Waves
Definition, Behavior,
and Classification
What’s the underlying theme?
What is a wave?
WAVE - a vibration or
disturbance in space.
What is a wave?
• Waves transfer energy
without transferring matter.
How are waves classified?
Waves are classified by WHAT they
move through or by HOW particles
move through them.
What material do waves move through?
MEDIUM- the substance that waves
travel through and need to have in
order to move.
Classification of Waves
According to what they move through
(Medium)
• Electromagnetic waves
• Mechanical Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
Waves that can travel through matter or
empty space where matter is not present.
• radio waves
• microwaves
• infrared waves
• visible light
• ultraviolet rays
• X-rays
Types of Electromagnetic
Waves
Mechanical Waves
• Needs a medium
• require the particles of the medium to vibrate in
order for energy to be transferred.
• water waves
• earthquake/seismic waves
• sound waves
• waves that travel down a
rope or spring
Types of Mechanical
Waves
Classification of Waves
According to how particles move through them
• Transverse waves
• Longitudinal Waves
Transverse Waves
Particles move
perpendicular to
the motion of the
wave
Wavelength
Crest
Amplitude
Trough
Wavelength (λ)
The distance from crest to crest
(or trough to trough); expressed
in meters
Amplitude (A)
The distance of crest (or trough)
from the midpoint of the wave
Longitudinal Waves
particles move
parallel to the
motion of the wave.
Longitudinal Waves
Compression- a crowded
area causing a high-
pressure region
Rarefaction- a spread
out area causing a lo...
http://www.lcse.umn.edu/specs/labs/glossary_items/rarefaction_spring.html
Transverse and Longitudinal Wave
Which is which?
Wave Characteristics
Frequency (f)
The number of waves that
passed a fixed point per second
Unit: hertz (Hz)
f= 1/T
Wave Characteristics
Period (T)
The time it takes a wave to travel a
distance equal to a wavelength;
Unit: seconds
T= 1/f
Wave Characteristics
Wave velocity (v)
Distance travelled by a wave
crest in one period.
Unit: m/s
v= λ/T
Wave Behaviour
What happens when…
• A wave meets a hard surface like a wall?
• A wave enters a new medium?
• A wave moves ...
Reflection
When a wave hits a
surface through
which it cannot pass,
it bounces back.
Reflection
• Reflection does
not change the
speed or frequency
of the wave, BUT
the wave can be
flipped upside
down!
Refraction
The bending of a wave as it
enters a new medium.
• It is caused by a change in
the speed of the wave as
it move...
Diffraction
The bending of a
wave as it moves
around an
obstacle or
passes through a
narrow opening.
Diffraction
• The wave will try to
curve around the
boundary or outward
through the opening
due to friction.
Interference
When two or more waves
combine together.
Constructive Interference
When two waves combine to make a larger wave.
(crest & crest) or (trough & trough)
Destructive Interference
• Two or more waves combine to produce a smaller
wave or destroy the wave completely. (crest &
tr...
Polarization
Filtering radiating light (moves in all
directions) to allow only light
traveling in one direction through
Polarization
Resonance
When one object vibrates another
without touching
• The 2 objects resonate at the
same frequency
• Amplitude inc...
Resonance
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Definition, Behavior, Classification, & Interactions of Waves

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  • All of these examplesCANNOT move through empty space.
  • Compressional
  • The highest point of a transverse wave is the crest and the lowest point is called a trough.
  • Compressional
  • CompressionalThe place on the wave that is pushed together is called the compression and the place that is moving apart is the rarefaction.
  • The wave bends because as it enters a new medium it either speeds up or slows down!
  • Waves ppt.

    1. 1. Waves Definition, Behavior, and Classification
    2. 2. What’s the underlying theme?
    3. 3. What is a wave? WAVE - a vibration or disturbance in space.
    4. 4. What is a wave? • Waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
    5. 5. How are waves classified? Waves are classified by WHAT they move through or by HOW particles move through them.
    6. 6. What material do waves move through? MEDIUM- the substance that waves travel through and need to have in order to move.
    7. 7. Classification of Waves According to what they move through (Medium) • Electromagnetic waves • Mechanical Waves
    8. 8. Electromagnetic Waves Waves that can travel through matter or empty space where matter is not present.
    9. 9. • radio waves • microwaves • infrared waves • visible light • ultraviolet rays • X-rays Types of Electromagnetic Waves
    10. 10. Mechanical Waves • Needs a medium • require the particles of the medium to vibrate in order for energy to be transferred.
    11. 11. • water waves • earthquake/seismic waves • sound waves • waves that travel down a rope or spring Types of Mechanical Waves
    12. 12. Classification of Waves According to how particles move through them • Transverse waves • Longitudinal Waves
    13. 13. Transverse Waves Particles move perpendicular to the motion of the wave
    14. 14. Wavelength Crest Amplitude Trough
    15. 15. Wavelength (λ) The distance from crest to crest (or trough to trough); expressed in meters
    16. 16. Amplitude (A) The distance of crest (or trough) from the midpoint of the wave
    17. 17. Longitudinal Waves particles move parallel to the motion of the wave.
    18. 18. Longitudinal Waves Compression- a crowded area causing a high- pressure region Rarefaction- a spread out area causing a low- pressure region
    19. 19. http://www.lcse.umn.edu/specs/labs/glossary_items/rarefaction_spring.html
    20. 20. Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Which is which?
    21. 21. Wave Characteristics Frequency (f) The number of waves that passed a fixed point per second Unit: hertz (Hz) f= 1/T
    22. 22. Wave Characteristics Period (T) The time it takes a wave to travel a distance equal to a wavelength; Unit: seconds T= 1/f
    23. 23. Wave Characteristics Wave velocity (v) Distance travelled by a wave crest in one period. Unit: m/s v= λ/T
    24. 24. Wave Behaviour What happens when… • A wave meets a hard surface like a wall? • A wave enters a new medium? • A wave moves around an obstacle? • A wave meets another wave?
    25. 25. Reflection When a wave hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces back.
    26. 26. Reflection • Reflection does not change the speed or frequency of the wave, BUT the wave can be flipped upside down!
    27. 27. Refraction The bending of a wave as it enters a new medium. • It is caused by a change in the speed of the wave as it moves from one medium to another • Greater change in speed = more bending of the wave
    28. 28. Diffraction The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening.
    29. 29. Diffraction • The wave will try to curve around the boundary or outward through the opening due to friction.
    30. 30. Interference When two or more waves combine together.
    31. 31. Constructive Interference When two waves combine to make a larger wave. (crest & crest) or (trough & trough)
    32. 32. Destructive Interference • Two or more waves combine to produce a smaller wave or destroy the wave completely. (crest & trough)
    33. 33. Polarization Filtering radiating light (moves in all directions) to allow only light traveling in one direction through
    34. 34. Polarization
    35. 35. Resonance When one object vibrates another without touching • The 2 objects resonate at the same frequency • Amplitude increases
    36. 36. Resonance
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