Risk Factors for Short Term Virologic Outcomes Among HIV Infected Patients Undergoing Regimen Switch CHAO

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Chronic Illness and Multimorbidity

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Risk Factors for Short Term Virologic Outcomes Among HIV Infected Patients Undergoing Regimen Switch CHAO

  1. 1. Risk Factors for Short-Term Virologic Outcomes among HIV-infected Patients undergoing Regimen Switch of Combination Antiretroviral TherapyChun Chao1, Beth Tang1, Leo Hurley2, Michael J Silverberg2, William Towner3, MelissaPreciado1, Michael Horberg4Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California1Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California2Los Angeles Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Los Angeles, California3Mid-Atlantic Permanente Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic, Rockville, Maryland4 1
  2. 2. Introduction The therapeutic management of HIV+ patients involves the balance of maintaining maximally controlled HIV RNA levels and high CD4 T cell counts, while minimizing adverse effects. Current treatment guidelines for HIV patients advocate targeting maximal viral control and early regimen switch in the event of treatment failure. However, not all patients are able to achieve and maintain HIV RNA level below the assay’s lower limits of quantification. Failure to achieve maximal viral suppression poses challenges to the clinical management of HIV+ patients. 2
  3. 3. Introduction (cont.) Information on predictors of virologic outcome among treatment experienced patients therefore would be helpful for clinicians considering regimen changes. Previous studies reported that several factors may influence the likelihood of achieving maximal viral control after switching regimens, ◦ E.g., demographics, previous virologic response, previous exposure to antivirals, and medication adherence. ◦ Racial disparity has been observed in HIV treatment outcomes. However, many studies did not separately examine failing with low level viremia (LLV) from advanced virologic failure. 3
  4. 4. Objective In this study, we investigated risk factors for advanced virologic and for LLV among HIV+ patients who underwent cART regimen switch in Kaiser Permanente California health plans. We examined the role of ◦ Demographics; ◦ HIV disease factors,  E.g., CD4 cell count, prior AIDS diagnosis, and antiretroviral regimen-level factors ◦ Novel patient-level factors  i.e., co-morbidity and healthcare utilization. 4
  5. 5. Methods Study population: ◦ HIV+ persons age 18 and older who underwent a combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen switch between January 2001 - June 2008 at Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California.  Regimen switch defined as changing of at least 2 antiretroviral medications. For each person, first regimen switch that met the following criteria was included in the analysis: ◦ ≥ 6 months of prior health plan membership; ◦ ≥ 6 months on the newly switched regimen, i.e., the stabilization period, without switching to another regimen; ◦ At least one HIV RNA measurement to allow assessment of virologic response on the new regimen. 5
  6. 6. Outcomes of interest The outcomes of interest were ◦ Achieving maximal viral suppression  defined as HIV RNA <75 copies/mL; ◦ low level viremia (LLV)  defined as 75≤HIV RNA≤5000 copies/mL; ◦ Advanced virologic failure  defined as HIV RNA >5000 copies/mL at 6 months (+/- 8 weeks) after initiating the new regimen. 6
  7. 7. Study design diagram 7
  8. 8. Covariates of interest The following covariates measured at time of regimen switch were examined as potential risk factors for failing on the new regimen: ◦ Demographic characteristics,  Age, gender, race/ethnicity, and public insurance (Medicare and Medicaid) status; ◦ HIV disease factors  HIV transmission risk group, years of known HIV infection in KP, prior AIDS- defining diagnosis and CD4 cell count at time of regimen switch; ◦ cART use history  Known years of cART use at KP, HIV genotyping done immediately prior to regimen switch (yes/no), ART class of the new regimen, number of cART regimens ever taken and virologic failure at the previous regimen; ◦ Other patient-level factors  History of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hepatitis B and C infection, and non-AIDS defining cancer;  Healthcare utilization, such as number of office visit, emergency room visit and hospitalization in the 6 months prior to regimen switch ◦ Calendar year of the regimen switch ◦ cART adherence to the newly switched regimen during the 6 months stabilization period. 8
  9. 9. Data collection All data were collected electronically from Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California’s electronic health records and HIV disease registries. 9
