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  • 1. Implement a Social Media ProgramDevelop, execute, and govern a cohesive social media program across your entireorganization to unlock the full potential of your social media strategy. Info-Tech Research Group 1
  • 2. IntroductionMost organizations understand the value of leveraging social media for customer interaction, butexecuting an effective strategy can be a daunting task. Successfully coordinate and align the socialinitiatives of different business process domains by including a steering committee, processworkflows, and determining if a physical command center is appropriate.This Research Is Designed For: This Research Will Help You: IT managers advising the business on  Implement an appropriate social strategy technology and information security issues based on your organization’s size, industry, around social media. and business model.  Determine your organization’s maturity level, IT professionals involved with selecting and and put governance structures, like a Social managing social media technologies – the Media Steering Committee, in place. services themselves, as well as CRM suites, and social media management platforms.  Outline and delineate departmental responsibilities for social media initiatives. Sales, marketing, and customer service professionals tasked with integrating social  Incorporate a Social Media Command Center channels into their business processes. into your strategy to drive in-band engagement and analytics to the next level. Info-Tech Research Group 2
  • 3. Executive Summary• IT has an invaluable role to play across all social media maturity stages. It’s a crucial advisor for technology enablement and risk mitigation. It can also help start the business thinking about social media coordination.• Before launching a social media program, clearly define the business objectives. Social media can be used to achieve a variety of goals across marketing, sales, and customer service. After goals have been defined, a formal social media program can begin. Failing to put strategic forethought behind this program is a major blunder that organizations make. Don’t let your company run a disorganized and uncoordinated social media program!• Identify where your organization falls on the spectrum of social media maturity, and plan program implementation accordingly. Most companies begin their social media initiatives in a distributed stage (departments acting independently), then transition to a loosely coupled model (greater coordination between departments), and finally move to having a Social Media Command Center (highly centralized oversight of social media initiatives, often with a physical office component).• Moving from the distributed stage to the loosely coupled stage will create significant gains for organizations pursuing a social media strategy. In particular, putting a Social Media Steering Committee in place will provide coordination and shared governance that allows companies to effectively address customer interactions over social channels. A Steering Committee must work to coordinate the efforts of different business units and departments.• Executing the social media program consists of four critical steps: o Creating strong leadership o Optimizing process workflows o Enabling the right social media technologies o Putting prudent governance policies in play.• When warranted by sufficient volume and complexity of social interactions, consider building a physical Social Media Command Center to handle all monitoring, analysis, and inbound/outbound social interactions. Info-Tech Research Group 3
  • 4. The Info-Tech Social Media Research AgendaInfo-Tech’s social media research covers all the bases of running a best-of-breed social media program.If you’re at the greenfield stage, start with the first set, which covers program deployment and governance. Social Media Strategy & Social Media Implementation Technology Selection Leveraging Social Media VL Plus: Social Media Formulate a Social Implement a Social for Customer Interaction Management Platform Analytics Strategy Media Program • Build a social media • SMMPs empower • Social analytics can • Creating a structured strategy that adds managers with a help companies program that unifies social networks to your variety of tools for measure and the social media aims existing multi-channel analyzing and influence their efforts of IT and different customer interaction managing social to strengthen their business domains is framework. media. brand, drive sales, vital for success. and improve service. • Select the social media • Selection involves • As needs mature, firms services that best defining functional • This set will help you need to implement the complement your requirements, understand the right governance and existing channel creating a shortlist, importance of social process management interaction strategies in evaluating offerings, analytics and how to capabilities for the marketing, sales, and and choosing the form a strategy to social media program. customer service. vendor. manage your efforts. Info-Tech Research Group 4
  • 5. Adopt a Roadmap for Your Social Media ProgramWhat’s in this Section: Sections:• Create and follow an overall roadmap for managing Adopt a Roadmap your organization’s social media program. Assess Maturity• Identify opportunities to leverage social media in a Build a Steering Committee variety of business process domains. Execute the Program• Understand why it’s necessary to avoid the pitfalls Create a Command Center of poor social media execution.• Begin thinking about how to confront the challenges posed by social media program execution. Info-Tech Research Group 5
  • 6. Having a world-class social media program doesn’t happen byaccident: take a structured approach to program managementCompanies that excel at interacting with prospects and customers through social channels take a carefullyplanned approach to managing their social media initiatives. They start by determining their business goalsand opportunities, then put the right social media governance structures in place. They build a cross-functional team to manage social media, and fine-tune processes in marketing, sales, and customerservice. When the volume and complexity of social media interactions warrants it, they build a centralizedSocial Media Command Center (SMCC). Info-Tech’s Five-Step Social Media Program Management Roadmap An important note: This research assumes that your organization understands the business value of social channels and has already completed the first step – defining goals and opportunities. The focus of this set is ongoing program management, not the initial business case. If your organization hasn’t determined goals and opportunities, refer to this solution set first. Info-Tech Research Group 6
  • 7. Put strategic forethought behind executing your social mediaprogram, or fall into one of the many pitfalls that awaits you!Failing to plan is planning to fail. While Info-Tech found that nearly 75% of organizations areleveraging social media, many have not put the necessary planning and governance structures inplace to unlock the full value of their social media initiatives.• Most organizations are now leveraging social media for customer Pitfalls of a Poorly Executed interaction in one or more business process domains Social Media Program (e.g. marketing, sales, customer service, and/or public relations). • Lack of necessary coordination: The enterprise use case for social media is now widely understood. Insufficient shared planning between departments leads to social media programs• However, social media programs face a number of challenges on the that are inconsistent or ineffective in their road to success. Deciding to move into social media is easy – messaging. This directly undermines the executing a world-class program that fully realizes your specific customer experience over social channels. business goals is not. • Redundant effort: Unnecessary duplication• As companies increase their investment in social media, there needs of social media effort across departments, to be corresponding steps taken to protect that investment. and wasted opportunities for realizing cost efficiencies (e.g. volume licensing of social• Organizations must establish cross-functional governance structures media management tools). and fine-tune their social media processes. See the list on the right for some of the most common challenges facing managers involved • Inadequate risk mitigation: poorly trained with social media. end users who inadvertently open social channels up as a malware vector. IT has an indispensible role to play in advising the business on a social media program. Acting as a champion for social media governance and process execution will help steer the business clear of the pitfalls, and strengthen IT’s reputation as a valuable partner for getting the most out of enterprise apps.Info-Tech Research Group Info-Tech Research Group ‹#› 7
  • 8. A variety of organizations are rapidly implementing socialmedia, furthering the need for strong program governanceA recent survey by Info-Tech revealed that there is no difference in the rate of social media implementation by company sizeor industry/vertical. Don’t discount the value of undertaking a social media program just because your company is not alarge enterprise – SMBs also stand to realize significant value from social media.Info-Tech estimates that the highest implementation rate of social media programs is in North America (86%), with Europetrailing not far behind (79%). Adoption of social media services in Asia-Pacific lags noticeably behind North America andEurope at only 50% – however, adoption is gaining speed, and Info-Tech predicts that Asia-Pacific will rapidly close the gapover the next two to five years. As program adoption increases, it’s time to understand how to manage your efforts. North America leads the pack in However, over 40% of organizations have yet to put social program implementation strong social media governance structures in place Estimated Social Media Adoption Rate 90 86% 79% 80 70 -37% Command 60 Center 50% Stage, 26% Distributed 50 Stage, 42% 40 30 Loosely Coupled 20 Stage, 33% 10 0 North Europe Asia-Pacific Social Media Maturity Index : Info-Tech Research Group N=75 America N=89 Info-Tech Research Group 8
  • 9. Identify the most common risks of executing a social program,and take an aggressive and proactive stance to mitigate themA recent survey by Info-Tech identified the top risks faced by managers executing a social mediaprogram. Lack of buy-in by end users was ranked highest, followed closely by lack of business processdomain integration. The latter highlights the need to build shared planning processes betweendepartments. Interestingly, lack of executive support and insufficient tools were the least likely to berated as serious concerns. The former can be attributed to increased awareness of the social mediavalue proposition by senior executives. The latter owes to the robust market for social mediamanagement tools that has emerged in the last 18 months. Over half of organizations agreed lack of domain integration was their most serious challenge. Source: Info-Tech Research Group, N=75 Info-Tech Research Group 9
  • 10. IT has an integral role to play in advising and supporting thebusiness across the entire spectrum of social media maturityOwnership of social media processes is typically spread Who should be responsible for what?across multiple business units (even when there iscoordination), with IT in a critical support role. Business• Executive oversight of social media initiatives should Initial Strategy: come from a Social Media Steering Committee with The business stakeholders must create the overall deep familiarity of social media services and tools. strategy for using social media. This involves specifying the business objectives and social media services to be• IT must have a seat at the table. IT should used. conceptualize itself as a critical advisor in two key areas: technology enablement and risk mitigation. Ongoing Use: The day-to-day use of social channels will be most effective by the individual business domains. Major operational changes belong to the business. IT Initial Strategy: IT should be involved with creating the strategy, but should not be driving it. A knowledgeable member of IT should serve as a resource for educating the business on the basics of social media services, social media management tools, and acceptable use policies. Ongoing Use: IT needs to serve as an advisor for technology enablement, as well as a consultant for risk mitigation and governance best practices. Info-Tech Research Group 10
