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Female Leadership presentation for Leadership in Comm course summarizes Research Paper findings. Fall 2007. Powerpoint by Heidi Paruta. (Tonya Stansel contributed half the information for slides, ...

Female Leadership presentation for Leadership in Comm course summarizes Research Paper findings. Fall 2007. Powerpoint by Heidi Paruta. (Tonya Stansel contributed half the information for slides, and put together paper handed in)

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Female Leadership Ppt Female Leadership Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Female Leaders Does a subordinate’s gender decide the type of leadership style a female leader uses? By Tonya Stansel & Heidi Paruta
  • Abstract
    • Communication and psychology study traits, skills, style, and emotional intelligence of leaders based on their gender.
    • RQ: Does a female’s leadership style change when working with female versus male subordinates?
    • This Study - Research of previous studies and an open ended survey with female leaders in corporate America
    • Corporate America = profit or non-profit company with at least 25 employees.
      • How does the follower's gender have an impact on leaders, specifically female leaders, and does a change, if any, affect their emotions?
      • Women have to adapt their normal behavior to be considered leaders. Why? What effect on women?
      • The women interviewed were chosen as leaders because of their status at their jobs also because of how the researchers viewed them.
    Introduction
  • Literature Review
    • Bartunek and Lacey (2000). Network Faculty Development Committee (NFDC). Created by two women to encourage leadership for all of its members and teachers in the area.
      • Found: “These analyses indicated that leadership aimed at being empowering in such a group invokes dilemmas, tension and ambivalence.”
    • Yoder (2001), “women need to combine status heightening and leveling strategies to be effective” (p. 820).
      • Yoder (2001)contends that effectiveness is the result of three areas:
        • (1) Speech - women must camouflage their speech patterns when giving orders, criticizing, reproaching and dismissing followers.
        • (2) Group verses self orientation - women need to motivate their followers by thinking in a group verses self orientation manner.
        • (3) Competence strategies - women must be exceptionally competent.
  • Lit Review – Cont'd
    • Yoder (2001) quotes Carli and Shackelford (1995), “women who exhibit superior competence on a task exert more influence than women who prove themselves less competent than the superior woman.”
    • Coleman (2003) quotes Bemn (1974) and Gray (1993) “women are thought to be caring, tolerant, emotional, intuitive, gentle and predisposed towards collaboration, empowerment and teamwork,” whereas “men are supposed to be aggressive, assertive, analytical, decisive and more inclined to act independently” (p. 29).
    • Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt and van Engen in (2003) found transformational leadership is practiced more by women than men.
      • Bass (1985, 1998) defines transformational leadership as “establishing oneself as a role model by gaining the trust and confidence of followers.”
      • Transformational Leadership is said to work better for females due to their “demand for caring, supportive and considerate behaviors” (Bass, 1985, 1998).
  • Lit Review Cont'd
    • Lucas (2003) found “Institutionalizing” women or “creating beliefs that successful groups have women in leadership positions,” will make women more likely to be accepted as leaders and will reduce the advantage that male leaders have.
    • Women tend to experience heightened pressure to perform well, both when they are members of a male-dominated work group and when they are tasked with leading such a group (McDonald et al., 2004).
    • Offerman and Beil (1992) found women have greater concern for the possession and use of power and lower self-esteem which may inhibit them from achieving higher status positions.
    • Garcia-Retamero (2006) found peoples’ expectations of their leader, depending on the leader's gender, affects work environments differently.
  • Lit Review Summary
    • Women are not typically seen as leader-material as often as men are.
    • Women are treated differently due to “norms,” traditions or stereotypes.
    • Women who do have the chance to be leaders approach the position differently than men do.
    • Transformational leadership, mostly used by women, is about relationships, trust and care.
    • Transactional leadership is more about rewards and punishments, and does not characteristically include a lot of involvement between parties.
            • Women in leadership positions must change their leadership styles based on how they are affected emotionally and socially by the differences between leading men and leading women.
  • Methods
    • Open-ended survey with 10 questions, using www.surveymonkey.com
    • Types of questions:
      • Differences in leading men and women
      • How the participants’ style and emotions were adapted when their followers were men versus women
      • Differences noticed by the participant when leading men versus women.
    • 21 female leaders received the survey.
    • 20 of the participants were Caucasian/white. One was African American.
    • 10 surveys were completed – 42% response rate.
    • The participants ranged in age from 24-55.
    • Their length of employment within their current position is between [one and five] years
  • Findings
    • “ What is the difference in leading male vs female subordinates”
      • 78% of the respondents felt there was a difference in leading male subordinates
    • “ In general, a good leader will adjust his or her style based on each individual on their team. Men, in general, tend to prefer a direct approach. They understand the levels in an organization. Women tend to approach things as a team, and delegating to them has to be softer.” (Supports Transformational Leadership)
    • “ How do you change your leadership style when working with a male subordinate versus a female subordinate”
      • 78% of the respondents discussed the way they made changes to their leadership style based on a subordinates gender.
