Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education

789 views
723 views

Published on

Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education

Published in: Engineering
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
789
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education

  1. 1. P4I - Playing for Interculturality Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Version 1 – reduced (2012) INVESLAN (Coord.) SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION
  2. 2. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained thereinThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION Work Package 2 ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES DELIVERABLE 3 SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP www.p4i-project.eu p4i@inveslan.com This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY NOTE.......................................................................................................3 GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS............................................................................................6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................9 GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............... 11 ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES.............. 26 PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES.... 45 ROMANIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ...... 66 SPANISH ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............ 82 UK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES .................... 109 US ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES..................... 125 GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES ..................................................................... 148
  4. 4. INTRODUCTORY NOTE
  5. 5. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE INTRODUCTORY NOTE P4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the European Commission, ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP. The project has been approved in 2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years. While the latest tendencies point at a rather low level of adult population participation in lifelong learning initiatives, despite the increasing efforts in promotions and diversity of programmes, the project partners believe that the use of social games can positively influence the access of European adults to lifelong learning experiences, increasing the access rates, offering innovative and attractive means to develop key competences. P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take step forward and create an innovative social game that promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivating them to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization and media literacy in parallel. The present report has been developed within the framework of work package 2 “Analysis on the use of game-based learning initiatives”, which aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games (with a special focus on social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. The implementation of the work package has been coordinated by INVESLAN (ES). As follows, the report introduces different national realities concerning the game based learning initiatives: Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, UK, and US national reports will be presented respectfully. The last section of the report presents a collection of 28 good practices – success stories that were extracted from the national reports. More information about the project: www.p4i-project.eu
  6. 6. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE 4 It has to be added that all the national reports have been elaborated according to the “Guidelines and working methodology for carrying out the analysis” that have been defined by INVESLAN (ES). All the data and findings have been collected according the mix – based methodology: a combination of desk research and qualitative research methods have been applied. In order to explore in detail the pedagogical potential of game based learning, as well as the barriers to uptake of games in learning practices and skills supported by game based learning approaches, a combination of 2 qualitative methods have been chosen: expert interviews and group discussions with practitioners. The combination of the two chosen methods allowed us investigate the game based initiatives from two different perspectives. Each partner has been asked to involve minimum 6 experts on the use of innovative teaching and training methodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educational sectors. On the other hand, as far as group discussion, is concerned, it was organized in semi – structured form, with the direct target group - adult training practitioners as a second method that allowed us to explore the game based initiatives. Group discussion as a technique provided us with significant insights from the adult training practitioners’ perspective and at the same time, brought some added–value for the validation of the expert interview results. The participants of the focus groups had been asked to test two games: 1. Facebook sample of story generation: http://apps.beeherd.gr/p4i-stories/ 2. Irish example (3D game sample): http://neelb.arcaneindustries.co.uk/ As well as to fill in the SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY.
  7. 7. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE GLOSSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS
  8. 8. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 6 GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS Social game-based learning is an informal tool that allows the acquisition of competences in a recreational environment. We move from “learning by doing” for the “learning by playing”, where interpersonal learning is involved, while a social game can only be played by exchanging information, knowledge and items with other players. Social gaming commonly refers to playing games as a way of social interaction, as opposed to playing games in solicitude. We may refer to: Educational games (Related or synonymous terms: Computer games; video games; serious games; game-based learning; instructional games): Games in general can be defined in surprisingly numerous ways, often changing the way games are used and perceived (Wittgenstein, 1958). Games as a series of choices or as rule based play are popular definitions. For the purposes of this report educational games for learning are defined as: applications using the characteristics of video and computer games to create engaging and immersive learning experiences for delivering specified learning goals, outcomes and experiences. Serious games (Related or synonymous terms: Educational games; video games; game-based learning; instructional games; sim games etc.): Michael and Chen (2006) give the following definition: ‘A serious game is a game in which education (in its various forms) is the primary goal, rather than entertainment’. It is worth noting that Huizinga defined games as a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’, as being ‘not serious’ (1980), following this definition games cannot be serious. Callois similarly defined games as voluntary and therefore
  9. 9. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 7 also conflicts with the notion of serious games (1961: 10-11). This gives a good indication of the kinds of contradictions found in comparisons of the available literature1. Key competences: As established in “Key competences for lifelong learning: European Reference Framework”, annex of a Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning that was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 30 December 2006/L394: “Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. The key competences are all considered equally important, because each of them can contribute to a successful life in a knowledge society” (Ibid., p.3). 1 Definitions of Educational games and Serious games are taken from: JICS, “Learning in immersive worlds: a review of game based learning”, Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme by Sara de Freitas, 2006: p.10
  10. 10. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  11. 11. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This final report “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” and its appendices contains the main conclusions of national and international research on the design and implementation of game-based learning initiatives in adult education and were developed within the framework of the Playing for Interculturality (P4I) Project (Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP), Work Package 2, “Analysis on the use of game-based learning initiatives.” It aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games (especially social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels to be used as inspirations for adults training practitioners. The methodologies employed were to search for relevant information, hold focus groups of members of the target group, and interviews with specialists in the target group members. In each of the countries studied (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, the UK and the US) the use of game-based learning is a rapidly growing trend that is pervading different areas of knowledge. It has gained considerable traction and we can observe a significant qualitative change, nevertheless there is still prevailing gap in usage, in part due to negative stereotypes of gamers, limited expertise in ICT and in games among trainers, and a shortage of good educational games. While there is often a lack of pedagogical design behind current social games, the profile of social game players and gamers is increasingly broad, covering a wide demographic across gender, age and social status that offers an opportunity for game-based learning. Assuming the target audience to be adults, there is significant growth in their use of social media such as Facebook and of social games at this time. The gap between access and participation has closed significantly so that the platform on which the game would be made available is critical to determining who would likely use it and whom else they might recruit to participate. What drives such players to play are the desire to meet new people, to cooperate, to try new games, find new forms of self-expression, to relieve stress, widen networks, experiment with new identities, and the desire to compete and challenge the others. Players tend to feel secure, respected, esteemed, empowered, in charge; they are likely to make an investment in it. A wide range of intercultural competences surfaced in the research on effective games. Those that seemed most appropriate as learning objectives for a social game for adults were self-
  12. 12. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 10 awareness of prejudices and stereotypes, the diversity of communication styles, suspending judgment and empathy. In addition, successfully engaging players will likely promote a number of related competences, including digital competences, collaboration, lateral and strategic thinking, and new forms of literacy, including problem solving, analysis and creative reconstruction of content, multitasking, critical judgment, trans-media navigation, and social interactions and negotiation. The pedagogical potential of social games to achieve these objectives and promote these competences derives from immersive and interactive engagement; self-paced, non-linear and branching activities with multiple outcomes; collaboration and competition; contextual learning that can simulate real life situations, such as solving problems socially; integrated precise performance measurement and feedback. Fun and engaging games capture curiosity and encourage players to work and play together for their mutual growth and success. The successful implementation of a game-based learning initiative depends on a number of variables, not all of which are under the control of the creators. Online gamers often suffer from slow internet connections, glitches in the platform functioning, technical literacy, even finding friends and foes with whom to play. Since the most important variable is engagement, that the player suspends disbelief and becomes immersed in the activities of the game which, if well designed, result in the change in attitude and behaviour that is sought the game design, development and deployment needs to avoid as many obstacles to this engagement as possible. A wide range of success examples surfaced in the search and conversations. Each of the national reports lists a select few that should be played for inspiration. From wildly popular commercial games such as The Sims and Farmville, to effective transformational games such as Darfur is Dying, Peacemaker, Global Conflicts – Palestine, and PING (Poverty is Not a Game), all share designs that bring players back, encourage them to involve others, and promote envisioning the real world in a different way. From them designers should learn to define very specifically what they want to achieve, provide for a variety of contexts for play (including traditional classrooms), and find both a compelling story and engaging activities to advance it. Taken together, the national reports are a rich collection of experience and intelligence that should be re-visited regularly in any design, development, and deployment process involving games to promote adult competences.
