Soul music hanan
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Soul music hanan Soul music hanan Presentation Transcript

  • By Hanan Mohamed 12KMH
  • History of the Genre
    Soul music began around 1954 with Ray Charles
    ‘I Got A Woman’, and remained popular
    throughout the 50s and 60s right up until the late
    80s.
    It started off in the inner cities in the north of the
    U.S.A. in particular: Chicago, Detroit, New York,
    Florence and Memphis which based on their own regional styles of gospel developed their own type of soul.
    The soul genre has a combination of elements of both gospel and rhythm and blues, which can be said to have originated from ‘the black experience in America’ (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame).
    Another way of looking at soul music is as gospel style music, with more ‘secular’ lyrics that are often not much to do with God or religion – possibly something to do with the genre having emerged post World War II where the population was becoming increasingly secularised.
    Notable records: Motown Records, Atlantic Records, Stax Records, Goldwax records
    Notable Artists: Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Marvin Gaye, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, The Supremes, The Jackson 5
  • Subgenres and their trademarks
    Detroit (Motown) Soul – hand clapping, bells, violins, and a hard bass, very rhythmic and highly gospel influenced
    New Orleans Soul – more influenced by rhythm and blues
    Chicago Soul – a ‘lighter’ gospel sound
    Memphis Soul – melancholy, melodic, organs, bass, drums, passionate/heavy
    Deep soul and southern soul – vibrant horns instead of backing vocals, and very energetic
    Psychedelic soul – a blend of psychedelic rock and traditional soul music
    Blue Eyed Soul – this term is used to describe white artists who performed RnB or soul music (e.g. The Righteous Brothers >)
    Philadelphia Soul – a very orchestral sound, with vocals
    being doo-wop influenced
    Neo Soul – 70s style instruments and vocals that has been
    combined with much more contemporary hip hop beats
    and RnB sounds; this style grew throughout the 90s.
  • Conventions of the Genre
    Most soul songs content tend to be about love, romantic or otherwise i.e. family
    A monochrome colour scheme in music videos was always popular
    There was a very slow cutting pace and few edits
    No special effects were used much, reinforcing the whole idea of keeping it real and loving things as they are
    A choir-like set up is often used in the formation of a group, with very dominant vocals
    Very catchy rhythms
    Piano is nearly always used in soul music
    Hand clapping
    Large body movements – swinging bodies, clicking fingers
    ‘Call and response’ lead singer to backing vocals
    Bouffant hair
    Earlier videos had simple yet stylish dress, more about the design and cut
    1st cut was made a good 34 seconds in, unlike modern videos with fast numerous cuts.
  • Target Audience for Genre
    Originally, soul music was marketed towards African Americans in the United States as it ‘arose out of the black experience in America’ (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame).
    Being so similar in style to gospel music it was identified with much easier, but as it was secular lyrically it could appeal to an even wider audience than only Christians.
    It had cross cultural appeal, as can be seen from the popularity of The Supremes whose only real threat on the charts was The Beatles but no others.
  • Smokey Robinson & The Miracles

    From Detroit, Michigan.
    Label: Motown Records.
    Members: Smokey Robinson, Claudette Rogers Robinson, Ronald White, Pete Moore and Bobby Rogers.
    First successful group for Motown, and remained the most popular on the label while they were together.
    Lasted 19 years.
    Recorded doo-wop, disco, soul and RnB.
    Over fifty hits.
    ‘Shop around’ was the first single of theirs to hit no. 1 in the RnB charts, and to sell over a million copies for any Motown act, and is a part of the Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.
    Smokey Robinson, the King of Motown,did most of the songwriting and producing for their group and for most other Motown acts during this period; he also tutored The Supremes and The Temptations.
    Berry Gordy, Motown Records President, changed their name to Smokey Robinson & The Miracles as Smokey tended to be the main leader of the group and most present upfront – Smokey later went solo in order to focus on his family and his other job of being Vice President of Motown Records.
    Most famous songs: Shop Around, Tears of a Clown, I Gotta Dance to Keep From Crying, Going to a Go-go etc.
    NOW PLAYING: Shop Around
  • The Supremes
    From Detroit, Michigan.
    Label: Motown Records.
    Members: Diana Ross, Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, and Betty McGlown.
    Lasted 18 years.
    Recorded show tunes, soul, psychedelic soul, pop, doo-wop, and disco. At their peak in the 60s they rivaled The Beatles in their international popularity. Like them, and unlike other bands at the time they were marketed for their individual member’s personalities.
    The first female black artists who took on a more feminine image instead of mimicking other male group acts qualities; this was in order to appeal to both white and black audiences, and have a more widespread appeal as well as banishing the common image of blacks being low-class and uncultured, or unrefined.
    Dreamgirls, the musical is based loosely upon the story of The Supremes career and is highly Motown influenced.
    Notable influences on other groups of black girls in the music industry since e.g. Destiny’s Child, Cleopatra, TLC etc.
    Stop! In The Name of Love– included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s collection of 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll.
    Most Famous Songs: Where Did Our Love Go, Baby Love, Come See About Me, Stop! In The Name of Love etc.
    NOW PLAYING: Stop! In The Name of Love
  • Stevie Wonder
    NOW PLAYING: I Just Called To Say I Love You
    Label: Motown Records.
    Full name is Stevland Hardaway Morris.