  • 11. Assess Your Organization’s Social Media MaturityWhat’s in this Section: Sections:• Determine your organization’s level of social media Adopt a Roadmap maturity, and how to move to the next level. Assess Maturity• Identify what the business needs to do at each Build a Steering Committee maturity stage. Execute the Program• Identify what IT needs to do at each maturity stage. Create a Command Center• Establish how IT can serve as a central coordinating force for the social media program. Info-Tech Research Group 11
  • 12. Organizations fall along a spectrum of social media maturity:assess your present state and how to move to the next levelSocial media initiatives typically start organically – from the ground up in one or moredepartments. You must coordinate efforts across constituent stakeholders or yourprogram will fail.• Social media maturity refers to the degree of organizational integration from a governance perspective. Mature organizations have permanent governance structures in place for managing social media. For example, mature companies leverage Social Media Steering Committees (SMSCs) to coordinate the social media initiatives of different business units and departments. Large organizations with highly complex needs may even make use of a physical command center.• Compared to traditional apps projects (like CRM or ERP), social media programs tend to start as grassroots initiatives. Marketing and Public Relations departments are the most likely to spearhead the initial push.• This organic adoption contrasts with the top-down approach many IT leaders are accustomed to. Bottom-up growth can ensure rapid response to social media opportunities, but it also leads to insufficient coordination. A conscious effort should be made to mature your social media strategy beyond this disorganized initial state. Social media maturity is directly linked to overall maturity of customer interaction strategy. If your organization silos other channels (e.g. telephony and email) across departments, then integrating social media initiatives will require more effort than if there are already shared planning processes in place between departments. Whenever possible, take advantage of pre-existing departmental relationships and committees to help build the case for social media cooperation. Info-Tech Research Group 12
  • 13. Assess your organization’s social media maturity to determinewhere you are starting and where you need to goOrganizations pass through three main stages of social media maturity: distributed, loosely coupled, and command center.As you move along the maturity scale, the business significance of the social media program typically increases. Forexample, organizations move into the command center stage because social media is considered a mission-criticalbusiness activity. Companies at the distributed stage place less business significance on social initiatives. Loosely Coupled Stage Command Center Stage 33% of Organizations 26% of Organizations Distributed Stage 42% of Organizations Sales Sales Customer CustomerBusiness Significance Sales Service Service Customer Service Marketing Marketing PR PR Marketing • More point solutions are • There’s enterprise-level • Open source or low-cost implemented across the steering committee with solutions are implemented organization. There is a formal representation from all areas: informally by individual depts. cross-departmental effort to execution of social programs is for specific projects. integrate some point solutions. handled by a fully-resourced • Solutions are deployed to fulfill • Risks include failing to put physical (or virtual) center. a particular function without an together an effective steering • Risks include improper organizational vision. The committee and not including IT resource allocation and lack of danger of this stage is lack of in the decision-making process. end-user training. consistent customer experience and wasted resources. Maturity Stages Source: Info-Tech Survey, January 2012, N=89 Info-Tech Research Group 13
  • 14. Begin in the distributed stage in order to kick-start anenterprise social media program, but don’t linger too long The majority of organizations begin social media initiatives in the distributed stage. Sales During this phase, independent departments pursue disparate social media goals without Customer Service central coordination. While the distributed approach is not as effective or efficient as later stages, it’s often necessary to kick-start a social media program. Centralized coordination takes time to implement, so organizations at the greenfield decision level should not Marketing discourage social media initiatives by individual departments. However, as the scope of distributed initiatives proliferates, steps must be taken to coordinate the overall program.What the business must take ownership of: How IT creates value at the distributed stage:• Each business unit must determine their own social • IT owns the role of advisor to the individual business media opportunities and goals. Enterprise use of social units. Early on, IT should identify an employee with media should be directly linked to specific business above-average familiarity with social media services. This requirements (e.g. increasing brand awareness). individual should be prepared to explain the basics of social media to decision makers unfamiliar with the• Each business unit determines their specific process underlying services. execution strategy (e.g. the workflows for dealing with posts on social networks). • IT should also provide consultation around the risks of social media, and offer to provide end-user training for• Each business unit independently engages IT as mitigating the risks of malware and unacceptable necessary for security and technology issues. corporate use. • Where requested, IT should provide selection assistance• The business must own the data generated from social with social media management tools. media initiatives (e.g. marketing collateral and brand positioning/messaging). • The best IT can do in this stage is coordinate the different business domains. IT should seek out a champion in the business who can help with forming a steering committee. Info-Tech Research Group 14
  • 15. Move to the loosely coupled stage to build a consistent socialcustomer experience and take advantage of economies of scale As social media initiatives mature, organizations move to the loosely coupled stage of program governance. At this stage, different departments and business units begin to coordinate processes with one another to deliver a consistent, coherent message over social channels. The goal of this stage is to have all departments actively participating in a unified Social Media Steering Committee. The greater the integration, the more consistent the program, and the lower the overall costs. The end result of the loosely coupled stage should be the ability of the organization to function as a virtual Social Media Command Center, supporting central process orchestration.What the business must take ownership of: How IT creates value at the loosely coupled stage:• Social media champions across different departments • IT needs to continue its risk mitigation role from the must band together to create a steering committee. distributed phase.• The steering committee must identify target segments • At this stage, IT plays a key role in facilitating all of the and how to best interact with them through social media business stakeholders to develop shared business channels. This involves setting common escalation requirements to be used for technology selection. processes and workflows. • IT will lead any technology selection projects (e.g.• The steering committee must be the sponsor for all social social CRM, SMMP) to help the business stakeholders media technology selection projects, and represent all understand what different technologies will and will not stakeholder requirements with as many common do for the business. IT will ensure that economies of technologies as possible. This will drive cost- scale are realized in technology selection by selecting effectiveness in implementing social media programs as few tools as possible. across the entire company. • IT must assist with physical technology implementation and operation of any procured social media platforms. Info-Tech Research Group 15
  • 16. When needs warrant it, build a physical Social MediaCommand Center as the pinnacle of a social media program Businesses with highly complex social media needs should move from the loosely coupled model to creating a physical Social Media Command Center (SMCC). An SMCC is an organizational structure with complete control over inbound and outbound Sales Customer social media interactions across marketing, sales, customer service, and PR according to Service agreed-upon workflows. An SMCC provides centralized reporting and analytics capabilities. A physical SMCC is not a mandatory requirement. Typically, a command center is warranted when the volume and complexity of social interactions (or “share of Marketing PR voice”) relevant to the company hits a certain saturation point (see the last section of this storyboard for specific guidance on when to move to the command center phase).What the business must take ownership of: How IT creates value at the SMCC stage:• The decision to create a command center rests with the • IT’s role in technology enablement takes center stage business. Companies with lower-order social media needs will with an SMCC. IT will need to provide extensive be best served by the loosely coupled model, as a command assistance for the selection, implementation and upkeep center requires significant investment. of the technology leveraged by an SMCC (both hardware and software).• The business must determine the high-level strategic intent and objectives of a Social Media Command Center. It must • For large command centers, a dedicated IT resource also decide how to allocate resources (especially people) to (such as a systems analyst and/or technicians) may be the SMCC. necessary.• The business must specify how the SMCC fits into a broader • IT can also serve as a valuable sourcing ground for customer interaction strategy, and determine specific cross- employees to staff aspects of the social media command channel escalation policies. center (e.g. business analysts with prior social media experience).• The business must define the leadership and management reporting structure of the SMCC. The business must also • IT should continue to assist with end-user training, and provide the necessary staff for the command center. have a seat at the table for SMCC governance. Info-Tech Research Group 16
  • 17. Case Study: Dell’s Command Center is now a textbook example of leveraging the full potential of social mediaWith a truly global customer base, Dell gets about 22,000 mentions on the socialweb daily, and does not sit idly by. Having established a physical Social MediaCommand Center in December 2010, Dell was one of the companies thatpioneered the command center concept.Today the company claims impressive results, including:• “Resolution rate” of 99% customer satisfaction• Boosting its customer reach with the same number of employees• One third of Dell’s former critics are now fans Tools:The center categorizes interactions into three categories, depending on the most • Radian6 SMMPeffective approach: • Three rows of monitors, offering instant insights into customer Customers seeking help sentiment, share of voice,and People sharing ideas geography Customers reinforcing success Staff:The command center carries out the following activities: • The center started with five people; today it is staffed by a team of 15• Tracking mentions of Dell in the social cloud interacting with customers in 11• Sentiment analysis languages. • Dell values human interaction; the• Connecting customers who need assistance with experts who can help them center is not running on autopilot,• Social media training and any ambiguous activity is analyzed (and dealt with) manually• Maintenance of standards for social media interactions on an individual basis• Spreading best social media practices across the organization Sources: Bazaarvoice.com,1on1media.com, ft.com, Mashable.com Info-Tech Research Group 17