  13. 13. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SQLearn
  14. 14. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 12 GREEK NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTORY NOTE The survey was conducted during the elaboration of work package 2 related to the analysis of the use of game-based learning initiatives in the partner countries. This report refers to the Greek desktop survey conducted during the months March and April 2012. The methodology used was to investigate on the internet for the relative information, to hold a focus group with members of the target group and conduct interviews with specialised target group members. The main findings of the desktop research will be elaborated here. Attached one can find the focus group report which was held on the 19th April 2012, in Athens, Greece. Furthermore, the results from the interview will be a separate attachment to this report. Methodology followed and experts contacted The methodology followed is as stated in the WP2 guidelines, namely to begin the investigation into the use of game-based initiatives with desktop research and analysis of results. The desktop research lasted for approximately 2 weeks and all results were collected in order to be analysed. Several types of sources were investigated such as websites, blogs, newspaper articles, white papers and reports originating from European funded projects. The primary part of the research returned a large volume of results which needed filtering and thorough overview. The second part of the methodology was to conduct, in parallel interviews with experts in social games (designers, developers, gamers, trainers using them etc.) but also to conduct a focus group with practitioners (trainers) using social / serious games. We held the focus group on the 19th April 2012, with 12 participants coming both from the trainer’s community teaching intercultural skills and competencies but also social/serious game experts (professors) researching how games are used in education.
  15. 15. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 13 During the focus group (separate report has been created), the interview questions were posed and discussed. This report will provide a summary of the discussion. The focus group had the following structure: a) Presentation of the P4i project, b) Presentation by social game expert on the use of social / serious games in education, c) Presentation by intercultural trainer on skills and competencies of an intercultural trainer for adult education, d) Experiential games about intercultural skills and competencies, e) Discussion and presentation on the 3D game and story generator, f) Answering questionnaires / interview questions. The experts invited to participate in the focus group are listed under the heading Participant Matrix. The experts we discussed with during the interview stage were the following: 1. Mrs Maria Saridaki (trainer and researcher in social games), 2. Dr Eri Giannaka (researcher and professor at a HEI), 3. Dr Panagiotis Zaharias (researcher and professor at Cyprus Open University), 4. Dr Dimitris Gouscos (professor at Athens University teaching an MA course in how social games can be used in education, 5. Mrs Viki Zouka (Trainer of Greek language to foreigners at University of Athens and social game blogger), 6. Mr Andreas Derdemetzis founder of CowboyTV and game developer, 7. Mr. Argyris Stasinakis, chairman of WOW Group and designer/developer of the Knowledge Game, 8. Mr Marios Bikos IEEE chapter of University of Patras and promoter of gaming in HEI settings. Moreover, another activity conducted related to the research stage, was a second type of focus group held with Master students of the Athens Kapodistrian University where the P4i project was presented and the interview questions discussed. Finally, the last activity conducted in order to finalise this report was to attend the 1st Gaming Forum held in Athens, Greece on the 27th and 28th March 2012, where noted speakers of the gaming and educational community held presentations, introduced games, held game competitions etc. The report will elaborate further on the findings from the above conducted activities.
  16. 16. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 14 GREEK MAIN FINDINGS An extensive research was conducted in Greece in order to investigate the game based learning initiative in Greece. The report is divided into the following sections: Social games based learning initiatives The majority of games used in an educational setting, identified during our research phase pointed to serious games and not social games. Serious and educational games are used extensively for educational purposes and range from primary to tertiary education promoting cognitive skills and knowledge to more advanced, behaviour and personal values, change. Primary education: serious games have been developed and had their educational value acknowledged by the Ministry of Education for teaching young people. One such game is the “Magic Filter/Potion”. Other initiatives come from the private and public sector where the game objective range from planning a city (like the game Aspis) addressing professional architects, planners , citizens but also for introducing planning in school and university curricula. Private companies have started in the last years to promote a social character to their games, namely creating a version for Facebook. These social games have not been fully immersed into education yet, and are mostly used for promotional and marketing purposes. There are games that are used as supplementary educational material and they are: a) “Informatist” for teaching management skills, b) “Electrocity” for environmental issues where Young students manage their own cities, c) “Gazillionaire” used in colleges for teaching business, maths and economics, d) “Magi and the sleeping star”, e) “Global warming interactive” teaching how global warming influence. Finally, a conclusion can be that social games do not necessarily teach specific school topics such as geography or psychology but make an effort to extend and support the thought process by surpassing the stigma that whatever is of educational nature is also boring.
  17. 17. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 15 The profile of social games player From our interviews and research we received two types of information: Research community: a) 83% of Facebook users use it for online gaming, b) More women than men play online, c) Users wish to utilise their smart phones, the web and WEB2.0 tools and find a solutions to access lifelong training material from there, d) 97% of younger generations play computer and video games, e) New devices facilitate gaming. Educators’ community (adult training practitioners): Social games are not widely used for training purposes since the actual trainers themselves, did not use them during their training. Their description of the social gamer is that they are younger people playing computer and video games. Gamer community (game developers): From the interview question posed to them, they have not made any specific analysis of the gamer profile for their game design. They know the information from the gamers profile and from the gaming competitions that are being conducted globally. They are aware that gamers come from diverse backgrounds, geographical locations and age groups and that the average age of a global gamer is 37 years. Analytics are very important so that education is integrated with game design. Sample testing The sample testing of the two games presented returned the following comments: a) Both games are very easy to use, b) Interaction is medium to very much although not so engaging (story generator), c) 3D game gave only the first person experience and asking questions between the game make the user lose their game immersion, d) Story generator needs more interaction.
  18. 18. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 16 Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning Social games and serious games in an educative setting are still not widely use and we believe that their potential is not fully utilised. Moreover, we found out that there is a lack of pedagogical design behind the social games we have identified and they are used for information awareness campaigns, promotion campaigns and gaming. The new generation of trainees and pupils are ready for games in education but research depicts that their teachers and trainers are not. We do not prepare our children for the necessary change but for the world that we know and not the world they will get to know! This is a major drawback and the research community is trying to change it, hence the organisation of the 1st Gaming Forum 2012 aimed at discussing trends in game design and its application in entertainment, education and marketing. Another factor that might influence the Greek community and trainees to play more games and become more efficient is the high unemployment rate among youth reaching 36.1% (Jan 2012 figure) forcing hence, the trainers community to increase their use (games) in education. Identification of success elements of social games for education The success elements or characteristics of what makes a social game useful for educational purposes relate always to the pedagogical design and analysis of the target group for which it is targeting. According to Mr. Jacob Nielsen, member of the British Council in Copenhagen, Denmark, there are certain steps one must follow in order to ensure a game as an efficient educational tool. These are: a) Prepare the game properly and allow time following the game end, to follow up with the trainees. b) Ensure that there is diversity in the teams that play the game, this diversity will bring diverse experience and allow for enhanced exchange of know-how. c) Bring in external advisors / experts to build strong case studies. d) Ensure that there is real-world testing – this element is very important because the trainees will see how real people react to their decisions. They game they designed was about planning a city. e) The fun factor is key.
  19. 19. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 17 f) Have small prizes to act as motivator. Other elements surfaced during our research were: a) Careful interaction activities need to be designed allowing for individual as well as social interaction. b) Link learning objectives to gaming content. c) Assessment and its structure / position in the game is very important as not to distract the trainee from the game. d) Ensuring that the trainees understand that this is part of the educational activity. Learning identification and evaluation If proper educational objectives have been set learning can be identified in the game. Evaluation needs to be carefully positioned in order not to distract the user from the game. Perhaps, evaluation can take place when ending the game and not within the actual game. However, this always depends on the skills, knowledge or behaviour you wish to enhance. Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice The Greek research, trainers and game developers community agreed that one major barrier is the mentality towards gaming in Greece. Gaming has a negative connotation which is different to the rest of the world. Another barrier of using games in the learning practice is the fact that the necessary background is lacking by the actual trainers and it is not in their mentality. One example from a school teacher: children on a school trip should experience nature (identify tree leaves) with their hands and where not allowed to take pictures on their mobile phones and share with their friends. Other barriers are the lack of ICT infrastructure in schools and state universities. There is a contrast between private training providers who usually have state-of-the-art equipment in their classrooms and experiment with new technologies in training delivery. The main conclusion is that serious and social games need to be introduced from a central perspective into the national curricula.
