactiontechnique for motor-impaired people?
What is the best interactiontechnique for each screenarea?
What is the best technique-size-area combination?
Future Work Explore target size for the target population Differences between able-bodied and tetraplegics
The EndTiago Guerreirotjvg@vimmi.inesc-id.pt
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces
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Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces

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Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces

  1. 1. Towards Accessible Touch Interfaces Tiago Guerreiro Hugo Nicolau Joaquim Jorge Daniel Gonçalves
  2. 2. Mobile evolution …
  3. 3. Leading to …Touch Interfaces
  4. 4. pleasant
  5. 5. Tactile feedbackloss of tactile feedback
  6. 6. Loss of physical stability
  7. 7. hard to select targets
  8. 8. it occurs to everyone
  9. 9. … and motor impaired
  10. 10. require less strength
  11. 11. Adapt to users’ needs
  12. 12. Provide the knowledge tobuild better touch interfaces
  13. 13. We performed …
  14. 14. Tested several … Interaction Techniques
  15. 15. Screen areas … … corners
  16. 16. Screen areas … … edges
  17. 17. … and target sizes 7 mm 12 mm 17 mm
  18. 18. Tapping
  19. 19. Crossing
  20. 20. Exiting
  21. 21. Gesturing
  22. 22. 15 participants 28-64 years old C4-C7 lesion level 6 left-handednever used touchscreens
  23. 23. Results
  24. 24. Error Rate X
  25. 25. Precision
  26. 26. Movement Error
  27. 27. Movement Time t0 tn
  28. 28. Tapping
  29. 29. Target Size 50% 40%Error Rate (%) 30% 20% 10% 0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Target sizes (milimeters)
  30. 30. Corners and Edges precision
  31. 31. Vertical error rate 7mm 12mm 17mm 45% 28% 27% 39% 28% 24% 43% 19% 12%
  32. 32. Distance error rate 17mm 28% 20% 12% 28% 11% 20% 12% 11% 6%
  33. 33. Crossing
  34. 34. Target Size 50% 40%Error Rate (%) 30% 20% 10% 0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Target size (milimeters)
  35. 35. Exiting
  36. 36. Target Size 80% 70% 60%Error Rate (%) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Target size (milimeters)
  37. 37. Gesturing
  38. 38. Edges 60 50Movement Error (pixels) 40 30 20 10 0 Center Edge Gesture
  39. 39. Movement Error (pixels) 0 50 150 200 250 100 NW NE SW SE SLeft Directions N WUpper S E WGesture Direction SRight NRight EUpper NLeft WBottom EBottom
  40. 40. MixingAllTechniques
  41. 41. All Techniques 80% 70% 60%Error Rate (%) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Target Size (milimeters) Exiting Gestures Tapping Crossing
  42. 42. Interact with edge support
  43. 43. Interact with edge support 22% 36%
  44. 44. Acquiring edge targets
  45. 45. Acquiring edge targets
  46. 46. Edge or Middle
  47. 47. Edge or Middle
  48. 48. Interacting mid-screen
  49. 49. Interacting mid-screen50%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Crossing GesturesM4Way Tapping Middle
  50. 50. Interacting mid-screen50%45%40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0% 7mm 12mm 17mm Crossing GesturesM4Way Tapping Middle
  51. 51. 543210 Exiting Tapping Crossing Gesturing
  52. 52. Conclusions
  53. 53. What is the best size foreach interaction technique?
  54. 54. 12 mm
  55. 55. However, error rates are still … High
  56. 56. What is the best screenarea for each interactiontechnique?
  57. 57. Regarding target position …Support
  58. 58. What is the best interactiontechnique for motor-impaired people?
  59. 59. What is the best interactiontechnique for each screenarea?
  60. 60. What is the best technique-size-area combination?
  61. 61. Future Work Explore target size for the target population Differences between able-bodied and tetraplegics
  62. 62. The EndTiago Guerreirotjvg@vimmi.inesc-id.pt
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