  • 18. Determine your organization’s social media maturity level with Info-Tech’s Maturity Assessment ToolAre you trying to put together a Social Media Steering Committee? Perhaps you’re having trouble positioning yourorganization’s efforts relative to your competitors? Or are you looking to invest in a Social Media Management Platform(SMMP)? There should be one major consideration behind any steps you take: how mature are you with respect to yoursocial media program? The question is simple, yet more than often, top executives struggle with the answer.You cant know what to do and where to go if you dont know where youre starting from.It’s not easy to objectively evaluate yourorganization’s level of maturity. Sometimes it’s amatter of collecting enough information about thedivergent initiatives across multiple businessdomains. Sometimes, even having all theinformation on your hands, it’s not easy to assessyour maturity level – either because you are notsure which criteria to look for, and how to weighthose criteria, or even because you find yourself lostin the details, unable to decipher the big picture. Info-Tech’s Social Media Maturity Assessment Tool will help you determine your company’s level of maturity and recommend steps to move to the next level or optimize the status quo of your current efforts. Info-Tech Research Group 18
  • 19. Build a Social Media Steering CommitteeWhat’s in this Section: Sections:• Understand how IT is in a unique position to fan the Adopt a Roadmap embers of a Social Media Steering Committee Assess Maturity (SMSC). Build a Steering Committee• Create an SMSC charter to define the structure and Execute the Program composition of the committee. Create a Command Center• Recognize the four main functions that an SMSC provides: leadership, governance, process integration, and technology procurement. Info-Tech Research Group 19
  • 20. Take advantage of IT’s centralized position to get otherdepartments thinking about social media coordination If several departments bypass IT’s input and manage social media initiatives autonomously, they fail to unlock cost synergies between different process domains – there’s duplication of effort, no volume discounts, and contradicting security policies. The faster you can govern initiatives between departments, the faster cost and effectiveness synergies will be realized. In many organizations, IT tends to be more centralized than its counterparts in the business. This makes it uniquely positioned to encourage greater coordination by helping the business units understand their shared goals and the benefits of working together.IT should use the following tactics to get business stakeholders onboard: • Ask about their goals. Demonstrate how other departments have complementary objectives. Outline their gains • You can help them get a better deal on their SMMP solutions (e.g. volume discounts). and shared goals • You will guide them through implementation and help out with end-user training. Describe the ROI • It is difficult to calculate the exact ROI on social media in general, but it is possible to set cost using specific cutting goals for specific projects. For example, stress that buying an SMSC-approved social examples media management platform will save 20% over procuring it independently due to bulk prices. • Using stories that resonate with your organization’s current challenges will help your business Share success partners visualize how buying into centralized coordination will help them. Use success stories stories from departments working together in your organization, from your contacts at other firms, or from the quotes and examples provided in this report. Info-Tech’s recent survey showed that the “urge to silo” is the second most sensitive pitfall in implementing social media programs, with 51% of respondents agreeing that lack of process integration between departments blocks success. In this way, IT’s role as a “salesman” for the loosely coupled stage is just as important as IT’s role as an initial advisor on the technologies and risks. Info-Tech Research Group 20
  • 21. Leverage a Social Media Steering Committee to provideexecutive participation and cross-departmental alignmentCreating a Social Media Steering Info-Tech InsightCommittee is a reliablegovernance technique for moving The Social Media Steeringfrom the distributed stage to the Committee must have high-levelloosely coupled stage. Create a executive sponsorship andcommittee to boost cooperation support, or it will likely fail!and better realize social goals.Purpose of the CommitteeIn addition to aligning the organization’s social media goals and messaging, Key Functions of a Steering Committee:the composition of the team serves as an ideal channel to drive 1. Providing strategic leadership, byorganizational buy-in. Involving multiple stakeholders across different mapping social media goals tobusiness process domains will help gain recognition of the committee as a business objectives.critical player in the social media program. 2. Prioritizing social media initiativesComposition of the Team and coordinating processThe team should consist of departmental stakeholders and decision integration.makers: all permanent members of the SMSC should have the authority tomake decisions for the business unit(s) they represent. Ensuring broad 3. Leading technology procurementparticipation from the executive side is critical because large-scale projects efforts, with IT, to satisfy as manywill cross many different departments and business units. Key executives shared requirements with as fewinclude senior managers in marketing, sales, customer service, PR, and IT. tools as possible. 4. Act as a governing body for the We’ve put a [Social Media Steering Committee] in place… and it has ongoing social media program. worked out quite well for us. - Robyna May, IT Manager, Barea Pty Ltd. Info-Tech Research Group 21
  • 22. Don’t skip out on a steering committee: social success isgreatly boosted by bringing multiple departments into the foldInfo-Tech’s research shows that the more departments get involved with social media implementation, the higher theorganization’s success score (calculated based on respondents’ report of the positive impact of social media on businessobjectives). On average, each additional department involved in social media programs increases the overall social mediasuccess score by 5%. For example, organizations that leveraged social media within the customer service department,achieved a higher success score than those that did not.The message is clear: encourage broad participation in coordinated social media efforts to realize business goals. High 80 Customer Service Involvement 70 Boosts Success Customer Service 60 Involved? Yes 68% Success Score Social Media 50 No 47% 40 30 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Social Media Success Score 20 Our research indicates that the most important 10 stakeholder to ensure steering committee success is Customer Service. This has a major impact on Low 0 CRM integration requirements – more on this later. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of Departments involved Source: Info-Tech Research Group, N=65 Info-Tech Research Group 22
  • 23. Having a clearly defined Social Media Steering CommitteeCharter defines roles and ensures the committee delivers valueLeaders must ensure that the SMSC has a formal mandate with clear objectives, strongexecutive participation, and a commitment to meeting regularly. Create an SMSCCharter to formalize the committee governance capabilities.Developing a Social Media Steering Committee Charter:• Outline the committee’s structure, composition, and responsibilities using the Info-Tech Social Media Steering Committee Charter Template.• This template also outlines the key tasks and responsibilities for the committee: o Providing strategic leadership for social media o Leading technology procurement efforts o Providing process integration o Governing social media initiatives o Ensuring open communications between departments with ownership of social media processes• Keep the completed charter on file and available to all committee members. Remember to periodically update the document as organizational priorities shift to ensure the charter remains relevant. Info-Tech Research Group 23
  • 24. The SMSC must provide strong leadership and advocacy forenterprise social media initiatives – this is its foremost taskA Social Media Steering Committee shouldn’t be a figurehead organization. It musttake an active role in charting the strategic course of the social media program.• The SMSC should be the driving force in the organization for Common strategic planning topics that should all major social media initiatives. Regardless of business be a central focus of the SMSC include: process domain, high-level issues pertaining to social media should be addressed primarily through the SMSC. • Identifying the business objectives to be achieved through use of social channels.• The committee’s objective should be the oversight (and, if necessary, consolidation) of all social media programs. • Mapping business objectives with specific social media services (e.g. Facebook and Twitter).• The value proposition of the loosely coupled model is • Determining the target markets the organization negatively impacted when departments or project teams hopes to reach via social channels. bypass the SMSC. Accordingly, only SMSC leadership should have the authority to approve new social media projects. • Establishing high-level positioning, branding, and communication plans for social channels.• A steering committee must take the lead for signaling • Creating inter-departmental communication and commitment to social channels to the rest of the organization. escalation rules for social interactions. The committee must be the governance organ executives go to for information on a social strategy. • Assessing corporate access policies for social media (e.g. who should receive open access vs. who should be blocked). The SMSC should be transparent in its decision making. Strategies formulated by the SMSC should be clearly communicated to both executive sponsors and departmental stakeholders. Memoranda from each meeting should be kept and distributed to constituent departments. Info-Tech Research Group 24
  • 25. Map your social media program to specific processes withineach business domain to boost program effectivenessDetermine when, where, and how social media services should be used to augment existingworkflows across (and between) the business process domains. Establish escalation rules anddecide whether workflows will be reactive or proactive.• Once a social media program has been put in place, fine tune your efforts in each business process domain by matching social technologies to specific business workflows. This will clearly delineate where value is created by leveraging social media.• Common business process domains that should be targeted Marketing Sales Customer include marketing, sales, and customer service. Public relations, Service human resources, and analyst relations are other areas to consider for social process support.• For each business process domain, IT should advise on the tools of the trade that must be employed, and assist with technology enablement and execution. For example, if Sales wishes to leverage social contact information, IT must turn on Public Human the requisite features (or purchase the necessary third-party Relations Resources modules) in the company’s CRM suite. A well-oiled social media program leverages social workflows in these domains. The Social Media Steering Committee should have high-level supervision of process workflows. Ask to see reports from line managers on what steps they have taken to put process in place for reactive and proactive customer interactions, as well as escalations and channel switching. IT helps orchestrate these processes through knowledge and expertise with social media tools of the trade. Info-Tech Research Group 25