  20. 20. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 18 Skills supported by game-based learning approaches Skills supported can be the following: a) ICT basic skills since users learn how to use the Internet, a computer, social media. b) Netiquette skills for online and group communication. c) Critical thinking competencies since their actions/decisions influence the outcome of the game. d) Organising group activities and work as part of a group. e) Share information and knowledge and also learn to learn (informally). f) Role-playing skills. g) Negotiation skills. h) Communication skills. Summary for the self-check intercultural sensitivity questionnaire The main focus group was held on the 19th April where 13 people attended. At the end of the focus group, a questionnaire was distributed among them related to the knowledge and skills of the group on intercultural sensitivity issues. The results gathered are the following: a) Q: History: the majority (more than 50%) stated that particular knowledge in history was not necessary in order for them to conduct their work. Only 1 reply was given related to this which thought that history knowledge facilitated their work, b) Q: Social sciences: the majority (60%) answered that it is quite useful to have social sciences background in order to teach a group in intercultural skills and competencies, c) Q: Geography: the answers to this question were divided where 50% thought that knowledge (and interest) in such an area is not so important, the other 50% though differently. The conclusion is that it depends on the group of trainees each trainer has, d) Q: Native language: 50% thought that good knowledge in the native language is essential for trainers while the other 50% thought it as not so important, e) Q: Language and society: the same replies as native language, f) Q: Non-verbal language: although this was a good question for discussion and of interest, the trainers agreed (60%) that it not so important to have such knowledge in these topics,
  21. 21. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 19 g) Q: Mathematics: the most important part was the ability of problem-solving, although answers were divided. i.e. the majority 70% answered that they were neutral to knowledge and importance, h) Q: Relation human vs. Nature: the majority 50%, thought that this is of very low importance and not specific knowledge is needed for their work, i) Q: ICT: almost all agreed that this is of high importance and their knowledge should be very high in this area, j) Q: Level of use of ICT tools as a game: 80% answered that they use ICT tools as games, k) Q: Use of ICT in education: again almost all use ICT tools for educational purpose (learn), l) Q: Satisfaction with the research method: (was slightly changed by us to read: how satisfied are in you the research that is being conducted in Greece related to the use of ICT / games in education): the answers were: 40% satisfied, 30% not so satisfied, 30% not satisfied at all.
  22. 22. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 20 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS The recommendations and conclusions reached following the two focus groups conducted are the following: (they are being separated according to field) For the intercultural trainer – skills and competences • How can an intercultural trainer prepare for teaching such groups of trainees? Best is if they have undergone experiential training so that they are aware of their own abilities, skills / competences in the area. • Is special knowledge required (i.e. history, geography etc) for the trainer to conduct their work better? No, these are issues they should focus on before the training. • Culture is of outmost importance i.e. using ICT should be a habit and a training tool for the trainers already in their education. • Trainers should be aware of their stereotypes and prejudices. • How can a trainer remain neutral? By experiential experiences and training they realise their potential, skills and way of teaching. Moreover, they learn to prepare their lesson plans better. For the use of social / serious games in education • Veteran game users à get involved easier in an educational process where games are involved. • The Greek education / trainer community is not fully ready to use social games in adult education. • There are a growing community of Greek game developers. • Controlled vs. free learning environment. Which is best suited for our target group? Classroom vs. game • When should we include interaction in the game? In order not to interfere with the game immersion – interaction should be carefully planned. • Shock experience in game – can be a useful method.
  23. 23. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 21 • User interaction - careful planning on how interaction between users should be designed. • Perhaps we can design based on gender in order to motivate users (scenarios). • What peripheral advantages can be drawn from the game i.e. learn ICT, learn history, learn about geography etc. Greek results: • Low ICT experience among trainers and educators. • There are many differences between other EU countries and Greece – in particular how and when they use ICT in education. • There are big differences between the different age groups. • Formal education is still more important and sought after than informal education / training. • When changes come from central government / i.e. initiatives and schemes, they are better and more quickly integrated within the educational system.
  24. 24. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 22 REFERENCES: [1] Anagnostou K. Serious Games or simple games in Education?, accessed March 2012, from http://thinkinggamer.wordpress.com/2010/ 01/28/serious-games-or-games/ [2] Blog Kiosterakis.gr Serious Games accessed April 2012, from http://www.kiosterakis.gr/new/epikairothta/education/549-serious-games [3] Derdemetzis A. presentation from the 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Gaming is not a Crime” Greece, 27th March 2012 [4] Gounari M. When serious games are introduced in education accessed April 2012, from http://www.gameover.gr/Serious-Games.17821.html?article_page=1 [5] Initial Vocational Training Centre AKMI, accessed March 2012 from http://www.iek- akmi.gr/paroxes/ekpaideytika-proterimata [6] Karalis T, & Raikou N, Greek national report of EU Project Development of Innovative Methods of training the trainers, Athens, Greece 2010 [7] Klopfer E., Osterweil S., Salen K. Moving learning games forward, MIT 2009 [8] Meimaris M. & Gouscos D., Minutes from the conference ECGBL 2011 (European Conference on Game Based Learning) organised on the 20-21st October 2011, by University of Athens [9] Mourlas K. et all, Serious Games Showcase and Best Practices 2011, accessed April 2012 from http://old.media.uoa.gr/sgsbest2011/ [10] Mouzakis Ch. Training Adults – Using The New Technologies in Training Adults, Athens, Greece 2006 [11] Nielsen J. British Council, presentation from 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Future City Game / Social Game as an educational tool”, Greece 27th March 2012 [12] Papanis E., Greek Social Research blog, Educational, Psychological and Sociological Research, accessed March 2012 from http://penthileus.blogspot.com / http://epapanis.blogspot.com/2011/02/e.html
  25. 25. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 23 [13] Papastamos V. et all A proposition: Using electronic games (serious games) in teaching History in secondary education, accessed March 2012 from http://blogs.sch.gr/billbas/ [14] Pappa A, Video games in the classroom, Alibreto, accessed March 2012 from http://alibreto.gr [15] Pappas J. Dr, Who plays serious games – LUDUS Project, Conference 22 Feb 2010, Ioannina, Greece
  26. 26. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 24 ANNEX: Participant Matrix Greek focus group held on the 19/4/2012 in Athens, Greece Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Mrs Maria Psaraki 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary No Mrs Christina Karra 25-35 F Instructional designer Tertiary Farmville, Restaurant, Cafeworld, Amnesty game, Empire, Smurfs, Knowledge games, Greek games, Treasure Island, Jems, online quiz/ contests. Mr Giorgos Simopoulos 36-45 M Trainer Tertiary No games Mrs Biki Zouka 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary Role playing games: Mass Effect, Eve, World of Warcraft, Diablo Mrs Christina Kanellopoulou 25-35 F Instructional designer Tertiary BakeryStory, CityStory, Farmville, BrainChallenge, Smurfs Mrs Eri Giannaka 25-35 F Researcher Tertiary Who has the biggest brain (playfish through Facebook) Word Challenge (playfish through Facebook) Geo Challenge (playfish through Facebook) Mrs Maria Saridaki 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary Mr Dimitris Mylonas 25-35 M Researcher Tertiary Farmville Mrs Maria Lianou 25-35 F Junior Instructional designer Secondary Sims, angry birds Mrs Lia Tsiatsouli 25-35 F Junior Instructional designer Tertiary Mr Antonis Friggas M 25-35 Developer social games Doctoral 8ballBull, Sims, Angry Birds Mrs Sofia Tsiortou F 36-45 Instructional designer Tertiary Angry Birds, SecondLife, Backgammon Mr Panagiotis Zaharias M 36-45 Professor / researcher Tertiary EveOnline
  27. 27. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 25 2nd seminar / focus group held on the 24/4/2012 in Athens, Greece (University of Athens, MA course) Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Mrs Asteria Marantou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Anastasia Kaltsoula 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Evjenia Siampanopoulou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Menia Mavraki 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Antonia Seresly 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Katerina Fragkiskou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Dr. Dimitris Gouscos 36-45 M Professor Tertiary
  28. 28. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 26 ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: CNIPA PUGLIA