    Signed to Motown at age of 11 and has been recording with them right up until the present day.
    Has 22 Grammys, the most ever awarded to any male artist.
    Political activist, campaigned in the 80s to make Martin Luther King Jr’s birthday a national holiday and the campaign eventually succeeded.
    Named a UN messenger of peace in 2009.
    Plays the clavinet, melodica, bongos, organ, bass guitar, drums, harmonica, congas, synthesizer and the piano.
    When he was younger he was known for his work on the harmonica although now he is much better known for his piano skills.
    The very first Motown artist and only the second African American ever to win an Academy Award for Best Original Song – for his single in 1984, ‘I Just Called To Say I Love You’ (and also won a Golden Globe for it beforehand).
    Most famous songs: Sir Duke, Superstition and I Just Called To Say I Love You.
  • Aretha Franklin
    NOW PLAYING: Respect
    Label: Atlantic Records.
    Nicknamed the ‘Queen of Soul’.
    Won 2 honourary Grammys and 18 competitive Grammys.
    Has the most million selling singles out of any female artist.
    The very first female artist to be added to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
    The only singer at the presidential inauguration of Barack Obama in 2009.
    Became one of the symbols for the civil rights movement due to her song Respect. The song was about a woman who announces that she deserves respect, she shouldn’t have to beg for it. It’s also no. 5 on Rolling Stone’s Greatest Songs of All Time.
    Most Famous Songs: Respect, I Knew You Were Waiting For Me, Mockingbird, Rock-A-Bye Your Baby With A Dixie Melody.
  • Al Green
    Label: Hi Records (Memphis Soul).
    Also known as the Reverend Al Green.
    ‘People are born to do certain things, and Al was born to make us smile’ – Justin Timberlake, on nominating Al for the Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Greatest Artists of all time.
    Sold more than 20 million records.
    2004, included in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame.
    Most Famous Songs: You Oughta Be With Me, I’m Still In Love With You, Love and Happiness etc.
    Let’s Stay Together – no.1 hit, stayed in charts for 16 weeks, 60th Greatest Song of All Time (Rolling Stone), and also selected by the Library of Congress in 2010 to be added to the National Recording Registry which takes only recordings that are significant culturally, aesthetically or historically.
    NOW PLAYING: Let’s Stay Together
  • Modern Soul
    Nowadays, the ‘soul’ genre has dissipated and seeped traces into many other genres. It’s difficult now to call any one modern active artist ‘soul’ – yet there are many who include elements of it in their music, indicative of our postmodern society where to be commercially successful or even viable you must reach out across genres in order to match the demands by a more diverse listening audience.
    Examples of Modern Day Artists:
    Adele
    Amy Winehouse
    Mary J. Blige
    Duffy
    Joss Stone
    Corinne Bailey Rae
    Beyoncé
    Mariah Carey
    Cee Lo Green
    Lauryn Hill
    Whitney Houston
    The Jackson 5
    Lionel Richie
  • My Girl – The Temptations
    Type of Music Video: Performance
    Why This Type Was Chosen:
    It was more about selling the artist, the group members themselves – and in addition that meant keeping in with the theme of talking about having such a personal experience, this personal love for ‘my girl’ as can be heard from the song lyrics as well as keeping in with the soul genre in talking about love.
  • I Want You Back – The Jackson 5
    Type of Music Video: Performance
    Why This Type Was Chosen:
    Once again, this video was more about selling the group identity as a whole – in particular it highlighted Michael as he was the youngest but he led the song, despite its material more commonly sung by older singers. This showed his ability and maturity to be able to carry off the song by himself on his own merit. Once again the song content related to love, typical of soul music.
  • Be Without You Baby – Mary J. Blige
    Type of Music Video: Narrative & Performance
    Why This Type Was Chosen:
    A slightly more modern example, soul crossed with RnB (close-related genre). To an extent it’s performance with many shots of Mary singing by herself tothe window reflection but it’s still narrative – we see the couple fighting, when he sits with her sleeping on the sofa. This helps to tell the story of the song of their troubled relationship, but doesn’t take away from her artist identity – and shows how narrative has become a much more common use in music videos compared to the earlier videos of the 60s. Those tended to be more of live performances whereas postmodern videos where genres overlap now often use narrative and performance together if not all three.
  • Didn’t I (Blow Your Mind This Time) – The Delfonics
    Type of Music Video: Performance
    Why This Type Was Chosen:
    For once a music video in colour, the camera’s revolving around the dancers but is still mainly focused on the group and once again that is in order to sell the group’s identity as a whole, close ups showing their beards and hair, their elaborate costumes etc. The costume and hair and setting were all very typical of the times in the early 70s, a more fancy dress than the simpler dapper suits and minimal dress of other such as the Miracles and The Marvelettes.
  • Shoulda Woulda Coulda – Beverley Knight
    Type of Music Video: Narrative & Performance
    Why This Type Was Chosen:
    A modern day soul artist whose focus is on soul despite mixing it with RnB, the song shows her hitchhiking after an argument in the car with her partner. This type of video was chosen to further emphasise the message of the song, how she wishes she could fix all the mistakes in their relationship ‘shoulda woulda coulda’ and looking back very regretful singing solemnly in each car she hitchhikes in. A crossover of soul/RnB means that performance and narrative have both been used again in the same video, though love remains a popular topic for soul songs.