  10. 10. Statistical analyses We calculated the distributions of covariates by HIV virologic response on the new regimen. Crude and adjusted associations between covariates and HIV virologic response were evaluated in logistic regression models. ◦ Age, gender, race/ethnicity, KP region (northern or southern California), HIV transmission risk group, and cART class of the new regimen were specified a priori to be included in the multivariable analysis. ◦ In addition, covariates that demonstrated a p-value <0.10 in the univariate analysis were included in the final model. ◦ We also conducted stratified analysis by CD4 cell count at regimen switch of <200/µL and ≥200/µL. 10
  11. 11. Results We identified a total of 4,847 HIV+ patients at Kaiser Permanente California who were of age 18 years or older and had a cART regimen switch between 2001 and 2008. After the exclusion, a total of 3447 subjects were included in the study. At the end of the stabilization period, 2608 (76%) subjects achieved maximal viral suppression, 420 (12%) failed with LLV and 419 (12%) experienced advanced virologic failure with HIV RNA >5000 copies/mL. 11
  12. 12. Subject characteristics 12
  13. 13. Crude analyses Those who developed treatment failure on the new regimen were on average younger, more likely to be racial/ethnic minority, and more likely to be Medicare/ Medicaid enrollees. 13
  14. 14. Multivariable results Younger age was associated with both advanced virologic failure and failing with LLV on the new regimen. Subjects who were heterosexual [OR=1.56 (0.99-2.46), compared with MSM], as well as those with lower CD4 cell count [OR=0.82 (0.76-0.89) per 100/mm3 increase] had elevated odds of developing advanced virologic failure. Advancement in calendar year was associated with decreased likelihood of treatment failure. 14
  15. 15. Multivariable analysis results cART-regimen level factors: ◦ Comparing with PI-based regimens, NRTI-only regimens were associated with both failing with advanced virologic failure and with LLV. ◦ New class- and mixed class-based regimens, on the other hand, appear to be protective for failing with LLV. ◦ As expected, virologic failure at previous regimen was a strong risk factor for failing the new regimen  Odds Ratio (OR)=4.71 (2.84-7.81) for advanced failure  OR= 3.15 (2.17-4.57) for LLV ◦ Greater medication adherence to the new regimen was protective for treatment failure  OR=0.96 (0.95-0.97) for advanced failure per 1% increase in adherence  OR=0.97 (0.96-0.98) for LLV per 1% increase in adherence 15
  16. 16. Multivariable analyses 16
  17. 17. Multivariable analyses (cont.) 17
  18. 18. Stratified analyses When we repeated the analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at regimen switch, the same risk factors were identified for treatment failure among the group with CD4 cell count <200/µL and the group with CD4 cell count ≥200/µL. However, among those with CD4 cell count of 200/µL and higher, new class-based cART regimen was also protective for advanced virologic failure when compared with PI-based regimen ◦ OR=0.29 (0.09-0.93) for advanced virologic failure 18
  19. 19. Summary of findings Among a treatment-experienced HIV-infected patient population undergoing regimen switch, ◦ about 24% failed to achieve maximal viral suppression after 6 months on the new regimen.  12% experienced advanced virologic failure. Younger age, heterosexual patients compared with MSM, lower CD4 cell count, NRTI-only regimens compared with PI-based regimens, and previous virologic failure remained independent risk factors for advanced virologic failure. cART regimens based on new class or mixed class was protective for failing with LLV. Rates of treatment failure decreases as calendar year advanced. In the multivariable analyses, racial/ethnic minorities or patients with public insurance did not have elevated risk of adverse virologic outcomes after regimen switch. 19
  20. 20. Limitations and Strengths Limitations ◦ There was no standardized follow-up visits: a considerable proportion of eligible patients (21%) were excluded due to the lack of an HIV RNA measurement to determine virologic response on the new regimen. ◦ Information on reasons for changing regimens for each individual was not available from electronic medical records. ◦ We only assessed short-term virologic response on the new regimen. Strengths ◦ A well-defined, racial/ethnically diverse patient population ◦ A comprehensive clinical record system that allow detailed assessment of each patient’s’ clinical history. 20
  21. 21. Conclusion These findings point to the importance of the choice of the new regimen, as well as maintaining CD4 cell count and maximal viral suppression. The risk factors identified in this study should be taken into consideration when considering a change of antiviral treatment and the subsequent patient care plan. 21

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