  29. 29. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 27 ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT DESK RESEARCH “What should we call these “new” students of today? Some refer to them as the N- [for Net]- generation or D-[for digital] - generation. But the most useful designation I have found for them is Digital Natives. Our students today are all “native speakers” of the digital language of computers, video games and the Internet.” The “digital natives”, that means the young generations of boys and girls that, since 1990, were born and grown up with Internet “love to play more than older generations”. Most of them had access to games and virtual worlds all lifelong and so they take for granted the high involvement and the active participation. They know what an extreme, positive activation means and when they don’t experience it, they feel bored and frustrated. They don’t have any reason to feel like that: it’s much more difficult to work well in less motivated environments with a low feedback and few challenges when you grow up playing sophisticated games”. When we study educational paths addressed to young people today we have to take into consideration that they are the first generation of students that have been constantly in touch with new information technology and communication tools: mobile phones, DVD players, laptops, desktops and videogames are part of their lives since their births and are integrating part of their everyday life. “Engage Me or Enrage Me”, this is the slogan of new generation. This kind of debate is concerning the trainers of the 21st century, showing a greater and greater interest towards the so-called “serious game” and they consider also the fact to show its efficiency to the people who weren’t born in the digital era too and that were approaching the digital world during the years, in different stages of their lives, being fascinated by this world. This last kind of people is called, always by M. Prensky, Digital Immigrants. “Today’s serious game is serious business” this is how Sawyer , well-known expert of this topic, that has the quality of making the word serious game famous, explains that the first word “serious” is referred to the aim of the game and the reason why it has been created, that is why he refers to serious videogames as “information applications realized by researchers and industrials with the
  30. 30. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 28 aim of using those videogames and technologies for objectives that go beyond the simple entertainment". The serious game is used with many different purposes and to explain or simulate any situation and topic, the fields that use this tool include from the medical ones to the military ones, enterprises, politics, religion, and ethics and so on. For instance, the videogames used at school with a didactic aim, reveal themselves as an efficient mean to explain to young people and children topics that could have been too complex if covered in a different way. Furthermore, always regarding the didactics, the serious game seems to be in line with the digital language the young use nowadays and are perfect interpreters. Michael and Chen, two experts in educational videogames, seem to agree with this kind of observations about the serious games. In their book “Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train and Inform” they describe videogames as: “ …a voluntary activity, obviously separate from real life, creating an imaginary world that may or may not have any relation to real life and that absorb the player’s full attention. Games are played out within a specific time and place, are played according to established rules, and create social groups out of their players.” So the primary objective of serious game is to teach something and do it in a pleasant and enjoyable way. The expression serious game became popular after the birth of the Serious Game Initiative in 2002, an association that dealt only with the research and development about serious videogames. Thanks to the growth of this association, the term serious videogame was included in common language and had the visibility it deserved, considering we are talking about a market of millions dollar. In the website dedicated to the initiative, the association explains what are its aims through its studies that are significant to understand the real extent of this: “Serious Game Initiative is focused on the use of games to explore new challenges about management and public sector. Part of its global features is to help creating a productive link between electronic videogames and different projects that concern fields such as education, health, training and public policy”. The serious games represent only a part of the tools used for educational, learning and practical purposes related to the use of computer. In fact, according to the aim they have we can talk e- learning, edutainment, game-based learning and digital game-based learning. The first concept, the one of e-learning, concerns the possibility to learn exploiting the Internet and consequently the possibility to spread distance information.
  31. 31. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 29 E-learning is not limited to school education and university but it is used for company training and organizations that have offices in different cities. The Edutaiment is a form of entertainment with the aim of educating and enjoying. The purpose is to socialize people in entertainment activities such as TV programmes, videogames, films and websites. The term edutaiment is a neologism created by Bob Heyman. The expression was born by the merging of two words: educational and entertainment. The term edutainment is also used to refer to the sector of e-learning that tries to transfer key concepts in a funny way. This method can also be used fruitfully to cover delicate issues such as ethics, diversity and sex education. As far as game-based learning, it is defines as a branch of serious games, that deals with the results, concerning learning process, that are achieved using teaching games. The reasoning that underlies the intuition to use game as a tool to learn is clearly expressed by the following statement by Marc Prensky: “There is no reason that a generation can memorize over 100 Pokemon characters with all their characteristics, history and evolution can’t learn the names, population, capitals and relationships of all the 101 nations in the world”. The characteristics of GBL (game-based learning) are first of all to use competitive exercises that stimulate the students to defy each other or against themselves in order to be motivated to learn better, they often use elements of imagination that involve the players in learning activities that follow the path of a story and furthermore, with the aim of creating a really instructive game, the trainer has to be sure that learning the notions of the game are actually aimed at the score and the win of the game itself. Besides the fact that learning through a game is really attractive to young people, the GBLs, if structured in a correct way, can motivate students to better know and encourage them to learn from their mistakes. The digital game-based learning (DGBL) are closely connected with the GBLs, the only difference being that they refer only to games that are digital and therefore can be used only with the support of a personal computer. The DGBLs are the most popular educational games and the attention of studies is focusing on them, and it is not difficult to guess why, since it is not strange to find children who can use technology better than an adult a computer. The logic behind the processes of learning that we want to trigger with the use of serious game is the one learning by doing. In recent years, this expression has become quite popular since it was found to be in many respects, one of the best strategies to learn when it is not intended only as
  32. 32. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 30 a mean to memorize, but also to "understand". To understand and memorize, therefore, it seems that the best strategy is to do it by practically experiencing, through work, through the actions that are more stuck in memory. Since the objective, whatever the target we are addressing to, is not mechanical actions or concepts randomly, to really understand we gave to activate pathways that stimulate reflection and thought. The knowledge must be internalized; we must reflect, think and be aware (learning by thinking). The development of the serious games industry is becoming an object of interest and investigation and this is also proved by the fact that in Europe there are many programs that have it in Europe, one among all the LUDUS project. Objective of the project LUDUS is the creation of a European network for the transfer of knowledge and dissemination of good practices in the innovative field of serious games. In the context of the project LUDUS, a part of the activities for promotion, transfer of knowledge and creation of a network of experts, will take place in South East Europe. These activities aim to promote training and skills development and the capacity of local firms and other actors involved in the field of serious games. LUDUS activities include, among others, the analysis of the state of the art of serious games, a survey on the availability and interest of the ICT companies in the South East of Europe for the development of serious games, the organization of workshops, conferences, training courses, competitions, open labs, creating an online database of experts and other stakeholders, to build a website and a reference library, prepare promotional activities and a guide of good practices. The demographics show a constant increase of interest in the use of serious games. 31% of EU citizens aged between 16 and 49 are active players and European players’ average age is 30 years. Statistics reveal that this type of game is now an essential part of everyday life for a significant portion of the population, regardless of age, gender and social status, which can be seen as an indicator of familiarity with this type of technology and at the same time, as evidence of the importance of the game itself and, consequently, of serious games in general. The study “Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation in Policy Making” by OECD (Organization for the Development of Cooperation and Development) has outlined an important framework for participatory policies of EU members. The report emphasized the need to strengthen the link between citizens and institutions, both national and European Union, in particular, stressed the need to make citizens participate in decision-making, supporting the traditional means of participation and consultation with the use of new ICT (Information and Communication Technologies).
