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Reading Comprehension
 

Reading Comprehension

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    Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Presentation Transcript

    • Agenda for Monday, Oct. 5
      • Mini-Lesson
      • Pointing: “The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently” by Tom Lux
      • Struggling/Dependent/Inexperienced Readers
      • Teaching Reading Comprehension
      • Interrogate your own reading
      • “ What Good Readers Do” / “How Smart Readers Think”
      • Practice thinking aloud
    • Struggling Readers
      • When are you a struggling reader?
      • “ . . . anyone can struggle given the right text. The struggle isn’t the issue; the issue is what the reader does when the text gets tough.”
      • ~Kylene Beers, When Kids Can’t Read,
      • What Teachers Can Do , p. 15
    • Struggling Readers
      • Dependent vs. Independent Readers
      • ~Kylene Beers
      • Inexperienced vs. Experienced Readers
      • ~Carol Booth Olson
      • View Kylene Beers interview clips
    • Reading Skills Snapshot (NAEP 2002 Data)
      • How many students in grades 4-12 nationwide are identified as struggling readers?
      • 5 million
      • 6 million
      • 7 million
      • 8 million
    • Reading Skills Snapshot (NAEP 2002 Data)
      • How many high school students read below average (only able to answer basic comprehension questions)?
      • 4 out of 5
      • 3 out of 4
      • 2 out of 3
      • 1 out of 2
    • Reading Skills Snapshot (NAEP 2002 Data)
      • How many high school students read far below average (can’t even answer basic comprehension questions)?
      • 25%
      • 20%
      • 15%
      • 10%
    • A Literacy Crisis
      • Students in the bottom quartile are 20 times more likely to drop out of high school.
      • 30% of high school students drop out; that’s 7,000 per day.
      • 38% of high school students graduate unprepared for college and/or job demands.
      • The #1 community college class is remedial reading.
    • When the text gets tough . . .
      • Independent Readers
      • Figure out what’s confusing them
      • Set goals for getting through the reading
      • Use many strategies for getting through the text
      • Know how to make the mostly invisible process of comprehension visible
      • Dependent Readers
      • Stop
      • Appeal to the teacher
      • Read on through
      • Keep the mostly invisible process of comprehension at the invisible level
      • ~Beers, p. 16
    • Moving Dependent Readers Toward Independent Reading
      • Cognitive aspects of reading:
      • comprehension, vocabulary, decoding, word recognition
      • Affective aspects of reading:
      • motivation, enjoyment, engagement
      • ~Beers, p. 13
    • What Struggling Readers Need
      • The ability to decode print
      • The ability to comprehend language
      • The ability to transact with text
      • The motivation to read—authentic texts and choice, classroom climate of respect for peers and for cultural and linguistic differences
      • ~ Building Reading Proficiency at the Secondary Level
    • What Struggling Readers Need
      • Dependent readers need to develop cognitive confidence, social and emotional confidence, text confidence. ~Kylene Beers
      • Inexperienced readers need teachers who foster their competence and confidence and help to heighten their emotional and cognitive engagement.
      • ~Carol Booth Olson
    • Illiterate vs. Aliterate
      • Reluctant readers
      • Students who choose not to read
      • Dormant readers
      • Uncommitted readers
      • Unmotivated readers
      • Unskilled readers
    • Willing and Able Willing but Unable Unwilling but Able Unwilling and Unable
    • The goal of reading is comprehension . Comprehension is a complex, abstract activity. ~Beers, p. 38
    • Comprehension
      • Reading is a complex, purposeful, social and cognitive process in which readers simultaneously use their knowledge of spoken and written language, their knowledge of the topic of the text, and their knowledge of their culture to construct meaning.
      • ~A Call to Action: “What We Know About Adolescent Literacy and Ways to Support Teachers in Meeting Students’ Needs,” NCTE
    • Comprehension
      • Reading is a social process, an interactive activity, one in which readers create meaning through transactions—interactions—with the text, their prior knowledge, the context, and other readers.
