Word Analysis And Fluency
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Word Analysis And Fluency






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Word Analysis And Fluency Word Analysis And Fluency Presentation Transcript

  • Agenda for Monday, Sept. 27
    • Mini-Lesson
    • YA Lit assignment demo
    • Read alouds, selecting texts, interest inventories
    • Flow, efferent vs. aesthetic responses
    • Matthew Effect, reading levels
    • Save the Last Word for Me - NCTE Guideline: “On Reading, Learning to Read, and Effective Reading Instruction”
    • Word Recognition, Fluency, & Comprehension
      • How well do I know these words? (Google Form)
      • “ I have, who has?” review game
  • How to Choose a Good Book
    • Read the back of the book to see if it’s interesting
    • Find the subject I like to read
    • Ask a friend
    • Look for an author you like
    • Skim through the book—read a few pages
    • Find a book that relates to you
    • ~ Reading for Understanding , p. 64
  • “ Reading Don’t Fix No Chevys” by Michael Smith & Jeff Wilhelm
    • Flow: “the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter”
    • A sense of control and competence
    • A challenge that requires an appropriate level of skill
    • Clear goals and feedback
    • A focus on the immediate experience
  • Why Young Adult Literature?
    • Relevant
    • Accessible
    • Independent Reading Level
    • Addresses affective aspect of reading
    • Improves confidence
    • Choice = Differentiation and Motivation
  • From NAEP, the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    • Achievement Amount of Outside Word Gain
    • Percentile Reading in Min./Day per Year
    • 90 th %ile 40+ min./day 2.3 million
    • 50 th %ile <13 min./day 600,000
    • 10 th %ile <2 min./day 51,000
  • The “Matthew Effect”
  • Save the Last Word for Me
    • Select a sentence or short passage from the text that you would like to discuss in your group.
    • To start a new round, introduce your selection.
    • Let everyone else respond to the selection first. Then you have “the last word.”
    • Take turns until everyone has had the chance to introduce a sentence/passage from the essay for discussion.
  • Word Recognition
    • Different ways readers can access print
      • Sight Words/High-Frequency Words
      • Decoding
      • Recognizing prefixes, suffixes, and root words
      • Looking for small words inside big words
      • Using the context to figure out meaning
      • ~Beers, pp. 223-227
  • Sight Words
    • Words readers should know by sight without sounding them out
    • High-Frequency Words
    • Words that occur most often in our written language
  • The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words
    • Effortless way for early readers to read words before phonics instruction
    • Recognition of some words in isolation assists young readers in learning other word identification strategies.
    • Automatic recall of words leads to more word recognition.
    • Some high-frequency words in English are not decodable.
  • The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words
    • Automatic word recognition contributes to improved comprehension.
    • A reader needs instant recognition of about 95% of words in any given text to read the text independently.
    • Reading in which a student cannot automatically recognize many words is laborious; in such cases, the student may never develop a desire to read.
    • Automatic visual recognition of whole words is critical to fluency.
  • Decoding
    • Sounding out words; using the letter-sound code
    • Alphabetic Principle
    • The idea that words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness) and sounds can be represented by letters (phonics)
  • Phonemic Awareness
    • Understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds
    • The ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) within words
    • Phonemic awareness is the means by which we make use of the alphabetic principle to decode letters (read) and encode sounds (write).
  • Phonics
    • The rules of the letter-sound code
    • The generalizations that help readers understand under what conditions certain letters or letter combinations will make certain sounds
  • Stop and Talk
  • Three Cueing Systems Model
    • Grapho-phonic: Does it look right?
    • Syntactic: Does it sound right?
    • Semantic: Does it make sense?
    • He bocked the piffle with a tig daft.
    • What did he bock?
    • What did he use to bock?
    • What kind of daft was it?
  • Automaticity
    • a reader’s ability to recognize words without conscious decoding
    • rapid and accurate word recognition
    • leads to . . .
    • ~Kylene Beers
    • Fluency
    • “ the ability to read accurately and effortlessly with appropriate expression and meaning”
    • ~Timothy Rasinski
  • Fluency
    • Automaticity
    • Accuracy
    • Prosody
    • ~Kylene Beers
  • Fluency
    • “ is a multi-dimensional construct ”
      • Rate
      • Accuracy
      • Phrasing
      • Prosody
    • ~Rasinski, 2003
    • Fluency—the ability to read smoothly and easily at a good pace with good phrasing and expression—develops over time as students’ word recognition skills improve. Students lacking fluency read slowly, a word at a time, often pausing between words or phrases; they make frequent mistakes, ignore punctuation marks, and read in a monotone. Fluent readers know the words automatically, and therefore move easily from word to word, spending their cognitive energy on constructing meaning.
    • ~Beers, p. 205
  • The goal of reading is comprehension . Comprehension is a complex, abstract activity. ~Beers, p. 38
  • Fluency and Comprehension
    • Strong correlation between the two
    • Fluency is the bridge between word identification and comprehension
    • One theory: comprehension is the outcome of fluency
    • Another theory: making meaning while reading results in fluency
    • Chicken and egg situation: fluency promotes comprehension; comprehension promotes fluency
  • Connection Between Fluency and Comprehension
    • “ Woman without her man is nothing.”
    • “ The teacher said the principal
    • is the best in the district.”
  • Connection Between Fluency and Comprehension
    • “ Tom borrowed my lawnmower.”
    • “ He didn’t eat the cake.”
    • “ I’m glad you’re here this evening.”
    • “ I don’t care what you say.”
  • Turn and Tell