  33. 33. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 31 Projects such as E-VITA (project co-founded by the General Directorate of Education and Culture of the European Commission within the Lifelong Learning Programme, Key Activity 3) that integrate Game Based Learning with concepts of inter-generational learning or VoiceS , that has the aim of promoting the dialogue among European citizens and their regional representatives of European parliament or local assemblies in order to build a mutual relation of change and trust, confirm the importance, pertinence and functionality of serious games. The “Videogamers in Europe 2010” study, realized by GameVision on behalf of the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE), shows that in Italy, adults play less than those in EU countries. Only 17% of adults are used to playing videogames. Italy is one of the EU countries where the adult generation do not have a high rate of video-gamers. Only 17% of people in Italy play videogames, while the European average is 25%. On the other hand, 76% of players play online games, while the European average is 71%. According to the statistics, 73% of people play free games and 22% play ‘pay per play games’. Italy shows the highest proportion of playing games on a “pay to play” basis. Italian players play mostly with games which are available on social networks and online, as opposed to videogames. One out of five Italian players takes part in multiplayer online games. The games which are most used are casual games such as puzzle, board, trivial and card games (played by 55%). According to the European average, Italian players play 59% for fun, 53% to relax and 39% to pass time. Particularly in Italy, there is a large rate of players; however they are not used to buying videogames. This suggests that they have a low budget for gaming and there is a consequent impact on the level of piracy. Normally, artificial systems such as computers, robots and telecoms networks, collect information about and interact with the environments they inhabit. This raises the question of how to build artificial systems that adapt to their environment. The attempt to answer this question has brought together researchers from a broad range of theoretical and technological disciplines. Building an artefact that knows its environment requires on the one hand a Theory of Knowledge, on the other a broad range of scientific and technical know-how. In other words, it requires collaboration between psychologists, philosophers, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, physicists and mathematicians. The collaboration between these researchers in these different disciplines has already produced important theoretical and practical results. To further promote this collaboration, the EU has created a Network of Excellence that brings together key
  34. 34. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 32 workers in the area. The staff of the NAC laboratory is part of this effort and it belongs to the University of Naples Federico II. The focus of the lab's activity is to reproduce psychobiological phenomena in artificial systems using Evolutionary Robotics and Artificial Life techniques. Several of the key researchers come from the Laboratory for Adaptive Robotics and Artificial Life - Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies National Research Council. They are involved to extend this approach to create effective new technologies that support psychological processes (learning, decision making, entertainment, etc.). In according with learning process NAC Lab has developed many projects. One of these is the pilot project LearnToLead, created to design, implement, and test a novel, online approach to training in team leadership (see Good Practice section). Moreover, related with the last tendencies, 2 young Italian developers are creating a different platform of social game but all their project are recent and available in beta version. These games are different because they pretend to make the users very active in the way of thinking, cooperating and acting on the real life. The first game is called Edgeryders and has created by an Italian developer Mr. Alberto Cottica (see Good Practice section), the second game is a “social activity game“ called Piqueon, it has created by Mr. Daniele Portaluri. Both represent a new way of gaming interaction. NATIONAL RESEARCH Following the guidelines of WP2, before the focus group, we selected the possible candidates, and experts of serious and social game, to submit them the semi-structured face to face interviews. The recruitment of experts was made through a research on Internet, followed by Phone calls and mail Exchange to evaluate their competence related to the field covered. From a list of 15 people we selected 6 experts and, during the month of April 2012, we submitted them a semi-structured interview according to WP2. The interviews were carried on at home with the interviewees, recorded with a digital recorder, and then listened to, analysed, protocoled and filed. The interviewees were: 1. Daniele Portaluri (Social game creator) 2. Carla Ruggeri (Journalist and researcher) 3. Livio Preite (Teacher and trainer)
  35. 35. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 33 4. Piero Petrelli (ITC developer) 5. Riccardo Rizzo (ITC teacher) 6. Francesco Baccaro (ITC developer/designer) From the analysis of the answers, the results emerged were: Social games based learning initiatives The last trends prove that we’re experiencing a greater and greater use of this kind of games, above all for children. Learn enjoying it is easier and more motivating. The social game, furthermore, trains to the confrontation, enables to involve a very high number of users, destroys any architectural barrier. It’s becoming an easy and fast system. The most known social games and most successful are, according to the interviewees: The Sims Social, available also on Facebook, Cityville, Second Life, Foursquare, Peacemaker, Oilproject (with over 9000 students, it’s the greatest school online in Italy), Piqueon, EdgeRyders, StreetMood, Learn to Lead and Eutopia. Furthermore, the territorial potential of the application of serious game could be used as a tool to promote every territory, the artistic and natural beauties, arts and crafts and the typical features of the context of reference. The experts have recommended the social games based learning initiatives below: • Learn to Lead (pilot project); • Oilproject; • Edgeryders; • Eutopia. The profile of social games player From the interviews carried out the typical adult player is between 30/40, interested in digital technology, Internet and videogames (particularly console), curious and attentive to the news in this field. The player tends to be diligent in the initial phase of approach and knowledge of the game and becomes less and less fond of it, except if the system does not introduce such innovations periodically to maintain a constant level of interest for the user. What pushes the player to play is the desire to meet new people, try new games, the curiosity to test new applications and the desire to compete and challenge the others.
  36. 36. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 34 Sample testing All the interviewees have tested the game 3D NEELB2. Everybody expressed a positive judgement about the use of 3D environments and interactive avatar for the purposes of the project. At the same time they suggested to improve the game speed of interaction and graphic elements. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning In this case the different backgrounds and professional experiences of participants emerged. In fact, those engaged in teaching activities and formal education prefer the use of serious games like Second Life or Oilproject, where they regularly organize social cultural and educational events. The ones who do not work in schools, would rather participate in less formal environments and creative ones such as Piqueon and Edgeryders, where users have to complete less structured missions and the solutions are not unique but depend on the participant's intelligence. Participants highlighted that the major pedagogical advantage of using social games, the ability to have a customized experience of the technological means (computer). Even socializing is an important aspect of social games. It also allows you to break down any barrier, both physical and social, since it interacts in a "non place", not necessarily a mirror of a real context. Furthermore, the same advantages, when considered in absolute terms that means constantly compared with the experiences of real life, could become disadvantages in terms of release from everyday life, representing the biggest disadvantage. Another disadvantage is the low possibility to control the content uploaded. As for the skills that can be supported by games (social games), it was determined that there are no limits to that effect. As regards the approach to learning, everyone agreed that there is an objective approach, but it must always be measured and studied in relation to the peculiar characteristics of the target group to which the social game is addressed. The experts have recommended the pedagogical potential of the use of games below: • language skills; • communication skills; • technical skills;
  37. 37. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 35 • opening-mind; • keeping in touch with many users; • implementation of knowledge; • sharing and comparing experiences from real life to digital environment; • learning process based on non-formal education; • keeping information about several interests; • involving the player in the decision making process; • increasing social skills and self-empowerment. Identification of success elements of social games for education The elements of success of social games for education, from the interviews carried out, are the result of the intrinsic nature of them as they are accessible to all and represent an element of change and innovation. They also allow an easy learning and playing, they have in themselves mechanisms that stimulate a better involvement of the player who does not feel at some point the stress due to learn at any cost. We list the elements of success that were identified: - nice and suitable graphic environment (Mr. Daniele Portaluri is working on the new graphic version of Piqueon); - non formal environment (success elements of Edgeryders); - active involvement of the user: make feel the player as an important person and bringing “something new” (main success elements of Edgeryders); - immediate gratitude and self-esteem; - the success of the action depends above all to each individual (supported by the other players); - good competition and ability in problem solving; - no mark or formal evaluation;
