History of communication II.

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History of communication II.

  1. 1. HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION PART II
  2. 2. TELEGRAPH • Major shift occurred with arrival of electricity • Telegraph first wave new telecommunication revolution • With telegraph in 1840 words transformed into electrical impulses(dots and dashes of Morse code)
  3. 3. • Telegraphdivided into 2 1. Optical telegraph 2. Electric telegraph
  4. 4. OPTICAL TELEGRAPH • First practical telecommunication system • Inventor  Claude Chappe(1763-1805) • Chappe’s telegraph: made from wood, iron or stone • Not included electricity • Had a codebook (first codebook=9999 entries) • Codebook in 1830:45050 words/phrases
  5. 5. • A complex system, because; 1. Require long codebooks 2. Skilled and efficient administration 3. Requires many stations 4. Too expensive
  6. 6. • Weaknesses of optical telegraph; 1. Human: performance related to human’s capacityneed military discipline 2. Natural:not usable at night, in fog or rain
  7. 7. • Reasons for success of Optical telegraph; 1. Military necessity: Real time info. on battles 2. Deep political, ideological significance: • It shortens distance • Instrument in formation of French nationstate • Tool in defending unity of nation
  8. 8. • System operated and owned by Government • Used for Government messages • Military reasons/reports Napoleon 3. Optical telegraph result of Age of Enlightenment
  9. 9. • Optical telegraph was useful; 1. Building nationhood 2. Maintaining public order 3. Transmitting commercial information
  10. 10. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH • Through 1830s electricity was used to transmit messages • Samuel Morse: Morse codes • His codes: used to transformed into the codes • Electric telegraph: 10 times handled more info.
  11. 11. TELEPHONE • • • • Alexander Graham Bell: inventor Appeared in 1876 Based on voice transmission Eliminated telegraphy
  12. 12. • Benefits of telephone; 1. Rapid two-way exchange 2. Interactive, Person-2-Person contact 3. By 1880s: simplicity and efficiency of telephone(used in private homes) 4. Reshaped range of business practices
  13. 13. IMAGE TECHNOLOGIES(PHOTOGRAPHY) • Beginning of photography: 1839 • Louis Daguerre: inventor • There were 2 things that made possible to use photograph in newspapers and magazines 1. Lithography: Halftone engraving 2. Halftone: Print obtained from photo engraving
  14. 14. EARLY PHOTOJOURNALISM • After 1885s, it started with emergence of early photographers • First US president to be photographed: Abraham Lincoln
  15. 15. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PHOTOJOURNALISM 1. Halftone Pictures: Newspapers using halftone illustrations 2. Press Photographers: News agency distributing photographs 3. Photo Agencies: Photographers equipped with small, fast hand-held cameras
  16. 16. 1.Halftone Pictures • Since 1867: Halftone reproductions in weekly newspapers & magazines • Since 1880:Daily papers • Since 1890: Large circulation of newspapers with Halftone illustrations • After 1910: With new technique(Halftone block) increase in amount of illustrations • EX: 903 pictures per week in 1910
  17. 17. 2.Press Photographers • Throughout 1880s: Limited photos in newspapers • Within 15 years; several newspapers replaced their draughtsman with cameraman • By 1900: Existence of many photographers in America rising in news images published
  18. 18. • Subject of photos :Limitless • Around 1900s: Modern photojournalism • First war to be photographed: SpanishAmerican conflict • Jimmy Hare: One of first photojournalists who was photographed Spanish-American war • He also played a leading role in early photojournalism
  19. 19. HISTORY OF RADIO • Telegraph and telephone were important inventions • Their only weakness messages transmitted only via wires • The solution Wireless communication by using radio frequencies
  20. 20. • Heinrich Hertz: in 1885, he demonstrated radio waves • Guglielmo Marconi: Italian inventor, known as radio-telegraph system • Transmitted Morse code across Atlantic by wireless • Marconi did not discover a new principle; but he improved and adapted the components
  21. 21. • Marconi’s radio-telegraph system was used in Titanic in 1912 • Reginald Fessenden : First to transmit voice over air • Introduced in 1906 Christmas Eve, the radio by broadcasting music and voice • Nicola Tesla: Developed new systems for wireless communication
  22. 22. • • • • • Commercial Broadcast: started in 1920 Stations on air in 1923: 556 Commercial radio licenses: in 1912 Domination of live music: in 1920s Diversity of programing: in 1930s
  23. 23. CINEMA • Projected motion picture photography reality in 1890s • The first motion picture camera(kinescope) Thomas Edison’s employee; Dickson • Edison patented the system in US • Introduced at Chicago World’s Fair in 1893
  24. 24. • Kinetograph: only source of films • Early films: ended just in 15 seconds • When Edison patented his system simultaneously The Lumiére Brothers patented cinematograph system in France in 1895 (Auguste&Louis)
  25. 25. • Cinematograph: portable, suitcase-sized • Consisted of a camera, film processing unit and projector; all in one 1. Record in morning 2. Process in afternoon 3. Project to audience in that evening
  26. 26. • The first film: Arrival of the express train
  27. 27. TELEVISION • • • • • The invention John Logie Baird Developer Philo Taynor Farnsworth Date of invention/patent 1926 First demonstration 1928 BBC public broadcasting 1932
  28. 28. • • • • • Summer Olympics broadcast1936 First demonstration all electronic TV sets 1938 Suspending Broadcasting of BBC 1939 First TV ad 1941
  29. 29. IN TURKEY • Turkish Radio Television Corporation( TRT) Public Broadcaster • Founded 1964 • Test transmissions 1968 • A full national TV schedual in Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir 1971 • Color tests 31 December 1981 • Lining up switched to color 1984
  30. 30. • Turkey’s first private channel Star TV • Date of foundation1989
  31. 31. RESOURCES • Special thanks to; İrem Özgören Kınlı • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KTxZCj OqWc
  32. 32. •THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!!
  33. 33. • Created by; Halil İbrahim ULUHAN
  34. 34. CONTACT INFORMATION /halil.uluhan /hllbrh hiuluhan@gmail.com /haliluluhan/ halil.uluhan@std.ieu.edu.tr

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