    • “ I think that I feel the need to prove myself in different ways---I might try to do some harder work in front of the men so that they don't think I'm giving them certain tasks because they are men---with women I feel as though there is less need to justify my delegations”
    • “ How does making these adjustments affect your emotions”
      • 70% of the respondents stated their emotions were not affected when their leadership style changed.
  • Findings Cont'd
    • “ How does the situation affect the way you act around men, as compared to women, on the job”
        • 80% of the respondents discussed ways in which a situation effects how they interact with different genders on the job, while 20% stated they acted the same with both genders based on a situation on the job.
    • “ Compare how female versus males show their emotions in the workplace and if there was a perceived difference”
        • 100% of the respondents felt that women and men show their emotions at work and that differences, even subtle ones, can be perceived.
    • “ How do you think your communication is viewed by males based on your gender as compared to the communication of a male leader”
        • 100% of the respondents felt their communication was viewed differently by males as compared to their male leader counterparts.
    • “ Men want to keep it short and sweet. No personal talk just down to business and go. I tend to need the comfort of a personal note to the communication or it feels bad. Men do not like that I do this.”
  • Discussion
    • Overall consensus: Female leaders do feel they change their leadership style when leading female subordinates compared to male subordinates.
    • Finding One – There is a difference leading male and female subordinates for female leaders.
    • Finding Two – Women do change their style of leadership when leading male, as compared to female, subordinates.
    • Finding Three – Based on these changes the emotions of female leaders are affected.
  • Recommendations
    • Gender can play a role in how subordinates are lead by female leaders, However, gender should not be a factor in the business place.
    • Recommendation One: Accept there are differences when leading different genders
        • Remove oneself from any gender-influenced difference
        • View each subordinate as an individual
        • Work with them based on their personality and work ethic-not their gender.
    • Recommendation Two: Adjust your leadership style based on the situation not the subordinate’s gender.
        • Figure out what motivates a subordinate.
    • Recommendation Three: Maintain your emotions
    • in the workplace to be viewed as equal.
        • Walk away from a frustrating situation,
        • count to ten, and breath.
        • Remember ability and talent corporate America
        • -being emotional did not.
  • Limitations
    • Lack of prior research on how leader and follower styles emotionally affect female leaders.
    • Time constraints for completing the study
      • More time face to face interviews could have been conducted
      • Researchers could have observed the female respondents actions and attitudes when answering the questions.
    • The number of respondents who completed the survey
      • 50% yield rate was not achieved
      • More responses would have yielded a higher response rate
      • More material to analyze.
  • References
    • Annis, B. (1995, Winter). Men and women in leadership. Canadian Manager , 20 (4), 23. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from MasterFILE Premier database.
    • Bartunek, J., Walsh, K., & Lacey, C. (2000, November). Dynamics and dilemmas of women leading women. Organization Science , 11 (6), 589-610. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Bormann, E., Pratt, J., & Putnam, L. (1978, June). Power, authority, and sex: Male response to female leadership. Communication Monographs , 45 (2), 119-155. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Butler, D., & Geis, F. (1990, January). Nonverbal affect responses to male and female leaders: Implications for leadership evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 58 (1), 48-59. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Chapman, J., & Luthans, F. (1975, May). The female leadership dilemma. Public Personnel Management , 4 (3), 173-179. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Eagly, A., Johannesen-Schmidt, M., & van Engen, M. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin , 129 (4), 569-591. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Fairhurst, G. (1993, December). The leader-member exchange patterns of women leaders in industry: A discourse analysis. Communication Monographs , 60 (4), 321. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
    • Garcia-Retamero, R., & López-Zafra, E. (2006, July). Prejudice against women in male-congenial environments: Perceptions of gender role congruity in leadership. Sex Roles , 55 (1), 51-61. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Lucas, J. (2003, June). Status processes and the institutionalization of women as leaders. American Sociological Review , 68 (3), 464-480. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from PsycINFO database.
    • Offermann, L., & Beil, C. (1992, March). ACHIEVEMENT STYLES OF WOMEN LEADERS AND THEIR PEERS. Psychology of Women Quarterly , 16 (1), 37. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • Ridgeway, C. (2001, December). Gender, Status, and Leadership. Journal of Social Issues , 57 (4), 637. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • Yoder, J., Schleicher, T., & McDonald, T. (1998, June). EMPOWERING TOKEN WOMEN LEADERS. Psychology of Women Quarterly , 22 (2), 209. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • Yoder, J. (2001, December). Making Leadership Work More Effectively for Women. Journal of Social Issues , 57 (4), 815. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.