  • 26. The Social Media Steering Committee, together with IT, shouldlead requirements gathering and technology procurement • The steering committee should sponsor social media technology enablement projects; the most common projects include selecting and deploying a Social Media Management Platform, and/or augmenting the CRM suite with social media extensions and plug-ins. High-level business requirements for technology selection projects should be discussed in the committee. More granular requirements should be uncovered by a business analyst from IT working with the individual departments. • Decide whether an ad hoc or platform-based approach is right for you. The decision will likely depend on your organization’s maturity level and social media ambitions. Unless you are in the distributed stage (and don’t mind being locked in it for a long time), you should seriously consider the platform-based approach. • IT should gather end-user requirements through defining processes, actual data, and each participants functional needs. Basing feature requirements on actual data collected through user research reduces the risk of investing resources in unwanted features and increases the likelihood of adding useful ones. It is beneficial to create a requirements document through the three-step User Experience Engineering (UXE) process. 1. Define business 2. Complete user research 3. Identify where business objectives requirements to determine user needs and user needs overlap Your requirements should Watch users work and notice Example: the business goal is to increase be pain points, time wasters, and customer recognition of a particular sales Specific, Measureable, Ac unmet needs. It is also useful campaign, and users have identified that tionable, Realistic, and to interview targeted users to effectively updating tab content on Facebook Time-bound fully understand their level of takes too long to do manually. A feature would (SMART), e.g. to maximize proficiency with applications be an SMMP that offered tools for social customer retention rate. currently in use. property management.Info-Tech Research Group Info-Tech Research Group ‹#› 26
  • 27. Leverage the SMSC as a governance mechanism to set policiesaround social media training, security, and acceptable useOngoing governance of social initiatives should be another key priority of thesteering committee. IT can lend a strong hand to the governance function.• The SMSC should be involved with all aspects of ongoing Ongoing governance activities that should be program governance. The committee’s governance role under the purview of the SMSC include: should focus on creating policy (e.g. an Acceptable Use Policy), rather than direct execution and enforcement; these tasks should be left up to individual departments/business line • Creating an end-user training program on managers. proper enterprise use of social media. • Identifying and mitigating operational risks.• The IT department has a pivotal role in supporting the SMSC in governance activities. IT will be familiar with writing • Creating an Acceptable Use Policy. documents, such as acceptable use policies. Mitigating • Creating guidelines for subject matter expert operational risk (i.e. malware threats) is also an activity that IT (SME) participation in social channels. is intimately familiar with. IT can also assist with providing • Drafting a list of key business metrics that technology training to end users. departments should be tracking to gauge their• The CIO or IT Director on the committee should be sure to social media success. offer their department’s services in supporting governance execution. As social media evolves, it’s very important to also evolve [your organization’s] internal policies. - Jeff Lewis, IT Director, Pathstone Inc. Info-Tech Research Group 27
  • 28. Execute the ProgramWhat’s in this Section: Sections:• Successfully executing a social media program Adopt a Roadmap means putting the right leadership in place, Assess Maturity optimizing process workflows, procuring the right Build a Steering Committee technology, and governing effectively. Execute the Program• Move from ad hoc management to platform-based management to boost workflow efficiency. Create a Command Center• Provide comprehensive training to end users to increase their efficiency and mitigate risks. Info-Tech Research Group 28
  • 29. Follow a step-by-step program tactical framework that mirrorsthe responsibilities of the Social Media Steering Committee Follow this framework to organize your efforts and achieve better results. 1 2 3 4 Leadership Processes Technology Governance Prioritize social Provide strategic Lead technology Provide training, mitigate initiatives and mapleadership by setting procurement efforts with risks, establish best social media services business objectives IT to satisfy as many practices for SME use of and technologies to and aligning the business requirements social media, and track specific business needs of different with as few social media metrics to benchmark process in departmental management tools as the success of the social marketing, sales, custom stakeholders. possible. media program. er service, and public relations. Info-Tech Research Group 29
  • 30. Ensure that your social media leadership originatesin the SMSC and flows down to constituent business unitsThe Social Media Steering Committee should take ownership of high level strategicdecisions, policies, and interdepartmental coordination. Tactical and operationalexecution should be left to leaders in IT and the individual business units.• Strong leadership from the SMSC sets the tone for the social media program, but the SMSC is usually comprised of managers at the senior or executive level. Competent leaders are also Social Media Leadership Structure needed in each business process domain to handle the day-to- day tasks that arise from using social media. Strategic: Steering Committee• Delegate a social media team lead in each business process domain. This individual has ongoing operational responsibilities Tactical: IT and Dept. Project Leads for leading social initiatives within their own department. The team lead should work with their associated steering committee executive to translate the strategic edicts of the SMSC into day- Operational: Project Teams to-day business processes.• Depending on company size and resources, the team lead can be a full-time social media manager, or an existing role (e.g. marketing manager), preferably with prior social media experience. Select outgoing individuals with deep subject matter expertise and previous experience managing social channels as team leads. Don’t thrust the position onto someone – departmental team leads need to have a genuine passion for enterprise social media. Employees who have less overall tenure, but a track record of social media performance, can outperform those with much more traditional experience. Info-Tech Research Group 30
  • 31. Understand how to construct a social media workflow,then apply your workflows to day-to-day customer interactionsWhen building a workflow there are three key components to be aware of: roles, routing, and rules. Each of thesecomponents adds depth to workflow. Roles are the obligations and responsibilities of an individual or group as defined bythe organization. Routing is the process by which a path for a given issue is chosen. Rules are the constraints andstructure by which the workflow operates.1. Model: A traditional multichannel approach to social media workflows is reactive – responses are customer-initiated – and requires an SMMP that Reactive Proactive monitors your own social properties and can respond in-band. A proactive 1 Input Input multichannel approach does not depend solely on the customer and relies heavily on “listening” and looking for customer inputs on an organization. This model requires the use of an SMMP with listening capabilities for the entire Processing Cloud. Channels of communication could include, but are not limited to, 2 inputs YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter.2. Processing inputs: Inputs have many factors that contribute to their composition and complexity. These factors need to be assessed to be able to provide an accurate and appropriate response plan. Factors such as 3 Routing sentiment, urgency, and customer base can all be used to develop an understanding of influence and help you to prioritize and categorize responses. Parts of this step can be managed through an SMMP.3. Routing: Deciding who should be responsible for an input is crucial to the 4 Response success of social media communication. Assigning the right individual or group to take action on inputs influences the experience of the customer. The decision to assign an input to PR, customer service, product groups, or any other domain will be based on the results of the processing inputs stage. Contrasting and comparing knowledge bases is a key component of this 5 Archival stage. (Continued on next slide) Info-Tech Research Group 31
  • 32. Understand how to construct a social media workflow (cont.)4. Response: This component can range from one interaction to a series of interactions. For non-customer service and support issues, response should be in-band in the SMMP, regardless of which responsible business unit responded. But for customer service and support issues, these should be electronically handed off to the customer service management platform, if one exists.5. Archival: Archive final dispositions in the SMMP. If passed on to a customer service management platform, the case gets archived in that system as well.How does this relate to your organizational model?Before trying to integrate and customize a social media workflow for your organization, it is important to understand the basicframework of a generic social media workflow. This framework will set the stage for further development and success. Threebasic structures will be outlined: centralized, distributed, and agency. After comparing these to your own organizationalmodel you can begin to create and customize your own workflow template. An example of reactive vs. proactive customer service Reactive Proactive Info-Tech Research Group 32
  • 33. Design around the centralized deployment model whenSMMP functionality rests in the hands of a single department Centralized Model In the centralized model, a single SMMP workspace is owned and operated by a single business unit or department. Unlike the agency model, the SMMP functionality is utilized in-house. The centralized model lends itself well to a loosely coupled structure Social with a Social Media Steering Committee. Cloud Primary Role Information from the SMMP may occasionally be shared with other departments, but normally the platform is used almost exclusively by a single group in the company. Marketing or public relations are usually the groups that maintain ownership of the SMMP in the centralized model (with selection and deployment SMMP assistance from the IT department). Impact on social media workflows: • When determining the appropriate responsibility for engagement, all parties can use the same SMMP for a response. Marketing Sales Service • If the organization has a formal customer contact center, customer service issues should be handed off to the CRM system through integration. In this example, marketing owns and manages a single SMMP. Info-Tech Research Group 33
  • 34. Design around a distributed deployment if multiplebusiness units require advanced SMMP functionality Distributed Model In the distributed model, multiple SMMPs (sometimes from different vendors) or multiple SMMP workspaces (from a single vendor) are deployed to several groups (e.g. Social multiple departments or brand portfolios) in the Cloud organization. Not surprisingly, the distributed model for SMMP management is typical seen at the distributed maturity phase. This phase potentially wastes opportunities for gaining economies of scale via centralization. Impact on social media workflows: • Because you have multiple SMMPs, you now have multiple points at which routing has to be done. SMMP SMMP SMMP SMMP • Archival will also be in these discrete systems, divided between domains. • Customer service issues still need to be handled by Marketing Customer any existing contact center, but now there are Relations Service Public Sales multiple points of integration. For more information on deployment models, look at Info Tech’s Vendor Landscape Plus: Social Media Management Platforms. Info-Tech Research Group 34
  • 35. Design around the agency model when part (or all) ofyour social media program needs to be outsourced Agency ModelThe agency model of social media management uses a contractedthird-party to provide social media management and analytics.Ideally, an SMSC should still be giving direction to the agency.Outsourcing social media management to an agency makes sensefor small firms unable to afford the support staff to run the daily grindof a social media program. Social Cloud SMMP Primary RoleThis model serves as a touch point for the client organization: theclient requests the types of market research it wants done, or thecampaigns it wants managed. Then the agency uses its own AgencySMMP(s) to execute the requests. (e.g. marketing or public relations agency)Impact on social media workflows: Social Analytics Reports andThe agency may be the owner of the SMMP, therefore, the agency hasto be intimately involved in creating and changing workflows. Scorecards• When routing, the input may have to go to the agency, not your organization’s internal business units Client Organization• If customer service isn’t set up, you’ll need to temporarily extend service control to the agency to ensure interactions are logged. Marketing Sales Service PR• The agency model may also be deployed in hybrid with the decentralized model to have 24/7 coverage without depending fully on your internal employees. Info-Tech Research Group 35