  38. 38. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 36 - clear and defined rules; - tutorials for gaming (video-tutorial). Learning identification and evaluation The interaction in interactive environments is easy and the learning as quick as the game is interesting. From the experience of the participants results that there is often a greater inclination to virtual rather than physical interaction. Learning can be measured by feedbacks with compulsory access that is taken seriously only if the game is funny. If you are in a class the encouragement could come from the teacher in the classroom, whether it is an informal environment, it provides rewarding moments that stimulate to keep. Of course the ones who are stimulated to learn and play above all for this rewarding mechanism, is of minor importance. We should consider that in Italy all game learning based initiatives are quite recent and belong to university research sector or private entrepreneurial attempts. Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice The barriers have been identified: - from a technical point of view as the broad band, the cost of connection and the multimedia tools. - from a socio-pedagogical point of view, the trainers are few and few ones are really able to manage the educational situations on the cutting edge. - language barriers. Skills supported by game-based learning approaches It's been difficult to identify areas universally valid for every kind of learner. However, you can find common elements that lead to define some areas more appreciated than others. They were foreign language, IT skills above all for the use of social networks, entrepreneurship and cultural insights, and then in order of importance educational subjects such as mathematics and social sciences. The skills supported in LearnToLead game are: - competition and cooperation; - leadership skills; - team working;
  39. 39. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 37 - effectiveness and efficiency; - competencies in “people management”, resource management and organization. The skills supported in Edgeryders game are: - influence common future of Europe; - share the social responsibility; - build a positive cooperation between citizens; - share information and good practice between citizens and institutional body. The skills supported in Piqueon game are: - technical skills through video, photos and media contents ; - responsible competition; - communication skills; - creativity and social activism; - learning through the actions of other users. FOCUS GROUP As has been explained, it should be considered that in Italy, all game learning based initiatives are relatively recent and belong to university research sectors or small entrepreneurial attempts. The participants of the focus group have been informed about these initiatives, however none of them have experience with the social games which are recommended by the experts (only 4 participants have experience with Edgryders). The focus group was held in Lecce on 27th April 2012 with the participants selected following the guidelines of WP2. The group of participants is composed by eleven people selected among teachers, trainers and people practising social game based learning. The focus group was led by Doct. Maurizio Melito, supported by the sociologist Cosimo Botrugno. The participants selected are:
  40. 40. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 38 1. Mr. Salvatore Cappilli (Graphic designer, ITC teacher) 2. Mr. Daniele Martina (Psychologist and Trainer) 3. Mrs. Alessandra Alfarano (Public Body Employed/sociologist) 4. Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso (ITC Teacher, E-tutor) 5. Mr. Salvatore Logica (Video Maker/practitioner) 6. Msr. Irma Zabulionyte (graphic designer) 7. Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato (Community developer) 8. Mrs. Mariangela Schito (Italian teacher) 9. Mrs. Cecilia Catanzariti (Informal trainer/project manager) 10. Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne (Intercultural Trainer) 11. Paola De Pascali (Intercultural trainer) In detail: The activities began at 9.00 with a short presentation of the project P4I made by Doc. Maurizio Melito, where the main aspects of the project have been presented and the general objectives. Then every participant was given a SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY and, after 20 minutes, all the tests have been filled in and hand over. The purpose of such questionnaire, as outlined in WP2, was to make the participants reflect on their intercultural skills before proceeding with a debate on the use of social games of the participants The questionnaires were developed in order to have an immediate feedback of sensitivity of participants to the topic covered. The debate was opened with a brief introduction by Mr. Melito on the use of social games, which was followed by the activity "my avatar" that was carried out as follows: each participant was asked to draw on a sheet the typical interface of their favourite social game, to give motivations to the actions of their avatar and to explain why the avatar exists and to explain the interaction of the avatar with the environment.
  41. 41. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 39 From the following analysis of the works we can see that: a) The most popular games among participants are: - Second Life (6 participants) - Foursquare (6 participants) - Cityville (6 participants) - Sims Socials (4 participants) - Edgeryders (4 participants) - The World of Warcraft (3 participants) - Farm Ville (3 participants) - The Sims 3 (2 participants) - The Peacemaker (1 participant) b) The main common motivations of players are: - Widen the contact network overcoming the territorial distances (7) - Know the “different” through the virtual representation channels (5) - To disguise yourself and have a new identity (5) c) The main skills supported resulted to be - Gratitude and satisfaction - Learning a foreign language through the commands of the game and the interactions with other users - Giving value to the relational aspect - Growth and personal enrichment - Learning the use of technology d) The main activities carried out during the game were: - Cooking/eating
  42. 42. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 40 - Listening to music - Smoking - Talking on the phone From 10 to 10:15 we had a coffee break followed by the test of the game 3D NEELB2. Every participant had the opportunity to have access and complete the game to participate to the following focus group. Furthermore, every participant was asked to take notes of the answers given to every single question of the game. At 11.30 the focus group was opened. To start the discussion, we asked the participants to give their opinion about the game NEELB2, from that some critical points emerged: - Lack of personalization and characterization of the avatar - Slow game dynamics - Limited interaction with other characters Of course the group had understood very well the aims of the sample game and expressed a strong curiosity in knowing the following implementations of the game. Then, starting from the academic definitions of the three terms, Mr. Maurizio Melito began the focus group so that participants compared the answers given. Shortly after the debate has been focused on how the use of social games can foster intercultural attitudes at the expense of discrimination. A first critical aspect detected during the debate was that, when a participant (Alessandra Alfarano) noted that although the social games offer the opportunity to interact with an unlimited number of users, it happens that the greatest number of interactions exchanged by players are made within a limited circle. This phenomenon, according to Alessandra, does nothing but reinforce prejudices, stereotypes and discriminatory acts of their group. The answers of the group were many, but in the end it was agreed that it would be interesting to create a game where everyone is led to be born, grow and live in different ethnic communities, in order to make a virtual experience interacting with those communities most victims of discrimination.
  43. 43. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 41 A second topic introduced by Mr. Melito concerned the use of social games as learning tool for adults about interculturality. The younger participants have immediately agreed about the need and the usefulness of this type of games in schools, like civic education. A question asked by a participant (Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato) has suggested a number of critical points arguing that it is very difficult to influence the behaviour of adults because they have stereotypes and prejudices deeply rooted in their social actions. Some have supported the statement of Giovanni, others have argued that the number of people that approaches social games also includes a significant number of adults who, though attracted to these games, might be able to change their mental barriers in a virtual environment. Another topic emerged from these observations concerns the digital divide in Italy. Daniele Martina in fact, states that it is a phenomenon that is still too relevant and which helps to move away the adults from the world of technology, at least as concerns the field of learning. Peter Petrelli, however, answered back by saying that the university reforms and the use of e-learning platforms not necessarily academic has greatly reduced the digital gap, designing interfaces more and more intuitive and standardized. The focus group ended with greetings and the organizers thanking all participants for their involvement.
  44. 44. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 42 CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In conclusion few ones added some comments, but from the few comments we could extract the following recommendations: 1. Present the social game in an appropriate way. This allows a positive approach. This can happen in the classroom or, if it is an informal environment, via web. 2. The information and clarity avoid moments of default. 3. An appropriate system of tutoring helps to develop the path in a correct way as video, text and picture, etc.). 4. Divide the game into steps and stop many times for clarifications and discussion in order to consolidate the knowledge that can be a help. 5. Sometimes, repeating the game allows all the participants to be at the same level to go on with another study.