      • ~ Beers, p. 38
    • Comprehension
      • The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning
      • The complex process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning from and with text
    • Reading Lessons
      • Reading is more than “decoding.”
      • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter , ch. 2
    •  
      • Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny ipormetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe.
    • From Deeper Reading by Kelly Gallagher
      • There are tork gooboos of puzballs, including laplies, mushos, and fushos. Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they do not grunto any lipples. In order to geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples, you should bartle the fusho who has rarckled the parshtootoos after her humply fluflu.
      • How many gooboos of puzballs are there?
      • There are tork gooboos of puzballs.
      • 2. What are laplies, mushos, and fushos?
      • Laplies, mushos, and fushos are tork gooboos of puzballs.
      • Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they will not what?
      • They will not grunto any lipples.
      • How can you geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples?
      • You should bartle the fusho who has rarckled her parshtootoos after her humply fluflu.
    • The Blonke
      • The blonke was maily, like all the others. Unlike the other blonkes, however, it had spiss crinet completely covering its fairney cloots and concealing, just below one of them, a small wan. This particular blonke was quite drumly – lennow, in fact, almost samded. When yerden, it did not quetch like the other blonkes, or even blore. The others blored very readily. It was probably his bellytimber that had made the one bloke so drumly. The bellytimber was quite kexy, had a strong shawk, and was apparently venenated. There was only one thing to do with the venenated bellytimber: grive it in the flosh. This would be much better than to sparple it in the wong, since the blonkes that were not drumly could icchen in the wong, but not in the flosh.
    • The Blonke
      • What three words do you most need to know how to figure this out?
      • Which words do you need least?
      • What cuing systems did you most use to figure this out?
      • What is the passage about?
      • How did it feel to not know what this meant?
    • Reading Lessons
      • Reading is more than “decoding.”
      • Reading is an active, constructive process.
      • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter , ch. 2
    • ’ Tis the good reader that makes the good book. ~Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Every text is a lazy machine asking the reader to do some of its work. ~Umberto Eco
    • Reading a book is like rewriting it for yourself . . . You bring to a novel, anything you read, all your experience of the world. You bring your history and you read it in your own terms. ~Angela Carter
    • Reading is a creative activity. ~Madeleine L’Engle
    • Reading Lessons
      • Reading is more than “decoding.”
      • Reading is an active, constructive process.
      • Good readers have a repertoire of thinking strategies they use to comprehend texts.
      • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter , ch. 2
    • What Good Readers Do
      • Recognize that reading is a meaning-making process
      • Use a variety of comprehension strategies (predict, summarize, question, visualize, etc.)
      • Make a range of inferences
      • Use prior knowledge
      • Monitor their understanding of the text
      • Question the author’s purpose and point of view
    • What Good Readers Do
      • Use text features (headings, bold, italics, charts, graphs, etc.)
      • Evaluate their engagement and enjoyment
      • Know meanings and use context clues, root words, affixes
      • Recognize most words automatically, read fluently, vary their reading rate, and “hear” the text as they read
    • Reading Lessons
      • Reading is more than “decoding.”
      • Reading is an active, constructive process.
      • Good readers have a repertoire of thinking strategies they use to comprehend texts.
      • Prior knowledge is the main determinant of comprehension.
      • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter , ch. 2
      • The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught.
      • Who were merciless against the Bowlers?
      • Where did the Bowlers place their men?
      • Was this strategy successful?
      • Who hit an occasional six?
      • How many times did the Batsmen’s balls hit a stump?
    • The Procedure
      • The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo any particular endeavor. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important, but complications from doing too many can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. The manipulation of the appropriate mechanisms should be self-explanatory, and we need not dwell on it here. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.