  • 36. Incorporate social media into marketing workflows to gaincustomer insights, promote your brand, and address concernsWhile most marketing departments have used social media to some extent, few areusing it to its full potential. Identify marketing workflows that can be enhanced throughthe use of social channel integration.• Large organizations must define separate workflows for each stakeholder organization if marketing’s duties are divided by company division, brand, or product lines.• Inquiries stemming from marketing campaigns and advertising must be handled by social media teams. For example, if a recent campaign sparks customer questions on the company’s Facebook page, be ready to respond!• Social media can be used to detect issues that may indicate product defects, provided defect tracking is not already incorporated into customer service workflows. If defect tracking is part of customer service processes, then such issues should be routed to the customer service organization. I’m typically using my social media team as a •• If social listening is employed, in addition to monitoring the proactive marketing team in the social space, companys own social properties, marketing teams may whereas I’m using my consumer relations team elect to receive notices of major trends concerning the as a reactive marketing and a reactive companys products or those of competitors. consumer relations taskforce. So a little bit different perspective. - Greg Brickl, IT Director, Organic Valley Info-Tech Research Group 36
  • 37. Public Relations should leverage social media as partof an integrated corporate communications strategyAlongside marketing, public relations stands to gain considerable insight from the useof social workflows. PR can use social media as a bidirectional channel forcommunicating with the media, analysts, and members of the interested public.• In a mature social media strategy, Public Relations/Corporate Communications should be able to return to their primary duty of monitoring the company at the highest level, and responding to the same generic inquiries they respond to through other channels. The role of being the Level 1 responder to all inquiries through social media is not sustainable, and non-generic inquiries must be gradually turned over to the other business units for response.• Typical inquiries that the SMMP should route to PR/Corporate Communications include: ◦ Company leadership/management ◦ Company mission/values ◦ Political/regulatory questions ◦ Investor relations (if public), if a formal IR department is not a social media stakeholder ◦ Media inquiries• If social listening is employed, in addition to monitoring the companys own social properties, PR may elect to receive notices of major issues concerning competitors. Info-Tech Research Group 37
  • 38. Leverage social media in sales workflows to generate,qualify, and close leads and keep up-to-date on client activityUse of social media by sales and business development departments lags behind thatof marketing and service, but organizations are leaving considerable money on thetable by failing to adequately support sales processes with social media. Don’t fall intothis trend!• Large organizations must define separate workflows for each stakeholder organization if sales duties are divided by company division, brand, product lines, geography, or sales channel.• In business-to-consumer organizations, most sales inquiries should be handled by Level 1 social media reps. This usually involves direction to product and sales websites.• In business-to-business organizations, social channels must be integrated with existing lead management processes, to route potential leads to the sales and/or marketing process for lead qualification and nurturing. For more insight on lead management processes, see Info-Tech’s Vendor Landscape Plus: Lead Management Automation.• Tier 1 sales representatives can leverage professional social networks (such as LinkedIn) to screen prospects, keep up to date on their account base, and communicate with prospects and customers. Where reps are using social media in this way, management must establish guidelines and provide training for acceptable use. Info-Tech Research Group 38
  • 39. Customer service departments should design proactive socialmedia workflows to identify and address customer concernsReactive service over social channels can drive engagement, but truly world-classcustomer service is provided by identifying social customers with legitimate productissues or concerns and offering to help them before they ever have to reach out overtraditional e-channels.• If an incoming social inquiry, or one discovered through social listening, can be identified as a request or opportunity concerning support for a product or service, that should be routed directly to the customer service organization. Customer service must not be performed by two different organizations or you will loose the capability for a 360 degree view of customer and prevent the customer service organization form learning valuable feedback on their support processes and knowledge-base articles.• Defect tracking should be employed for social channels, and routing defect issues to a product marketing or product engineering group may be necessary,• If customer service reps resolve an issue received through social channels, they may need to respond in-band using the same social channels, or they may decide it is more appropriate to switch channels, such as communicating via email or phone. Channel switching is usually required when an issue or resolution is private and should not be shared in a public social media setting. However, all customer service case resolutions must still be recorded and closed in the customer service or CRM application.• For more information on customer service workflows and interaction channel switching, see Info-Tech’s Design a Customer Service Strategy that Serves the Social Customer. Info-Tech Research Group 39
  • 40. Take advantage of insights; craft a plan for social analytics togain “in the flow” insight from social workflowsUndertake a social analytics project to provide insight into social media and help your organizationnavigate its way to success. There are two main types of analytics: those that pull insights from thesocial cloud, and those that measure the effectiveness and efficiency of internal workflows. The formerprovide information on the demographics, sentiment, and influence patterns of social contacts. The lattertrack volume and average time-to-resolution of social efforts. Look into supplementing your social media efforts with Adoption of Social Analytics a social analytics project if: No Plans to Monitor 34% • Your organization already has a large social footprint; you manage multiple feeds/pages on three or more social media services. Planning to Monitor 24% • Your organization operates in a predominantly B2C Monitoring 41% context, and your target consumers are social media savvy. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% • The volume of marketing, sales, and service inquiries Source: Info-Tech Research Group, N=90 received over social channels has seen a sharp increase in the last 12 months. • 41% of organizations are currently monitoring social analytics, with 24% planning to in the next 18 months. • Your firm or industry is the topic of widespread discussion • If you are diving into social media, a social analytics initiative in the social cloud. should follow close behind. For more on using social analytics for customer and competitive intelligence, refer to Info-Tech’s solution set Formulate a Social Analytics Strategy. Info-Tech Research Group 40
  • 41. When it comes to technology, verify that using social mediamanagement tools is the right approach for your company• Effectively managing social workflows is an increasingly complicated task. Proliferation of social media services and Ad Hoc Management rapid end-user uptake has made launching social campaigns a challenge for small and large organizations. Social Media Steering Committees must decide whether to use specialized software tools that assist with managing social channels.• There are two methods for managing social media: ad hoc management and platform-based management. ◦ Ad hoc social media management is accomplished using the built-in functionality and administrative controls of each social Platform-Based Management media service. It is appropriate for small organizations with a very limited scope for social media interaction. ◦ Platform-based management uses an SMMP or CRM suite to provide a layer through which multiple services can be easily managed, monitored, and analyzed. SMMP• Companies in the distributed maturity stage can squeak by using ad hoc management in many cases. But those in the loosely Ad hoc management results in a number of social coupled stage should take a close look at platform-based media touch points. SMMPs serve as a single go- management. For command centers, a platform is a must. to point for all social media projects. With the exception of smaller firms with basic needs, Info-Tech recommends looking at a Social Media Management Platform. “Freemium” SMMPs, like TweetDeck and Hootsuite, are available for those who want platform-based management on a budget. Info-Tech Research Group 41
  • 42. Reign in social media by choosing an SMMP tostreamline and turbocharge social initiatives• Social Media Management Platforms (SMMPs) reduce the End Users complexity and increase the outputs of enterprise social media. (e.g. marketing managers)• The value proposition of SMMPs is around enhancing the efficiency of social media. Using an SMMP to manage social media is more cost- effective than ad hoc (manual) management. Account & Campaign Management• SMMPs provide feature sets for managing social campaigns, SMMP responding to conversations, and carrying out monitoring and analysis. The typical SMMP integrates with two or more social media In-Band Response services (e.g. Facebook, Twitter). SMMPs are not simply a revised “interface layer” for a single social media service: they provide significant capabilities for advanced management and analytics. Social Monitoring/Analytics• The typical TCO for an SMMP for three years ranges from 50k-80k.• The Social Media Steering Committee should work with IT to successfully evaluate and select an SMMP vendor. Prominent vendors include Radian6 and Syncapse.• The actual implementation of an SMMP should be handled primarily by IT, with the steering committee acting as a sponsor.• Having one SMMP vendor for multiple departments results secures SMMPs mediate interactions between economies of scale and reduces training costs vs. when departments end users and the social cloud. are not coordinated and buy independently. For a complete overview of how to understand, evaluate, select, and implement an SMMP, please see the solution set Vendor Landscape Plus: Social Media Management Platforms. Info-Tech Research Group 42
  • 43. Use SMMP feature sets to automate and simplifysignificant portions of your social media processes SMMP Feature Basic Feature Description Advanced Feature Description Bucket Social Integration with social media services beyond Ability to track and monitor popular social Channel basic features – for example, integration with channels, particularly Facebook and Twitter. Integration LinkedIn and YouTube. Social Basic monitoring and analysis: for example, Advanced abilities such as sentiment analysis, Analytics frequency analysis and demographic analysis. influence analysis and/or content-centric analysis. In-Band Ability to engage social stakeholders from an Response Ability to interact with stakeholders over social established contact list; ability to use analytics for and channels using the platform itself. engagement purposes. Engagement Account and Advanced management of social campaigns: for Robust management of multiple social media Campaign example, ability to quickly create custom tabs on accounts across multiple services. Management Facebook pages. Social Ability to maintain a history of social Integration with third-party archival solutions. Archiving interactions. Dedicated mobile applications for one or more Mobile Compatibility with popular mobile browsers. major mobile platforms (e.g. iOS, BlackBerry, Access Android). Advanced integration with social media services API access for social media service Platform via dedicated connectors; integration with CRM integration. suites. Info-Tech Research Group 43
