oculomotor reflexes
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  • 1. Oculomotor Reflexes
  • 2. Reflexes
    • Unconditioned or innate
    • Conditioned
  • 3. Oculomotor Reflexes
    • Postural (Gaze Holding)
    • Psycho-optical (Gaze Shifting)
  • 4. Postural reflexes
    • Oldest reflexes found in vertebrates
    • Stabilise eyes with respect to gravity
    • Stabilise eyes with respect to head and body movement
  • 5. Vestibular System
  • 6. Vestibular System
    • Static reflex
      • Maintains orientation relative to gravity
    • Kinetic reflex
      • Stabilise with respect to head movement
  • 7. VOR
  • 8. Gaze-Holding
  • 9. Gaze-Holding: Visual Perception
  • 10. Gaze-Holding
  • 11. Gaze-Holding: Visual Perception
  • 12. Gaze-Holding: Visual Perception
  • 13. Gaze-Shifting
  • 14. Psycho-Optical Reflexes
    • Fixation reflex
      • Refixation
      • Pursuit
      • Steady fixation
    • Fusion reflex
  • 15. Development of Visual Function
  • 16. Fixation Eye Movements
  • 17. Refixation Movements
  • 18. Development of Saccades
  • 19. Pursuits: Infant
  • 20. Pursuit: Naïve Adult
  • 21. Optokinetic Nystagmus (OKN)
  • 22. OKN
  • 23. OKN
    • Can be used to estimate acuity
    • Used to evaluate binocular development
    • Normal OKN at 4 months
    • Slow phase velocity 25 degree/sec in newborns
    • Slow phase velocity 40 degrees/sec in adults
  • 24. OKN with BV anomalies
    • OKN is asymmetric
    • Slow phase has higher velocity to nasalward motion than temporal motion
    • Response seen in affected eye and normal eye
    • OKN remains asymmetrical in adults who have had congenital cataract or strabismus in early life
  • 25. Development of Accommodation
  • 26. Development of Accommodation
  • 27. Development of Vergence
  • 28. Accommodation and Vergence
    • AC/A
    • CA/C
  • 29. Summary
    • Stereopsis requires binocular overlap, partial decussation and coordinated eye movements
    • Eye movements have various components
    • Development of eye movements rapid
    • Vergence high order control