      • (from John D. Bransford and Nancy S. McCarrell, “A Sketch of a Cognitive Approach to Comprehension”)
    • Doing Laundry
      • The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo any particular endeavor. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important, but complications from doing too many can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. The manipulation of the appropriate mechanisms should be self-explanatory, and we need not dwell on it here. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.
      • (from John D. Bransford and Nancy S. McCarrell, “A Sketch of a Cognitive Approach to Comprehension”)
    • Reading Lessons
      • Reading is more than “decoding.”
      • Reading is an active, constructive process.
      • Good readers have a repertoire of thinking strategies they use to comprehend texts.
      • Prior knowledge is the main determinant of comprehension.
      • Reading is a staged and recursive process.
      • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter , ch. 2
    • Teaching Strategies
      • Showing kids how smart readers think
      • Before: activities that prepare students to read
      • During: helping students construct, process, and question ideas as they read
      • After: guiding student to reflect on, integrate, and share the ideas when they’re finished
      • Learning vocabulary
    • Teaching Tips
      • Introduce just one strategy at a time.
      • Model the activity yourself, as you explain to students how to use it.
      • Practice the strategy first as a whole class.
      • As student make use of the strategy during in-class reading time, move around the room to observe, facilitate, and help.
    • Reading Next Recommendations
      • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
      • Effective instructional principles embedded in content
      • Motivation and self-directed learning
      • Text-based collaborative learning
      • Strategic tutoring
      • Diverse texts
      • Intensive writing
      • Technology component
      • Ongoing formative assessment of students
    • Why Think Aloud?
      • Much of what happens with texts in classrooms gives students the mistaken impression that reading comprehension happens by magic. To begin to build a repertoire of activities for reading comprehension, students need to have the reading process demystified. They need to see what happens inside the mind of a proficient reader, someone who is willing to make the invisible visible by externalizing his or her mental activity.
      • ~Reading for Understanding , p. 212
      • My students were completely amazed that I, as a mature, adult reader, would find some texts challenging. They delighted in watching me struggle to understand the texts they brought me, recognizing the feeling of being lost, but surprised by my patience and tenacity, by my vigorous search for handholds and willingness to stretch for any shred of meaning. Many found strategies like using the pictures, slowing down, breaking it into chunks, using my knowledge of Spanish, thinking about what the root of a word might mean, wondering about meanings in new contexts, flat-out guessing, etc., to be a complete revelation.
      • ~Gayle Cribb, high school social studies teacher, quoted in “Apprenticing Adolescents to Reading in Subject-Area Classrooms,”
      • Phi Delta Kappan , October 2003
    • What does it mean to “read” a “text”?
      • “ The readers of books . . .
      • . . . all these share with book-readers the craft of deciphering and translating signs.”
    • “ The late age of print” ~Jay Bolter
      • “ Words are no longer static things, quiet black marks pressed onto a white page; instead, they float alongside sounds and images; they make meaning in their movements. They are visual, aural, and sometimes haptic. As such, their function as objects of literacy is changing in fundamental ways.”
      • ~Ben McCorkle
      • “ Multi-Modal Literacy Key Terms,” NCTE website
    • Transmediation
      • The movement between and among sign systems
      • Provides the opportunity for new perspectives on our knowing
      • Encourages reflection and supports learners in making new connections
      • ~Christine H. Leland and Jerome C. Harste
      • “ Multiple Ways of Knowing: Curriculum in a New Key”
    • Multiple Ways of Knowing
      • A good language arts program is one that expands the communication potential of all learners through the orchestration and use of multiple ways of knowing and purposes of ongoing interpretation and inquiry into the world.
      • ~Christine H. Leland and Jerome C. Harste
      • “ Multiple Ways of Knowing: Curriculum in a New Key”
    • Multi-modal Literacy
      • . . . involves “metacognitive strategies for developing literacy practices that can be carried across multiple sites/texts/media, rather than a set of practices tied to specific sites”
      • ~Linda Adler-Kassner
      • “ Multi-Modal Literacy Key Terms,” NCTE website
    •