  • 44. Integrate social media processes (and SMMPs) withyour CRM suite to strengthen overall goal achievement• Linking your social media program to existing CRM solutions can improve information accuracy, reduce manual effort, and provide more in-depth customer insights. ◦ Organizations surveyed by Info-Tech reported that integrating social media management tools with CRM suites boosted goal achievement by 68%.• Several major CRM vendors are now offering products that integrate with popular social networking services (either natively or by providing support for third-party add-ons). ◦ For example, Salesforce.com now allows for native integration with Twitter.• Regardless of deployment model chosen (centralized, decentralized, agency), establishing points for data interchange between social media management tools and CRM is highly desirable. Doing so opens up the databases of one to the other, allowing more advanced analytics – more on this on the next slide. For companies that have not formally integrated social media with CRM, IT should develop the business case in conjunction with the applicable “business-side” partner (e.g. Marketing, Sales, Service, PR, etc.). Actual integration of information between SMMPs and CRM suites can often be accomplished out of the box, or with a third-party connector. Info-Tech Research Group 44
  • 45. Linking your SMMP to a CRM suite builds a360-degree view of the customer• Social media is a valuable tool from a customer insight • New channels do not mean they stand alone perspective, but its power is considerably magnified when it’s and do not need to be integrated into the rest paired with a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) suite. of the customer interaction architecture.• Many SMMPs offer native integration with CRM platforms (e.g. • Challenge SMMP vendors to demonstrate Radian6 and Salesforce CRM). IT should identify and enable integration experience with both CRM these connectors to strengthen the business value of the vendors and multimedia queue vendors. platform. • Manual integration – adding resolved social inquiries yourself to a CRM system after closure – cannot scale given the rapid increase in customer inquiries originating in the social cloud. Integration with interaction management workflows is most desirable. These tools are enabling sales, and they help us serve our customers better. And anything that does that, is a good investment on our part. An example of how an SMMP linked via CRM can provide – Chip Meyers, proactive service while contributing to insights for Sales Operation Manager, Insource sales and marketing. SMMPs are a necessary single-channel evolutionary step, just like there used to be email-only and web chat-only customer service options in the late 1990s. However, they are temporary. SMMPs will eventually be subsumed into the larger CRM technology ecosystem. Only a few best-of-breed will survive in ten years. Info-Tech Research Group 45
  • 46. Case Study: Intel demonstrates its social technologies by building a Social Cockpit for the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show During the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Intel presented its own Adobe-Air based desktop application that monitored the CES talk in the social cloud. The application was custom-built for the event and operated similar to tools like Radian6. Goals: A team of dedicated staff worked to monitor and measure real-time social media activity at the event. The goal was to gain a deeper understanding of how users engage with not only the Intel brand, but technology overall. Staff: The staff consisted of Intel’s social media team and a small team from WCG, a Texas-based digital communications agency. Intel tracked not only hashtags, but Results: The monitoring and analysis showed a rising also the following: consumer interest in ultrabooks. Brands such as • YouTube views Microsoft, Sony, and Samsung were on top throughout the • Facebook posts, fans, and likes week. Mentions of mobile, especially Android, were • Twitter follower growth significant as well, according to Aaron Strout of WCG. • Tweets on leading technology • Blog and forum postsSources: mashable.com, newsroom.intel.com, freepress.intel.com, freepress.intel.com, siliconvalleywatcher.com Info-Tech Research Group 46
  • 47. Social media training is important at all times –during program genesis, as well as on an ongoing basisTraining Stage Length of Training # Attendees Delivery Method Info-Tech Tip • Depending on complexity • 10–15 per Tailor training to group Initial of tools, anywhere from 60 session • In-person or via web- demographic (i.e. younger Training – 90 minutes, however no • Keep #s conferencing employees will often get longer as trainees will lose low to allow • Structured format social tools faster). focus after 90 mins for 1:1 help • Informal, online forum for Ensure all users have people to ask colleagues • Online, discussions access to minimum Community or IT questions, start started by IT or manuals for CRM and Development discussion groups, etc. Unlimited users, and answered SMMPs. Helpdesk costs • Knowledge sharing of by anyone that can are minimized by self-help best practices, tips, and help and peer help. tricks • 15–30 mins, depending • 15–20 per Renewal on feature complexity session • In-person, or via web • Users more Center renewal trainings Training & • If users know the conferencing on new social media Training on training will be comfortable • Should be informal & may ask processes or underutilized New Processes quick, they will be more and allow lots of time questions at SMMP feature sets. apt to attend for questions this point People must be trained, especially in teams. This While most younger employees are familiar with how to use offers counter balances and checks as once social media, they are not trained in how to use it for formal information has been made public it is difficult to business interaction, much like many younger employees are change or refute. not trained post-high school in casual business writing. - Joan, Info-Tech Survey Respondent - Info-Tech Survey Respondent Info-Tech Research Group 47
  • 48. Good governance means being proactive in mitigatingthe legal and compliance risks of your social media programRisk Category Probability Risk Suggested Mitigation Strategy  Whenever possible, implement separate social network accounts for business, and train your employees to avoid using personal accounts at work. Sometimes you would want some of your employees to use Risk of inappropriate exchange of their pre-existing accounts for your organization’s benefit. Have a information between personal and policy in place for how to treat pre-existing accounts versus newly business contacts. created ones for enterprise use.  Train the end users to find and use privacy controls on social mediaPrivacy & websites. Highconfidentiality  Taking into account domestic and international privacy laws, your legal Abuse of privacy and confidentiality department should be able to decipher which regulations need to be laws. introduced around employees’ access to information, as well as social media content archiving.  In terms of communication with customers, clearly state the applicable privacy rules on every social media site where the organization maintains a presence. Introduce a disclaimer against customers sharing their personal information on social media sites.  The legal department should conduct training to make sureTrademark & Copyrighted information can be used organization’s Social Media Representatives only use information inintellectual Low for promotional and other business the public domain, nothing privileged or confidential. This is particularlyproperty purposes. sensitive for Marketing and PR. Employees representing the  Select the team carefully and ensure they are fully trained on bothControl over organization on social media official company policy and social media etiquette.brand image channels may post something  Ensure consistent monitoring by business units and escalation system& High inappropriate to the nature of your for non-compliance issues.inappropriate business. If you are a professional  Train every person charged with interacting with customers andcontent services firm, employees can post prospects via social media regarding what constitutes acceptable something that compromises the brand presentation. Ensure the legal department reviews any social industry ethical standards. media content that may be interpreted as professional advice. Info-Tech Research Group 48
  • 49. Don’t neglect the following operational risksRisk Category Probability Risk Suggested Mitigation Strategy  Implement policies that outline appropriate precautions by employees, such as using effective passwords and not Risk of employees downloading or downloading unauthorized software. being sent malware through social  Install security on the employees’ computers, database files, andSecurity High media services. Your clients are also hard drives. exposed to this risk; this may undermine  Monitor network traffic and restrict access to websites that can their trust of your brand. pose substantial risks.  Introduce a disclosure policy that your organization does not recommend following third-party links outside its social pages. Increase in bandwidth needs to support social media efforts, particularly whenBandwidth Low  Plan for any bandwidth requirements with IT network staff. using video social media such as YouTube.  In a public social network, you cannot prevent this. Monitor yourCompetitors The ability for a competitor to view lists own brand as well as monitor competitors. If client secrecy must bePoaching Low of clients that have joined your maintained, then you should use a private social network, not aClient Lists organization’s social media groups. public network (Socialtext, Lithium, private SharePoint site, etc.).  Augment existing customer service responsibilities with socialIncreased Additional resources may be allocated media requests.Cost of Low to social media without seeing  If a dedicated resource is not available, dedicate a specific amountServicing immediate ROI. of time per employee to be spent addressing customer concernsCustomers via social media. It’s not uncommon for the Legal and IT departments to be overly cautious, which has the unfortunate implication of the business bypassing their expertise. The job of Legal and IT should be to inform the business of the possible risks. The business must then decide when to take these risks and when to stay risk-averse. Info-Tech Research Group 49
  • 50. Establish and track social media metrics to ensureyou’re creating business value through social initiatives Determine key metrics to periodically gauge the success of the program. Set unambiguous targets so that you can take a proactive stance toward problems. Your goals have to be S.M.A.R.T. (specific, measurable, actionable, realistic, and time- bound). That way, you will be able to tell if a performance metric is lagging, and conduct a root-cause analysis to find out why. Which exact metrics you want to track depends on your departmental goals. Consider tracking the following: Marketing Sales Customer Human Public Service Resources Relations ▲ leads ▲ average deal ▲ customer ▲ quality of ▲ brand attributed to size retention applicant pool awareness: campaign ▲ sales per percent ▲ number of number of Increase ▲ sales agent ▲ upselling qualified hires friends, follo revenue attributed to ▲ share of oppor- wers, likes, e campaign wallet tunities tc. ▲ ROI on opportunities ▼ costs of ▼ average time ▼ channel ▼ cost of hiring campaigns to resolution escalation process ▼ agents per ▼ cost of data rate Decrease campaign inaccuracy ▼ assisted- costs service: self- service ratio ▼ cost to serve In 2012, 59% of Info-Tech survey respondents agreed that their organization’s “brand image has been In 2012, overwhelming 59% of Info-Tech survey respondents agreed that their organization’s “brand image has strengthened” through social social media initiatives – much higher than metrics. This is not the first time this been strengthened” through media initiatives – much higher than other other metrics. This is not the first time criteria came out on top: the 2009 survey similarly cited brandbrand image strength as the “achieved” goal. goal. this criteria comes out on top: the 2009 survey similarly cited image strength as the most most “achieved” Info-Tech Research Group 50