  45. 45. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 43 REFERENCES: (1) Jane McGonigal ( 2011), La realtà in gioco, Apogeo (2) Mark Prensky (2001) Digital Natives, digital immigrants, from www.marcprensky.com (3) Bryan Bergero (2006) Developing serious game, Thomson Delmar Learning (4) Michael David, Chen Sande (2005) Serious Game, games that educate train and inform, Thomson Course Technology (5) Ben Sawyer (2010) from www.bensawyer.net (6) Susi Tarja, Johannesson Mikael, Backlund Per (2007) Serious game - An Overview, from www.autzones.net (7) Castronova Edward (2007) Exodus to the Virtual World focus, Palgrave Macmillan (8) OECD (2001) Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation in Policy Making (9) Luciano Gallino (2004) Dizionario di sociología Report Focus, UTET (10) Asi Burak, Eric Keylor, Tim Sweeney (2007) PeaceMaker: A Video Game to Teach Peace, from http://www.etc.cmu.edu (11) Marc Prensky (2005) Engage Me or Enrage Me, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 40 (12) S. Hall (1997) Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices Report Focus, Sage in association with The Open University (13) B. M. Mazzara (1997) Stereotipi e pregiudizi Report Focus, Il Mulino (14) GameVision Europe (for ISFE) (2010) Video gamers in Europe 2010, from http://gamevisionresearch.com
  46. 46. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 44 Annex: Participants profile matrix Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Mr. Salvatore Cappilli 50 M Graphic designer, ITC teacher Second life, The World of Warcraft Mr. Daniele Martina 31 M Pychologist and Trainer Degree in psychology Foursquare, The Sims social Mrs. Alessandra Alfarano 35 F Public Body Employed/sociologist Degree in sociology Second life, The Sims social, Foursquare Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso 52 M ITC Teacher, E-tutor Degree in Economy and finance Second life, Farm Ville Mr. Salvatore Logica 31 M Video Maker/practicioner Degree in environment sciences (bachelor) Foursquare, Edgeryders, The World of Warcraft Mrs. Irma Zabulionyte 30 F Graphic designer Degree in business technology (bachelor) Second life, The Sims 3 Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato 46 M Community developer Scientific diploma The Sims social, The peacemaker, The World of Warcraft Mrs. Mariangela Schito 28 F Italian teacher Degree in litterature Foursquare, Edgeryders, The Sims 3 Mrs. Cecilia Catanzariti 46 F Informal trainer/project manager Degree in pedagogy Second life, The Sims social, Farm Ville Mrs. Paola De Pascali 28 F Intercultural trainer Degree in social sciences (bachelor) Foursquare, Edgeryders, Farm Ville Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne 52 F Intercultural Trainer Degree in sociology Second life, Foursquare, Edgeryders
  47. 47. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 45 PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SPI
  48. 48. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 46 PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTION P4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the European Commission. The project has been approved in 2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years. P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take a step forward and create an innovative social game that promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivating them to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization and media literacy in parallel. The present report comprises Portuguese contribution to WP2, pertaining the preparation of national research on the use of innovative teaching methodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educational sectors. The main objectives of this report are: • To analyse the pedagogical potentials of games and social games applied to competences development. • To identify those variables influencing the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives. • To detect good practices in the EU or international level. • To gather success examples that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. Followed methodology and contacted experts National research comprised two sources of information. On the one hand, desk research regarding case studies on social games based approach to education and training. On the other hand, qualitative research involving adult training practitioners and experts on the use of
  49. 49. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 47 innovative teaching methodologies (preferably linked to games and video games) from different educational sectors. Desk research was designed to collect main references and reports on the investigation object: social games based learning initiatives. A summary was prepared on the findings, including the extensive list of reports and references consulted. Desk research was based on internet search of investigation object keywords, in English and Portuguese: social games, learning, education, adults. It was also limited to Portuguese based initiatives. Qualitative methodology comprised expert interviews and focus groups. Expert interviews aimed at collecting in-depth information and provide spontaneous feedback on game based learning initiatives and their pedagogical potential. A total of six experts from different areas of expertise were contacted and interviewed. The names and occupation are presented in the following table: Table 1. Experts interviewed. Group discussions provided insights from an adult training practitioner’s point of view. They could also bring added-value for expert interviews results validation. A total of four trainers were present in the Focus Group session organised on April 23rd 2012. As a result of low turnout a second focus group was scheduled for May 4th. For this meeting there were six trainers on attendance. Name and surname Occupation Institution Area of expertise Maria João Spilker eLearning expert Business manager Personal eLearning business Education and Distance Learning Personal Learning Environments Filipe Penicheiro Game-based learning expert University of Coimbra – Interdisciplinary institute History and digital games Educational technology ICT applications for cultural heritage Teresa Pessoa Professor University of Coimbra – Psychology Faculty Teacher training Reflexive pedagogy ICT Teresa Pinto Business Manager Take the Wind (business enterprise) 3D Environments for education Ana Amélia Carvalho Professor University of Coimbra – Psychology Faculty mLearning Digital games Content structure Licinio Roque Professor University of Coimbra – Informatics Engineering Department Content engineering Interaction experience design Software engineering Information Systems
  50. 50. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 48 MAIN FINDINGS Social games based learning initiatives Social games based learning initiatives have always been present. However, only in recent years its full potential has been realised and as a result, according to interviewed experts, it is a fast growing trend. Promoting social skills through initiative games is one of the most relevant educational methods with a strong impact on a student motivation and learning process. Cognitive classroom management integrates different teaching techniques, where games adopt an important place. Those game based initiatives help teachers and trainers to deliver many different types of contents and at the same time they can create a rich, dynamic and inclusive educational context, where learners are the main part of the learning process. However, these games should be combined with formal educational methods, giving students a more solid background. Thus, the process of “gamification” of learning is rapidly pervading different areas of knowledge. Albeit still in its infancy, it has been successfully integrated in educational environments, the main reason being its perceived positive effects on learning. Whilst there has been some research into potential uses of digital games in the classroom, only a few evaluation methodologies have been made public, already suggesting relevant impact on student and trainee knowledge attainment and motivation. Regarding its use, there are two main theoretical approaches: • A behavioural approach, which views education as knowledge transmission. Game based learning approaches are therefore better carried over through quizzing, and as such there is no exploration, no stimulus, and not every area of knowledge can be taught through gaming. • A student-centred approach, where active apprenticeship is encouraged. Aligned with this view, games are more complex and exploratory, demanding new pedagogical strategies and methodologies. The teacher is key and classroom delivery is more important than the game itself. In both frameworks a wide variety of games typology is allowed. Serious games are a very successful trend. Albeit the ludic quality of the game is still present, the adjective “serious” does invite immediate perspective and reflexion. There are a number of games referenced:
  51. 51. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 49 • “PING” (Poverty Is Not a Game) used to promote poverty awareness in classrooms; • “Third world farmer”, where the player is responsible for a small area of land in central Africa, and has to “endure the hardships of 3rd world farming”, including natural and human- made disasters; • “Façade”, a relationship centred game, where couple friction needs to be managed by the player. • “Global conflicts – Palestine, an adventure game that addresses issues like tolerance. The last game is related to the “SIMS” franchise, and has been used for pedagogical purposes in Portugal. The commercial version is laden with stereotype so it is pretty useful. It also allows a number of interculturality issues to be explored, namely offering the chance of solving personal dilemmas. There is a complementary trend regarding the exploration of “alternate reality games” (or ARG) for education. These games have a more pervasive quality about them, and use “ubiquitous communication technologies to immerse gamers in fictional adventures which digitally augment everyday reality”. A traditional ARG is “Scavenger Hunt”, but it can adopt more complex and technology intensive forms. “Ludocity” webpage has a host of varied games destined to such contexts. “Second Life” virtual world has also been used in learning environments, namely roleplaying. These environments have a powerful effect of immersion that enables a person to take on another perspective, something unfeasible in real life. As such, moving beyond simulation, such platforms are helpful in varied sociological contexts. They have also been used in psychological contexts; albeit a deep level of specialised accompaniment is required. The usual procedure is to immerse the player with an “avatar”, gifted with a given personality and situation. Goals in these learning environments may vary between reaching a physical objective related to a subject, i.e., having a successful conversation with a number of people, or skilfully performing tasks. It has also been used to give the opportunity of playing the role of a minority group member or a victim of abuse, i.e., bullying or cyber bullying. History teaching in Portugal has received a considerable enhancement with the development of a number of games adapted for education. One example is Soure 1111, further discussed in this report (see case studies). Game integration in the classroom increased attainment of complex subject matters, such as political context of the era, social roles and inequalities,
  52. 52. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 50 currency and defence structures. Other commercial games like Civilization and Europa Universalis have also been used in history teaching. Examples of successful game approach in other areas of knowledge are numerous, namely the well-known game “Simcity” – which has been used to train people in urban management issues. “First person shooters” have been similarly used for war trauma recovery (psychology) or even as a warm up tool for surgeons or even a means to increase accuracy prior to surgery. Mobile learning, particularly among young students, is also a pervasive trend. Games are being adapted to mobile outlets as taking a computer to class is increasingly undervalued while powerful computer-like mobile phones have been developed. These audiences view learning as increasingly visual. For them images are fundamental elements of education. There is also a trend to make games related to daily issues. This is particularly evident in fields like maths. As a strongly theoretical discipline (and rightly so) it can benefit from analogies, i.e., performing simple arithmetic in a grocery store, which in turn are easily carried over through games. The profile of social games player Games player profile depends entirely on context and game typology. As different people react differently to the same game it is only possible to typify player behaviour by his game actions (the way he plays) but not beforehand. This happens in part because game response depends on a high number of variables that need to be taken into account regarding gamer profiling. Some of those variables are: • Learning capabilities are distinct from person to person – there are visual, tactile, explorers or competitive persons. • Grown-up keenness and predisposition to play a game is very varied, and may depend on game content and context. • Some people are naturally drawn to gaming, to certain themes or simply enjoy the challenge it entails. This is independent of age or background. • Social norms influence a person’s stance on playing. There is also a view that older individuals relate less to gaming and have developed a certain resistance, primarily viewing it as less serious and childish. This view is though controversial as game-based learning in adults has been shown to produce results, albeit in face of initial strong
  53. 53. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 51 resistance. This is evident across the board as no suggestion has been made by the experts regarding group exclusion. It is nonetheless possible to differentiate between social group’s responses to particular games. Thus, globally, there is a sense that men play more often than women and that they play different games. Men frequently play to compete and excel. They favour struggle and strategy. In contrast, women by and large prefer socially oriented games. There have been however examples of juxtaposition between genders that contradict those generalisations. There is a sense that shy pupils function better socially in virtual worlds than in real world. Regular players have (or gain) certain computers skills and have a certain ease interacting with the computer and other game players. They are frequently extroverts virtually, but not necessarily in real life. Some personality traits also influence one’s approach to gaming. Rational people tend to distance themselves from the game while emotional individuals tend to get very much involved. Finally one can typify addicted players, subject to harmful competitiveness. Sample testing Facebook game: Experts viewed it as marginally interesting, and some labelled it “humorous”. There was also the opinion that it did not amount to a game, but a mere quiz. Other areas of improvement were also pointed out as necessary to meet Project’s objectives in an effective manner. These pointers were: Broad difficulty in understanding game’s objectives, namely concerning the promotion of intercultural competences. Regarding this, a number of suggestions were readily made: o Adding an introduction to the game so as to make its concept clearer. o Value its strictly ludic content where people select alternatives and then see the story enfold. This would make people interested. On top of this a subtext would be added – i.e. playing with stereotyped beliefs and ideas, starting with the introduction of a person from a different culture that does not fit with preconceived ideas, etc. After the game there would be a joint reflexion. o A broader game narrative is required. The game immediately jumps into quizzing. An emotional narrative was specifically proposed to get into the game story and world.
