Glaucoma

27,567 views
27,024 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
70 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Thank you for the Very informative and easy understanding pictures slides
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
27,567
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
44
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2,284
Comments
1
Likes
70
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Glaucoma

  1. 1. Glaucoma The silent thief of sight
  2. 2. Glaucoma Glaucoma Types, diagnosis, and Treatment
  3. 3. Glaucoma In general, Glaucoma occurs as a result of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by a malformation or malfunction of the eyes drainage system. Normal IOP is 19 – 21 inches of mercury. The increased pressure causes compresssion of the retina and the optic nerve, and causes progressive , PERMANENT loss of eyesight if left untreated.
  4. 4. Glaucoma <ul><li>Glaucoma can be classified into several different and unique types: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) </li></ul><ul><li>Angle – closure Glaucoma (Acute Glaucoma) </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Pigmentary Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Normal – tension Glaucoma (NTG) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Glaucoma Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
  6. 6. Glaucoma Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is caused when the normal drainage system of the eye becomes partially blocked, causing pressure to build within the eye. Normal Eye
  7. 7. Glaucoma Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is caused when the normal drainage system of the eye becomes partially blocked, causing pressure to build within the eye. Glaucoma usually affects the perimitery vision first, with sight gradually being lost towards the center of the eye. Vision loss with Glaucoma
  8. 8. Glaucoma Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Normal Eye Pressure builds when the drainage system is blocked. This increasing pressure presses against the Optic Nerve and causes a gradual loss of sight. Total loss of vision
  9. 9. Glaucoma <ul><li>Primary Open Angle Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>In the very early stages there are NO symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild pain in the eye, increasing gradually over time. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Halos” appearing around lights. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual loss of Peripheral vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of night vision </li></ul><ul><li>Who is at risk? </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with a family history of Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Patients suffering from Myopia </li></ul><ul><li>Patients suffering from Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>People over 35 years of age </li></ul>
  10. 10. Glaucoma Angle – closure Glaucoma (Acute Glaucoma)
  11. 11. Angle Closure Glaucoma (Sometimes referred to as Narrow Angle Glaucoma) is caused when the normal drainage system of the eye becomes suddenly blocked, causing pressure to build within the eye at a very rapid rate. Complete blindness can occur in as little as 3 to 5 days! Normal Eye Sudden blockage causes pressure to build rapidly. Glaucoma
  12. 12. <ul><li>Angle Closure Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure over the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Cloudiness to the Cornea </li></ul><ul><li>Eye extremely sensitive to light </li></ul><ul><li>Halos seen around lights. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and/or vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Who is at risk? </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with a family history of Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Patients suffering from Myopia </li></ul><ul><li>Patients suffering from Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>People over 35 years of age </li></ul>Glaucoma
  13. 13. Glaucoma Congenital Glaucoma
  14. 14. Glaucoma Congenital Glaucoma results as a condition from birth. Children are born with conditions such as an abnormal development of the Anterior Chamber angles which prohibit the normal drainage of fluid from the eyes, which then causes an increase in the pressure within the eye, and subsequent Retinal and Optic Disc damage.
  15. 15. Glaucoma Parents normally are the first to recognize the symptoms of Congenital Glaucoma: Cloudiness of the cornea due to Edema Distension of the eye Photophobia (sensitive to light)
  16. 16. Glaucoma In most cases, numerous surgeries are required to correct Congenital Glaucoma. Lasers are sometimes used, as well as Filtration Surgery and insertion of Tube shunts:
  17. 17. Glaucoma Secondary Glaucoma
  18. 18. Glaucoma Secondary Glaucoma is usually the result of a trauma to the eye, although it can develop due to several causes: Abnormal deposits in the eye fluid Uveitis Lens Changes Drugs Haemorrhage
  19. 19. Glaucoma Pigmentary Glaucoma
  20. 20. Glaucoma Pigmentary Glaucoma can develop as a result of small pieces of the Iris breaking off. These small particles can lodge themselves in the normal drainage canals and subsequently interfere with the normal drainage of fluids from the eye.
  21. 21. Glaucoma Normal Tension Glaucoma
  22. 22. Glaucoma Normal Tension Glaucoma occurs when there is damage to the Optic nerve detected in patients who have completely normal Inter – Occular pressure. It has the same characteristics as Primary Open – Angle Glaucoma.
  23. 23. Glaucoma Diagnosis and Treatment
  24. 24. Diagnosis Tonometry is often used as a diagnostic tool. The Tonometer is gently pressed against the eyeball, and the resistance (internal pressure) is measured. This requires that the eye be numbed prior to the test. Gonioscopy can be used to determine if the angle where the iris meets the cornea is open or closed. Glaucoma
  25. 25. Diagnosis Perimetry is an essential method used to determine if there is any loss of the visual field. Glaucoma
  26. 26. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Diagnosis Slit Lamp Examination is another method of diagnosis of patients with suspected Glaucoma. Glaucoma
  27. 27. <ul><li>Stereo disc photography of the optic disc is performed to determine if there is abnormal cupping in the optic nerve head. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent exams or photos are compared over time. </li></ul>Glaucoma
  28. 28. Measurement of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer thickness with the StratusOCT is the most recent advancement in technology that aids in the diagnosis of Glaucoma. Glaucoma
  29. 29. <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Laser Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration Surgery </li></ul>Medications are available in several forms. Laser surgery can reduce the need for medications Filtration Surgery creates a new drainage channel Glaucoma
  30. 30. <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Laser Iridotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration Surgery </li></ul>In Laser Iridotomy, a small hole is cut in the Iris Filtration Surgery creates a new drainage channel Glaucoma

×