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Oral Language






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    Oral Language Oral Language Presentation Transcript

    • Agenda for Monday, Nov. 29
      • Diverse Learners: Multiple Intelligences Dance
      • English Language Learners: Policy Research Brief
        • Idea Pass Around
      • SIOP Overview (and Macarena)
      • Oral Language Development
    • SIOP Lesson Planning
      • [First we begin with] Lesson Preparation
      • Building Background [Information]
      • Comprehensible Input
      • [Stir the] Strategies
      • Meaningful Interaction
      • Practice and Application
      • Lesson Delivery
      • Review and Assessment
      • 2 fingers pointing to head
      • hands behind head
      • hand moving out from mouth
      • two hands stirring motion
      • clapping hands turning over and over
      • bicep curls
      • arms pumping as if power walking
      • jump back then forward
    • Oral Language: Role in Literacy Development
      • Learning language is an important part of learning to read. (Ruddell & Ruddell)
      • Oral language is the “bedrock” of all the language arts. (Snow, Burns, & Griffin)
      • “ Reading is dependent upon growth of language competence in the early years.” (Morrow)
    • Oral Language: Connection to Reading
      • Vocabulary knowledge
      • Syntax knowledge
      • Use of prior knowledge in comprehension
      • (Bakhtin theorizes that the brain stores knowledge as language.)
    • Stages of Language Development
      • Infants crying
      • 2-4 months cooing
      • 6 months intonation
      • 8-10 months babbling
      • 1 year sing words
      • 18 months telegraphic speech
    • Stages of Language Development
      • 1-2 holophrastic (single word) to telegraphic (two words)
      • 2-3 telegraphic to descriptive (language play, more syntactic complexity)
      • 3-4 simple to complex (dramatic growth in syntax & vocabulary, overgeneralization of rules)
      • 4-6 toward refinement (generative language—supply own words, use language creatively)
    • Oral Language Development
      • Not random
      • Not imitation
      • Chomsky (1965) proposed a “language acquisition device”
      • Complex problem-solving
      • Learned in process of using it
      • Unique to the individual
    • Functions of Language Use (Halliday, 1975)
      • Instrumental
      • Regulatory
      • Interactional
      • Personal
      • Heuristic
      • Imaginative
      • Informative/Representational
    • Conditions of Learning (Cambourne, 1988)
      • Immersion
      • Demonstration
      • Engagement
      • Expectation
      • Responsibility
      • Use/Practice
      • Approximation
      • Response
    • Language-Learning Conditions at Home vs. School
      • Home: adult response twice as often, negotiation of meaning, many child initiations
      • School: teacher-dominated talk, less language complexity (Wells, 1999)
      • IRE: Initiation of topic by teacher, Response by student, Evaluation by teacher (Cazden, 1988)
    • Rules for School by Karin, 1 st grade
      • Don’t tawk!!
      • Unles you rase your hand.
      • And onle if the techer ses you can!
    • Fostering Oral Language in Classrooms
      • Physical Environment
      • Psychological Environment
      • Opportunities for Talk
      • Group Task: Create an observational checklist to assess the conditions for oral language development in an early childhood, primary, or elementary classroom.
    • Implications for English Language Learners
      • BICS vs. CALPS
        • BICS: basic interpersonal language proficiency skills (2-3 years)
        • CALPS: cognitive academic language proficiency skills (5-7 years)
      • “ comprehensible input”
      • “ total physical response”
      • “ funds of knowledge”
    • Phonological Awareness
      • Definition: the ability to manipulate larger units of sound, such as words and syllables, onsets and rimes
      • Hearing/recognizing rhyming patterns
      • Producing rhymes
      • Segmenting separate words in sentences
      • Segmenting syllables in words
      • Blending syllables in words
    • Phonemic Awareness
      • Definition: understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds; the ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) within words
      • Matching sounds
      • Isolating sounds (initial, final, medial)
      • Deleting sounds (initial, final)
      • Substituting sounds
      • Blending onset and rime to form words
      • Stretching/segmenting words to hear individual sounds
      • Blending individual sounds to form words
    • Research Base for Phonemic Awareness
      • Children who cannot hear individual sounds within words have difficulty learning to read.
      • Phonemic awareness is a predictor of later reading achievement.
      • Phonemic awareness positively affects spelling achievement.
      • Research supports direct/explicit instruction in phonemic awareness.
      • Literacy activities contribute to the development of phonemic awareness.
      • Phonemic awareness instruction is particularly effective when accompanied by use of letters of the alphabet.
    • Methods for Helping Students Develop Phonemic Awareness
      • Language play
      • Literature
      • Direct instruction
      • Interactive writing
      • Role Play with a Partner: Parent and Teacher
      • “ What is phonemic awareness?”
    • Alphabetic Principle
      • Words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness)
      • Sounds can be represented by letters (phonics)
      • Phonemic awareness is the means by which we make use of the alphabetic principle to decode letters and encode sounds (read and write).
    • Phonics Terms to Know
      • Phoneme
      • Grapheme
      • Consonant Digraph
      • Consonant Blends or Clusters
      • Diphthongs
      • Schwa
      • Onset
      • Rime
      • Morpheme
      • Structural Analysis
    • The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words
      • Effortless way for early readers to read words before phonics instruction
      • Recognition of some words in isolation assists young readers in learning other word identification strategies.
      • Automatic recall of words leads to more word recognition.
      • Some high-frequency words in English are not decodable.
    • The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words
      • Automatic word recognition contributes to improved comprehension.
      • A reader needs instant recognition of about 95% of words in any given text to read the text independently.
      • Reading in which a student cannot automatically recognize many words is laborious; in such cases, the student may never develop a desire to read.
      • Automatic visual recognition of whole words is critical to fluency.
    • Balanced Literacy Approach
      • Phonics:
      • Explicit, direct instruction
      • Systematic instruction in the code
      • Whole Language:
      • Authentic reading and writing
      • Daily opportunities to read and write
    • Three Cueing Systems (Marie Clay)
      • Graphophonic (visual): Does it look right?
      • Syntactic (structure): Does it sound right?
      • Semantic (meaning): Does it make sense?
      • He bocked the piffle with a tig daft.
      • What did he bock?
      • What did he use to bock?
      • What kind of daft was it?
    • Six Cueing Systems (Rumelhart, 1976)
      • Surface Structures:
      • Graphophonic
      • Lexical
      • Syntactic
      • Deep Structures:
      • Semantic
      • Schematic
      • Pragmatic
    • Fluency and Comprehension
      • Strong correlation between the two
      • Fluency is the bridge between word identification and comprehension
      • One theory: comprehension is the outcome of fluency
      • Another theory: making meaning while reading results in fluency
      • Chicken and egg situation: fluency promotes comprehension; comprehension promotes fluency
    • Fluency is a multi-dimensional construct (Rasinski, 2003)
      • Rate
      • Accuracy
      • Phrasing
      • Prosody (pitch, pauses, stress, intonation)
      • “ Fluency is the ability to read accurately and effortlessly with appropriate expression and meaning.” ~Timothy Rasinski
      • “ Woman without her man is nothing.”
      • “ The teacher said the principal is the best in the distinct.”
      • “ Tom borrowed my lawnmower.”