  54. 54. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 52 o Adding the possibility of choosing physical features of the person. Those features should be present in the final narrative. Other technical pointers were mentioned: • The final narrative is not in tune with the choices made. There was a concrete case of choosing and artist and that feature was not perceptible in the final story. • The arrow should command “page turning”. • The final text is tiresome. Spacing, font should be adjusted so that the text appears lighter. In Focus Group discussion, the educational value was not apparent, although there was a clear entertainment value. “This game is full of clichés and it’s difficult to adapt its structure to another subject: it would need a long list of questions and answers/options and its management would be complex. The game interface was considered very poor and romantic-like. Pushing the bottom is not the easiest way to play either; it should validated by pushing the option (sentence or word). The need for an explanatory introduction and objective clarification at the outset were also prevalent. “Considering this is a female oriented game, it should have a preliminary question about the player gender“. The game was viewed as “comical, but we don’t do much” and “pedagogical interest in training with foreign languages is foreseeable”. There were several ideas for improvement: “The game was very interesting to work on some story making skills. It enables trainees to understand how some random words transform itself in a story. The final text could be laden with errors, so the player could correct them. Game immersion would help make the task less dreary.” “The game would be interesting as a means of enabling discussion about perceptions. We could solicit each trainee to build a story. Then we would confront each other’s story and talk about differences in culture and history, and illustrate how a common ground can lead to different outcomes”. “An immigrant could write a letter to home reporting on felt discrimination”.
  55. 55. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 53 Ireland game: The game was regarded as useful, the playability easy and the scenery appealing. Similarly the experts considered it “with potential” as it allows the player to identify himself with the avatar. As such it would be possible to make the target group deal with statements usually said in everyday life and to have cultural experiences outside their own environment. Furthermore, it was suggested that, if maximization of such experiences is the goal, the player would play the oppressed and/or victim of abuse. I such a case the avatar should not be viewed as a 3rd person (i.e. the body is always within view which makes identification more difficult) but as 1st person. This could also be enhanced by choosing specific features of the avatar – including gender and nationality. Improving the human qualities of bystanders was also mentioned as these actually behave like automatons. Instead they should look directly at the avatar, react to his presence, or even deny conversation altogether. Similarly concepts need better clarification. For instance, some experts weren’t able to understand the difference between prejudice and stereotyping. This should be made clear right from the outset. Accordingly, this game would need an introduction, comprising a brief context of place and situation, rules explanation and a small glossary of used concepts. It was deemed important that discussion on the responses and concepts should be present during the game and not after game completion, as some statements need instant contextualization. In contrast, some dullness was referred and game interaction was considered very limited: “There is nothing else to do – which is boring. People should be in context, instead of doing nothing in the middle of the streets. I find that lacking. These aspects of game dynamics need improvement”. As far as technical issues are concerned, the following pointers were mentioned: • Bystanders should repeat sentences. • There should be a street map. That would improve playability. • The sky should be a bit clearer. It looks a bit dreary. Regarding Focus Groups, game reception was mixed. In the next paragraphs some opinions and ideas are presented.
  56. 56. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 54 The 1st focus group regarded the game in a positive light. Trainers mentioned the usefulness of playing a character in a testing environment, or a stepping stone for debate. “It could be used in a preliminary part of a class as it makes theoretical and complex concepts easier to discuss in classroom”. “The game is useful to confront target group with some discriminatory statements. I teach in a difficult environment and this game would be very interesting to make people aware of the contours of what is said”. “It would be interesting if bystanders physically react to the player. In real life we confront people we really don’t get along or don’t know how to behave. It would be interesting if some kind of awkward interactivity would develop”. There were some doubts regarding the game’s “rhythm” and usage on adult education: “I can see interesting applications like this. Anyway the duller parts need to be taken care of”. “…a waste of time for adults, it doesn’t seem interesting. Only children would find it the least interesting because they have patience to begin with”. Meanwhile the 2nd focus group viewed the game as generally poor, although its potential should be considered. The game was exceedingly focused on the concepts in a semantic point of view (stereotyping, discrimination, prejudice) without exploring their definitions. Some sentences were quite ambiguous as the answers weren’t always clear for players. A multi answer option must be considered as well as a scale to rate the answers, according to the concept relevance. The lack of objectivity of examples was pointed out as an obstacle to create a clear idea of the topic addressed and to reflect about interculturality. The players found that the game wasn’t reflecting the purpose of developing self-consciousness for interculturality. Some ideas for amelioration were proposed: “Instead of trying to define concepts and theories, this game should regard people’s own attitudes. For example, the game could test whether the avatar is demonstrating discriminatory attitudes in specific environments/scenario (e.g. To help or not to help a Muslim/old person/protestant with its shopping bag). “The game should include dialogues with a more subtle language where the player could identify himself in those words. Dialogs revealing good practices in intercultural topics, some
  57. 57. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 55 questions about different cultures and some videos related to the theme should improve the game. Some other types of discriminatory/stereotype/prejudice should be also included. “Educating for difference is the main key for this project where adults should learn the importance of interculturality and be aware of their discriminatory behaviours.” The playability was quite easy but the dynamic was regarded as slow. The scenery was considered appealing but the interactivity between the characters and the environment should take a step further (cars and people moving, etc.). “The lack of sound makes the game poorer; it should be included sounds from the environment and people’s voice and tone as they talk to the avatar. “The game could be improved to a level where the player could play and gather some points according to their answers and actions during the game.” Finally, group members were unanimous on the fact that the game should reach a satisfying conclusion. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning Overall, several beneficial effects were attributed to game based learning, notwithstanding the fact that different games have different benefits. Firstly, it allows carrying over complex issues in an accessible manner to most people, frequently making it possible to materialize abstract thought. This quality needs however careful consideration as abstract, non-linear notions are not easily translated to games. Simulation of reality is in itself important, but not enough. There are areas where this is paramount. Learning to fly with the help of a flight simulator is appropriate and satisfactory. However, to convey complex thoughts and notions, simulation is as sufficient as reality. This is most true when dealing with human related capabilities, like critical thought and intercultural issues. Soure 1111 was given as an example of the challenging aspect of conveying complex issues. In this case concepts were stripped to the indispensable so as to make gamers reflect on the Reconquista subject and retain some demanding ideas. Gameplay was afterwards discussed in an open discussion to ensure concepts were discussed and made clear.

×