  • 51. And lastly, the steering committee must set policy forsocial media usage by employeesIf you achieved the level of maturity where you have a Info-Tech InsightSocial Media Steering Committee, part of the committee’sgovernance duties must include policies for social media The steering committee’s responsibility is to establish social media policies for allusage by employees for company business (e.g. blogging scenarios, both process-driven engagementor tweeting by subject matter experts). and SME participation in social conversations.These guidelines have to be addressed as complementary This isn’t a technology issue, it’s ato the procedural process guidelines and address issues governance issue.around social media best practices. However, SMEs do notneed to leverage SMMPs – so technology selection is notin scope of the policy. Kick-start a blogging campaign by referring to Info-Tech’s Blogging Blogging and and Microblogging Policy Acceptable Microblogging Use Policies Policies Template. Examples of Employee Usage Policies Editorial Account Review Ownership Policies Policies Info-Tech Research Group 51
  • 52. Address these aspects in an Acceptable Use Policy tocreate a comprehensive and effective document Acceptable Use Scope Unacceptable Use Cases Account Ownership GuidelinesBusiness building activities: Using social media for illegal or Info-Tech recommends giving Building positive brand image unlawful purposes (e.g. copyright ownership over business accounts to infringement, slander, fraud, and employees, provided that upon Increasing mind share plagiarism) departure they announce their Improving customer Excessive personal use during separation from the company on the satisfaction work hours account. Increasing customer retention Using business accounts for The alternative scenario, where the personal purposes company owns the accounts, Customer acquisition provides less motivation to make Reducing cost-to-serve Opening unknown sources through meaningful connections and social media sites, which may contributions. Gaining customer insight expose computers to tampering or malware Additionally, provide penalties and repercussions for violation or non-compliance, and include the legal framework for IT to approach content archival based on security and confidentiality concerns. For more information on creating a social media acceptable use policy see Info-Tech’s Social Media Acceptable Use Policy template. Info-Tech Research Group 52
  • 53. Build a Social Media Command CenterWhat’s in this Section: Sections:• Understand the difference between a physical, Adopt a Roadmap virtual and hybrid SMCC. Assess Maturity• Assess if an SMCC is a fit for your organization. Build a Steering Committee• Structure the governance of an SMCC. Execute the Program• Establish a plan for staffing your command center. Create a Command Center• Build and implement SMCC technology. Info-Tech Research Group 53
  • 54. Build a Social Media Command Center for unrivalled analysisand response capabilities for mission-critical social programsCompanies at the peak of social media maturity will want to consider building a Social Media Command Center (SMCC).A command center is both an organizational structure, as well as the people and technologies that support it. Commandcenters can be physical, virtual or a hybrid. Notable examples of organizations that leverage physical SMCCs include Dell,Adobe and the NFL. IT should have a strong role in the command center. A seasoned IT professional with previouscontact center experience is a huge asset for implementing and managing SMCC technology. Physical Command Center This kind of command center occupies an actual physical space. Often bearing a resemblance to an air traffic control room, the physical command center makes extensive use of visual displays and SMMPs to track, monitor and respond to real- time social conversations around the globe. Virtual Command Center A virtual command center has the same management structure as its physical counterpart, but teams are physically dispersed, relying on collaboration technologies to interact. Hybrid Command Center A hybrid command center combines aspects of both – typically, there will be a physical location that houses the core of the social media team, but team members will also be dispersed across different departments as well. Info-Tech Research Group 54
  • 55. Determine whether your organization should invest in acommand centerA physical Social Media Command Center can be tremendously beneficial to organizations heavily involved in socialmedia, but it represents a significant investment of time, money, and organizational effort. Organizations with lower-levelsocial media needs can typically realize the most value from the loosely coupled stage with a robust Social Media SteeringCommittee. Here are some guidelines around when to consider making the investment in a command center: Adopt a Social Media Command Center if… Bypass a Social Media Command Center if…• You have a very high volume and/or complexity of • The volume and complexity of your social interactions social media interactions. are relatively modest.• Your social media prospects and customers are globally • Most of your “social constituents” are located across a dispersed. small geographic area.• You have a well-known, high-profile consumer brand. • You operate in the business-to-business sphere and/or For example, consumer packaged goods companies have a brand that is less well known. often lead the pack with respect to adoption of a physical • Your customer demographics do not lend themselves command center. well to interaction through social channels. Traditional• Social media strategies are central to your interaction channels are your customers’ preferred organization’s business goals. For example, the bulk of means of communicating with your company. your marketing efforts occur through social channels. Someone should have a big-picture view of We will continue to invest in social channels - how social media is being used. primarily through a marketing front. - Info-Tech survey respondent - Info-Tech survey respondent Info-Tech Research Group 55
  • 56. After the decision to adopt a command center has been made,evaluate which model makes the most sense for your needs An SMCC can unify and integrate all process domains into one approach. Choosing a type of Social Media Command Center is important to ensure the most appropriate investments are made. Factors such as size, customer base, structure, and social media deployment stage all come into play when determining which kind to go with. Choose Physical If... Choose Virtual If... Choose Hybrid If...  Your organization is a large  Your organization is a small to  Your organization is large enterprise that serves a medium enterprise that doesn’t enough to require a physical considerable volume of global have significant resources, but command center in some customers. has deemed social media to be areas, but not all areas. mission-critical. Delegate responses to different entities. • A physical command center is • In a hybrid command center, some invaluable for top-tier, real-time processes are centralized in the monitoring and response. All • By not requiring a physical base physical structure while others are processes should be housed under for actions, the virtual command housed off site. This allows for one roof in a physical center. center is a better fit for smaller more flexibility if a large enough organizations who don’t serve a center can’t be built. large customer base. Info-Tech Research Group 56
  • 57. Determine if a combination of on-site and mobile staffing cansave on the costs of around-the-clock SMCC staffingOptimizing the operations of the SMCC is just as important as hiring the right people to do the job. There are twooptions to consider before planning out the operational schedule of the command center.When to opt for 24/7 operations: Social media is a How to approach staffing around the clockcommunication channel that often warrants constantmonitoring and engagement. Larger organizations that By creating multiple shifts (two to three per day, 8–12have an intercontinental customer base should consider hours each) your SMCC can be functional andstaffing their command center for 24-hour service. Since operating for 24 hours a day, seven days a week.social media interactions are most effective whenaddressed in a time-conscious manner, these The number of staff required per shift can beorganizations will need their full capacity to engage with determined by the peak hours when most interactionssocial conversations in multiple time zones. take place, allocating more representatives during these times.When to limit your command center’s business How to approach combination ofhours: If your organization’s customer base is generally on-site and mobile staffinglocated within a few adjacent time-zones (likely resulting Conduct research and analysis as to when your targetin periods of time with low volumes of customer prospects and customers are most active on socialinteractions) you won’t need 24-hour service. media services. Don’t assume anything when determining the operational schedule; yourHowever, having “on-call” mobile representatives will assumptions could be costly.ensure that high-priority customer interactions areaddressed in a timely fashion, even outside the Provide tablets and smartphones to your employeescommand center’s normal business hours. (and incorporate off-site activity into their job descriptions) to leverage customer interactions after business hours. Info-Tech Research Group 57
  • 58. Aim to staff the SMCC with internal candidates;hire external talent only when there is no perfect fitAs a general rule, hire internal candidates when possible, particularly for higher level managerialpositions.Your internal candidates may not necessarily have Social media can be learned by anyone in the organization. Itsocial media-specific backgrounds, but their certainly takes more resources than expected, and employeesunderstanding of the organization’s vision and engaged with these tools should understand and prioritizesocial media ambitions gives them a competitive social media within their regular tasks. It is helpful, however,advantage. Look for candidates with previous to have an overarching business unit dedicated to providingsocial experience, but provide promising support to employees (sales, marketing, executives, etc.); thiscandidates with formal experience the opportunity makes communications more consistent and employees findto build their social media skill set. the tools easier to adopt. - Dave Frederickson, Hewlett Packard (Canada) Co.For high level managerial positions (e.g. SocialMedia Manager), it’s essential to fill the position The best front-line social media managers are those whowith someone who has experience managing are most familiar with the companysocial media initiatives in other departments, but (brand, demographic, industry, etc.) and thenot necessarily centralized efforts. Good products/services of the company. This knowledge andcandidates may have previous experience as a background is superior to a "dedicated, specialized team" toBusiness Analyst, or a marketing/PR manager. handle social interactions on the front lines. . . - Info-Tech survey respondent Hire external candidates to supplement internal skills: It’s a good idea to supplement internal skills with a fresh perspective if nobody stands out as a perfect fit within the company. In a small or fast-growing organization, hiring externally will provide the benefit of additional talents which may not be available within the organization. With a fast-evolving communication channel like social media, aim to hire strategic problem solvers with specialized training in marketing, communications, PR, or emerging technologies. Info-Tech Research Group 58
