Soil Indicators and Site Evaluation Form By Helen Lovell, MS CHEP and Monica Lopez, MS, CHEP
Seasonal High Water Table <ul><li>highest level of a saturated zone in the soil in most years. </li></ul><ul><li>A water t...
Soil Terms <ul><li>Soil Color - the dominant morphological feature used to predict the SHWT </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix – dom...
Soil (Cont.) <ul><li>•  Organic Matter (OM) </li></ul><ul><li>–  Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>•  Gives soil dark brown to blac...
OM Relation to Soil Drainage <ul><li>Anaerobic decomposition rates for OM are </li></ul><ul><li>about 10-30% of aerobic de...
Fe-Oxides Relation to Soil Drainage <ul><li>Reduction and oxidation of iron is </li></ul><ul><li>reflected in the soil mor...
Iron <ul><li>Organic Matter (OM)- based indicators such as dark surface or stripped matrix will be important. </li></ul><u...
Iron (Cont.) <ul><li>In sandy recharge wetlands, iron/carbon can be removed, leading to a Stripped Matrix indicator (hydri...
REDOXIMORPHIC FEATURES   <ul><li>Must be have distinct or prominent contrast with the matrix and have diffuse boundaries  ...
Contrast between Soil Colors <ul><li>Contrast refers to the degree of visual  </li></ul><ul><li>distinction between associ...
Contrast between Soil Colors (Cont.) <ul><li>If the mottle and matrix both have  </li></ul><ul><li>values of ≤3 and chroma...
Quantity of Redoximorphic Features <ul><li>The following amounts correlate </li></ul><ul><li>with specific percentages: </...
Site Evaluation and System Specifications
 
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Soil

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Soil

  1. 1. Soil Indicators and Site Evaluation Form By Helen Lovell, MS CHEP and Monica Lopez, MS, CHEP
  2. 2. Seasonal High Water Table <ul><li>highest level of a saturated zone in the soil in most years. </li></ul><ul><li>A water table that is seasonally high for LESS THAN ONE MONTH is not indicated in the table (Soil and Water Features Table in Soil Surveys). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Soil Terms <ul><li>Soil Color - the dominant morphological feature used to predict the SHWT </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix – dominant (background) color of soil profile </li></ul><ul><li>Mottle – splotch of color, opposite of matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Redoximorphic Features – specific features formed from oxidation-reduction reactions used to predict seasonal high water tables, includes certain types and amounts of mottles. They are caused by the presence of water and minerals in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Stripped Matrix - splotchy color pattern with no discernible dominance by any one color. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Soil (Cont.) <ul><li>• Organic Matter (OM) </li></ul><ul><li>– Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>• Gives soil dark brown to black color </li></ul><ul><li>• Compounds and Elements </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Iron-oxides </li></ul><ul><li>• Gives soil red to yellowish brown </li></ul><ul><li>color </li></ul><ul><li>2. Manganese oxides </li></ul><ul><li>• Gives soil dark purple color </li></ul>
  5. 5. OM Relation to Soil Drainage <ul><li>Anaerobic decomposition rates for OM are </li></ul><ul><li>about 10-30% of aerobic decomposition rates (Hammer, 1992 and Debusk and Reddy, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The wetter the soil the greater the OM content </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the organic matter content the </li></ul><ul><li>darker the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Wet soils are dark in color (lower chroma or value) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fe-Oxides Relation to Soil Drainage <ul><li>Reduction and oxidation of iron is </li></ul><ul><li>reflected in the soil morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of reduced iron are gray (low chroma) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of oxidized iron are red to yellowish </li></ul><ul><li>brown (high chroma) </li></ul><ul><li>Redoximorphic features form under </li></ul><ul><li>saturation (anaerobic conditions) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Iron <ul><li>Organic Matter (OM)- based indicators such as dark surface or stripped matrix will be important. </li></ul><ul><li>In sandy discharge wetlands, dissolved iron can be brought into the soil that otherwise had no iron. The result can be small concentrations of oxidized iron, which would be an example of a Sandy Redox indicator (hydric soil indicator). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Iron (Cont.) <ul><li>In sandy recharge wetlands, iron/carbon can be removed, leading to a Stripped Matrix indicator (hydric soil indicator). </li></ul>
  9. 9. REDOXIMORPHIC FEATURES <ul><li>Must be have distinct or prominent contrast with the matrix and have diffuse boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>2. Matrix color must have Chroma ≥ 3 and </li></ul><ul><li>any value. </li></ul><ul><li>Redoximorphic features are Hue 10YR or </li></ul><ul><li>redder, Value ≥ 5, Chroma ≥ 6, and must </li></ul><ul><li>have distinct or prominent color contrast </li></ul><ul><li>with matrix and must be at least 2% </li></ul><ul><li>(common) in volume. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contrast between Soil Colors <ul><li>Contrast refers to the degree of visual </li></ul><ul><li>distinction between associated colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Faint – contrasts that are evident only on </li></ul><ul><li>close examination </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct - contrasts that are readily seen </li></ul><ul><li>but are only moderately </li></ul><ul><li>expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent - contrasts that are strongly </li></ul><ul><li>expressed </li></ul>
  11. 11. Contrast between Soil Colors (Cont.) <ul><li>If the mottle and matrix both have </li></ul><ul><li>values of ≤3 and chromas of ≤2, the </li></ul><ul><li>color contrast is faint, REGARDLESS </li></ul><ul><li>OF THE DIFFERENCE IN HUE. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Quantity of Redoximorphic Features <ul><li>The following amounts correlate </li></ul><ul><li>with specific percentages: </li></ul><ul><li>Few -- less than 2% (<2%) </li></ul><ul><li>Common -- 2 to 20% (2-20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Many -- more than 20% (>20%) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Site Evaluation and System Specifications
  14. 15. THANK YOU!!!

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