Word Analysis And Fluency


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Word Analysis And Fluency

  1. 1. Agenda for Monday, Sept. 27 <ul><li>Mini-Lesson </li></ul><ul><li>YA Lit assignment demo </li></ul><ul><li>Read alouds, selecting texts, interest inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Flow, efferent vs. aesthetic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Effect, reading levels </li></ul><ul><li>Save the Last Word for Me - NCTE Guideline: “On Reading, Learning to Read, and Effective Reading Instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>Word Recognition, Fluency, & Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well do I know these words? (Google Form) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have, who has?” review game </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. How to Choose a Good Book <ul><li>Read the back of the book to see if it’s interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Find the subject I like to read </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a friend </li></ul><ul><li>Look for an author you like </li></ul><ul><li>Skim through the book—read a few pages </li></ul><ul><li>Find a book that relates to you </li></ul><ul><li>~ Reading for Understanding , p. 64 </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Reading Don’t Fix No Chevys” by Michael Smith & Jeff Wilhelm <ul><li>Flow: “the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter” </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of control and competence </li></ul><ul><li>A challenge that requires an appropriate level of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>A focus on the immediate experience </li></ul>
  4. 5. Why Young Adult Literature? <ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Reading Level </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses affective aspect of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Improves confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Choice = Differentiation and Motivation </li></ul>
  5. 6. From NAEP, the National Assessment of Educational Progress <ul><li>Achievement Amount of Outside Word Gain </li></ul><ul><li>Percentile Reading in Min./Day per Year </li></ul><ul><li>90 th %ile 40+ min./day 2.3 million </li></ul><ul><li>50 th %ile <13 min./day 600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>10 th %ile <2 min./day 51,000 </li></ul>
  6. 7. The “Matthew Effect”
  7. 8. Save the Last Word for Me <ul><li>Select a sentence or short passage from the text that you would like to discuss in your group. </li></ul><ul><li>To start a new round, introduce your selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Let everyone else respond to the selection first. Then you have “the last word.” </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns until everyone has had the chance to introduce a sentence/passage from the essay for discussion. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Word Recognition <ul><li>Different ways readers can access print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sight Words/High-Frequency Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing prefixes, suffixes, and root words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for small words inside big words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the context to figure out meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~Beers, pp. 223-227 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Sight Words <ul><li>Words readers should know by sight without sounding them out </li></ul><ul><li>High-Frequency Words </li></ul><ul><li>Words that occur most often in our written language </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words <ul><li>Effortless way for early readers to read words before phonics instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of some words in isolation assists young readers in learning other word identification strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic recall of words leads to more word recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Some high-frequency words in English are not decodable. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words <ul><li>Automatic word recognition contributes to improved comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>A reader needs instant recognition of about 95% of words in any given text to read the text independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading in which a student cannot automatically recognize many words is laborious; in such cases, the student may never develop a desire to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic visual recognition of whole words is critical to fluency. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Decoding <ul><li>Sounding out words; using the letter-sound code </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetic Principle </li></ul><ul><li>The idea that words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness) and sounds can be represented by letters (phonics) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>Understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) within words </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness is the means by which we make use of the alphabetic principle to decode letters (read) and encode sounds (write). </li></ul>
  14. 15. Phonics <ul><li>The rules of the letter-sound code </li></ul><ul><li>The generalizations that help readers understand under what conditions certain letters or letter combinations will make certain sounds </li></ul>
  15. 16. Stop and Talk
  16. 17. Three Cueing Systems Model <ul><li>Grapho-phonic: Does it look right? </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic: Does it sound right? </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic: Does it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>He bocked the piffle with a tig daft. </li></ul><ul><li>What did he bock? </li></ul><ul><li>What did he use to bock? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of daft was it? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Automaticity <ul><li>a reader’s ability to recognize words without conscious decoding </li></ul><ul><li>rapid and accurate word recognition </li></ul><ul><li>leads to . . . </li></ul><ul><li>~Kylene Beers </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>“ the ability to read accurately and effortlessly with appropriate expression and meaning” </li></ul><ul><li>~Timothy Rasinski </li></ul>
  18. 19. Fluency <ul><li>Automaticity </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Prosody </li></ul><ul><li>~Kylene Beers </li></ul>
  19. 20. Fluency <ul><li>“ is a multi-dimensional construct ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosody </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~Rasinski, 2003 </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Fluency—the ability to read smoothly and easily at a good pace with good phrasing and expression—develops over time as students’ word recognition skills improve. Students lacking fluency read slowly, a word at a time, often pausing between words or phrases; they make frequent mistakes, ignore punctuation marks, and read in a monotone. Fluent readers know the words automatically, and therefore move easily from word to word, spending their cognitive energy on constructing meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>~Beers, p. 205 </li></ul>
  21. 22. The goal of reading is comprehension . Comprehension is a complex, abstract activity. ~Beers, p. 38
  22. 23. Fluency and Comprehension <ul><li>Strong correlation between the two </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency is the bridge between word identification and comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>One theory: comprehension is the outcome of fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Another theory: making meaning while reading results in fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken and egg situation: fluency promotes comprehension; comprehension promotes fluency </li></ul>
  23. 24. Connection Between Fluency and Comprehension <ul><li>“ Woman without her man is nothing.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The teacher said the principal </li></ul><ul><li>is the best in the district.” </li></ul>
  24. 25. Connection Between Fluency and Comprehension <ul><li>“ Tom borrowed my lawnmower.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He didn’t eat the cake.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m glad you’re here this evening.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t care what you say.” </li></ul>
  25. 26. Turn and Tell