  • 59. Job openings for social media professionals are multiplying;refer to these complete job descriptions to build your ownThe role of the Social Media Manager is to help define The role of the Social Media Representative is to workthe organization’s social strategy and provide day-to-day as part of a dedicated team for handling inbound andcommand center management. outbound customer interactions over social channels.This individual is involved with: This individual is involved with:• Implementation of policies and procedures to ensure a • Analyzing conversations occurring in the social cloud social media presence that is consistent with company goals, industry best practices, as well as legal and risk • Responding in a manner that improves prospect/customer mitigation requirements satisfaction while strengthening brand image• Monitoring and analysis through social channels to gain • Leveraging social media management tools to mediate customer insights and competitive intelligence customer interactions• Coordination and integration of cross-departmental social • Identifying and reporting trends and recurring issues media initiatives and management of the SMCC pertaining to customer sentimentThis individual should have experience with: This individual should have experience with:• Digital marketing strategies • Customer service (ideally through social channels)• Social media channels (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn) • Social media channels (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn)• SMMPs (e.g. TweetDeck, Hootsuite, Radian 6) • Project-based work structures For full job descriptions of the Social Media Manager and the Social Media Representative refer to Info-Tech’s Job Descriptions – Social Media Manager and Social Media Representative. Info-Tech Research Group 59
  • 60. Create an SMCC training matrix based on social media rolesLack of end-user training came out as a top pitfall in Info-Tech’s recent survey, with 40% of respondents agreeingthat that it was an impediment to the success of their organizations’ social media initiatives. IT must help the business bycreating and executing a role-based training program. Training sessions for targeted end-user groups should beestablished, and provide concrete guidance on using social media services and management tools.Use the table below to help identify which roles should be trained on which SMCC features . Marketing Product Customer IT Social Social PR Brand, Product Development Service Reps Application Media Media Professionals & Channel & Market & Manager Support Manager Rep Managers Research AccountManagementResponse &Engagement Social Analytics & Data Mining Marketing Campaign Execution Mobile Access Archiving CRM Integration Info-Tech Research Group 60
  • 61. An SMCC project can be split into initial technologyinvestment and ongoing operating costs – be aware of bothThis pricing scenario will give you an approximate three-year Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of a physical SMCC for largeenterprise. Info-Tech broke it down into initial (first year only) and ongoing investments, to give you an idea how far thefigures below go. Investment Initial Investment Ongoing Investment Category (first year only) (over three years) Technology 6 servers 35 CRM licenses* 24 desktop stations + 11 notebooks + 5 iPads 35 SMMP licenses* 3 LED monitors 1 business class projector 35 MS Office licenses *Assuming that you will use SaaS (Software-as- 35 VoIP phones a-Service) vendors 35 headsets 2 printers Staffing Hiring process 1 social media director End-user training 4 social media managers 6 social media analysts 24 social media representatives Other Floor planning (including office furniture)* Ongoing training and development *Assuming you already lease or own space for a physical command center Total: $186,845 $6,962,250 Total Three-Year TCO: $7.15M For a detailed breakdown of the assumptions made, see Appendix B: Social Media Command Center Pricing Scenario (3 year TCO). Info-Tech Research Group 61
  • 62. Structure an optimal physical layout for your SMCCLarge Overhead Monitors Command Center LayoutThe displays need to be located where everyoneassigned can comfortably see them. They will functionas dashboards, displaying the following trends:• Overall sentiment about the company• A composite trend of parameters related to select brands or products• Most active keywords being monitored• Competitor trending• Response queue statusFor advanced capabilities, consider making some ofthese monitors switchable to one of the PCs in theSMCC, for sharing up-to-the-minute trends discoveredby Social Media Reps.Low Cubicles for Social Media RepresentativesThe cubicle walls must be low enough to allow comfortable viewing of the overhead displays. Each Social Media Rep needstheir own workspace. Each workstation needs the following:• Access to the main SMMP (as well as any other tools used social media monitoring, management and engagement)• Standard knowledge worker desktop, including email, instant massaging, and Microsoft Office• Access to telephony systems. They do not need formal computer-telephony integration (CTI) unless the SMCC is being assigned traditional customer service and support duties. Info-Tech recommends that traditional customer service and support issues are resolved by the existing customer service contact center(s), which requires SMMP to CRM integration. Treating social media channels as a silo for customer service issues is a bad habit to start with. Your contact center(s) should own true customer service and support resolution. The SMCC should own non-customer service engagement through social channels. Info-Tech Research Group 62
  • 63. Structure an optimal physical layout for your SMCC (cont.) Command Center Layout: Common Workspace If space permits, provide a common workspace for daily or shift updates, as well as for working with business stakeholders needing support from the SMCC. This function can be accomplished by a nearby meeting room, but the presence of the overhead displays can help facilitate such meetings. Supervisor Workspace Social media managers (or SMCC supervisors) need to have their own workspace to orchestrate the days or shifts activities. They need to be able to comfortably view the overhead displays and be able to see the social media analysts, especially to see hand raising for assistance. The supervisor desk needs the following: • Telephony access • Full access to the SMMP and all social media tools • Standard knowledge worker desktop with standard productivity and collaboration applications Info-Tech Research Group 63
  • 64. Case Study: Super Bowl XLVI broke new ground with a physical Social Media Command Center for game daySuper Bowl XLVI engaged the digital marketing agency Raidious to integratethe first SMCC that managed the largest NFL event of 2012. The goals ofthe command center were three-fold: to ensure great service andsafety, to gather visitor insights, and to amplify the fans’ experiencebeyond the Super Bowl stadium. The command center answered visitors’questions in real-time, provided parking tips, advice on things to do in thecity, and monitored social channels for safety hazards – it also stood readyto use social media to provide instructions in case of emergency. The command center value proposition for the NFL was two-fold.1. Constant monitoring of the social cloud is 2. Social campaigns can reach far moresomething that every larger firm needs to invest people and garner far more responses thanin. In the case of the Super Bowl, this is traditional marketing campaigns. They canparticularly sensitive given the active presence make social event marketing easier tothat sports fans maintain in the social cloud. execute and monitor.Although the command center was event-oriented, it served the NFL and NBC well in all of its efforts. Itcan now be leveraged for future events. Process refinements will make social management through theSMCC even easier in the future. Sources: cnn.com, socialmediatoday.com A Social Media Command Center offers many opportunities for firms that have regular or frequent events or major social campaigns. The NFL’s SMCC was able to handle the massive volume of social interactions on game day. Info-Tech Research Group 64
  • 65. This is how Super Bowl XLVI set the gold standard for using an SMCC to manage a large-scale eventGeo-targeting Indianapolis area activity, the team of 50 Social Media Representativesconcentrated on key-based monitoring to connect to over 150,000 visitors throughplatforms like Facebook and Twitter. Tools that made it all possible • Social Media Management Platform: Awareness, Inc. • Apps: Google Analytics (beta), Social Mention, NewsMap, WeFeelFine.org • Other: Video recording kiosks on-site (Nsixty), pre-built list of responses to visitors’ inquiries (using Indianapolis-based company ChaCha Answers) Super Bowl XLVI SMCC in numbers • ≈20 people working at a time, 15 hours/day for two weeks until the event • 2,800 square-foot SMCC in downtown Indianapolis • Over a mile of Ethernet cable in use • Nine-screen monitor wall (over 100 square feet of monitor space) • 4,064 Tweets per second (TPS) in the final moments of the game (a global record for sports events!) Sources: Socialmediatoday.com, blog.twitter.com, cnn.com, digitallife.today.msnbInc.msn.com Info-Tech Research Group 65
  • 66. Summary Recommendations Commonly Used Acronyms• Define your business objectives and map them to specific social • CRM: Customer Relationship Management media goals and opportunities. • SMMP: Social Media Management Platform• Assess your maturity; organizations in the distributed stage should look for opportunities to increase social media cooperation and • SMSC: Social Media Steering Committee governance. • SMCC: Social Media Command Center• Put a Social Media Steering Committee in place. Give the committee authority for all cross-enterprise social media initiatives.• Execute the program. Focus on creating strong leadership, optimizing your social media workflows, implementing the right technologies, and putting effective governance procedures in place.• Evaluate and build a Social Media Command Center to take your social efforts to the next level. Info-Tech Research Group 66
  • 67. Appendix A: Survey Responses• Survey Respondents - Industry• Survey Respondents - Continent• Survey Respondents - Country• Survey Respondents - By Department• What best describes your organization’s adoption with respect to social media for interactions?• Which option best describes your organization?• Which departments in your organization have direct responsibility for social media processes?• Which option best describes IT’s involvement with social media initiatives?• Rate the following statements about pitfalls encountered in implementing a social media program• Rate the following statements about the positive impact of your social media initiatives Info-Tech Research Group 67
  • 68. Survey Respondents - Industry Info-Tech Research Group 68
  • 69. Survey Respondents - Continent Info-Tech Research Group 69
  • 70. Survey Respondents - Country Info-Tech Research Group 70
  • 71. Survey Respondents - By Department Info-Tech Research Group 71
  • 72. What best describes your organization’s adoption with respectto social media for interactions? Info-Tech Research Group 72
  • 73. Which option best describes your organization? Info-Tech Research Group 73
  • 74. Which departments in your organization have directresponsibility for social media processes? Info-Tech Research Group 74
  • 75. Which option best describes IT’s involvement with socialmedia initiatives? Info-Tech Research Group 75
  • 76. Rate the following statements about pitfalls encountered inimplementing a social media program Info-Tech Research Group 76
  • 77. Rate the following statements about the positive impact ofyour social media initiatives Info-Tech Research Group 77
  • 78. Appendix B: Social Media Command Center Pricing Scenario(three-year TCO)Staffing over three years:1 social media director @ 120k/year + benefits4 social media managers @ 80k/year + benefits6 social media analysts @ 55k/year + benefits24 social media representatives @ 40k/year + benefitsTotal for three years: $6,747,000Software-as-a-Service (SAAS) procurement cost:35 CRM licenses @ $1500 / user / year35 SMMP licenses @ $550 / user / yearTotal for three years: $215,250On-premise capital investment (first year only):6 servers @ $1500 (the need for storage will scale up or down based on whether you are using hosted or on-premise CRM and SMMP vendors)24 desktop stations @ $800; 24 22” LED screens @ $20011 notebooks @ $16005 iPads for mobile access @ $5993 LED TVs @ $10001 business class projector - $300035 MS Office licenses @ $50035 VoIP phones @ $20035 headsets @ $502 printers @ $500Total: $86,845Other initial investments:Floor planning (including office furniture) - $50,000- Assumption is being made that your organization already has physical space to dedicate to the Social Media Command Center.Hiring Process + End-user Training - $50,000Total: $100,000 Info-Tech Research Group 78