Research, strategies + apps for ELLs K-12 - Matsukawa @ HGSE 2012


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Research, strategies + apps for ELLs K-12 - Matsukawa @ HGSE 2012

  1. 1. RESOURCES FOR ELL (ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER) EDUCATORS T561 – Fall 2012 – Tomoko Matsukawa 1
  2. 2. Table of Contents  K-12 ELL education background 3 - 15  Relevant Web2.0/mobile tools 16 - 26  Resources for ELL educators 27 - 31  Reference 32 - 35 2
  3. 3. # of ELL learners continue to grow background  ELL population had continued to grow and is expected to grow even further  According to Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPR), between 1997- 1998 to 2008-2009 the number of ELL in public schools (pre-K-12) increased from 3.5mn to 5.3mn. This is a 53% increase during a period in which general student population only grew by 8.5%.  According to National Education Association (NEA), ELL enrollment in US schools are expected to reach 10mn and, by 2025, approximately 25% of public school students will be ELL  Who are these ELL students? (by NEA)  Native born US citizens account for 76% of elementary school ELLs and 56% of secondary school ELLs. More than 50% of ELLs in public secondary school are second or third generation US citizens  2/3 of ELL come from low-income families and 3/4 are Spanish speaking.  There are achievement gaps in academic performance between ELLs and non- ELL students Source: (National Education Association, 2008) 3
  4. 4. Two types of English language skill  BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)  Skills necessary for social interactions  Often easy to see for others  Involve listening comprehension and speaking skills sufficient to understand and respond to social interactions  CALP (Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency)  Skills necessary for performance in academic situation  Skills encompass listening, speaking, reading and writing capabilities  Skills in relation to learning academic contents are important  Becoming proficient include both of linguistic and concept development  Involve problem solving, inferring, analyzing, synthesizing, and predicting background Source: (Cummins, 1981) 4
  5. 5. Demand for ELL learners are increasing background  Demand from ‘No Child Left Behind Act’ (NCLB) provisions  Under the law, each district and school needs to show academic performance for subgroups of students, which includes ELL learners. They need to not only show their English proficiency but also meet the same academic standards in reading and math as non-ELL students.  Implication of the Common Core Standards  “The standards define language as far beyond grammar and vocabulary and require important language functions, such as evaluating complex texts, constructing effective arguments, and conveying intricate and multifaceted information”  This implies that ELL learners need to be capable of performing collaborative, inquiry-based, task-based learning in each academic discipline with other non- ELLs. Source: (Hakuta from Stanford's “Understanding Language Initiative”, 2012) 5
  6. 6. Key elements in ELL education: 1  The idea of “Individualized instruction”, which is gaining traction in K-12 education today, stresses the importance of the following factors:  Recognizing each learners’ zone of capabilities and design activities that push them to be better and be challenged but not exceeding the capacity to grow  Make various choices available to adapt to individual learners’ learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic), pace or learning, capability and appropriate goal  This idea is particularly relevant in ELL education whose learners are diverse in various aspects including below and need individual attention and instruction.  Prior educational background (explains where learners currently stand in terms of vocabulary level, understanding of language concept/academic contents and cognitive skills)  Cultural background  Language use at home background Attention to individual learners: Effective ELL educators would be able to monitor and provide feedback to individual learners who are very different from each other. 6
  7. 7. Key elements in ELL education: 2 background Choices for engaging classroom activities: ELL learners need activities that are engaging, shame-free and appropriate for their respective learning goals. Cooperative learning opportunities are also essential.  ELL learners learn from engaging themselves into hands on experiences that are provided in shame-free environment with appropriate aid:  Projects that develops visual-verbal connection by utilizing visual thinking skills  Opportunities for expression (i.e. with artifacts that are personally meaningful)  ELL learners also learn from interacting with others. Cooperative learning among learners provide a shared learning experience that are purposeful and adaptable:  Learners experience the process of clarifying and negotiating of meaning, comparing and contrasting views and jointly synthesizing information together through social interaction  During the process, varying level of language would input take place; Low level input=‘repetition of information’, middle-level input=‘stating of new information’, high-level input=‘integrating information and creating rationales for its use’ 7
  8. 8. Key elements in ELL education: 3 background Opportunities to learn anytime anywhere: Informal learning experiences of the ELL learners are as important as those in classrooms. Connecting those two effectively enhances the overall effectiveness of ELL education.  ELL learners could learn significantly from opportunities beyond ELL classes if they have easy access to resources whenever necessary:  Learns could access new contents or contents from previous learning for review at home, in which English might not be a dominant language in use  Learners would be able to learn English with their native language (i.e. dictionary) because improvement in native language skills is as important to be proficient in English  Educators’ access to how ELL learners learn informally would enhance the effectiveness of in-class activities:  Educators would understand where learners are, which will give guide to better use of the in-class face to face interaction time  By capturing both in class and beyond classroom activities of the learners, educators would be able to provide homework that are appropriate in level and quantity 8
  9. 9. Blended learning model as a solution Brick-and-mortar Online learning Blended Learning Blended learning:  A formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path and/or pace and  At least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home (Staker & Horn, 2012) Traditional Instruction Technology-rich Instruction Informal Online Learning Full-time Online Learning particularly important for ELL education background 9
  10. 10. Brick-and-mortar ELL education and blended learning model Online learning Blended Learning Traditional Instruction Technology-rich Instruction Informal Online Learning Full-time Online Learning PC at home Cell phones anywhere background Improved attention to individual learners (richer and deeper interaction between educator and learner) More opportunities for ELL learners to learn anytime anywhere Greater choices for engaging classroom activities that encourage social interactions among learners PC in class Cell phones in class 10
  11. 11. Examples of ELL with blended learning model  Examples of extending learning experiences beyond classroom  Example of ipad introduction in High School (IL)  Reasons for device choice: ‘mobility, flexibility, screen size, instant boo-up, long battery life, app-based touch screen interface’  Frequently used application: dictionary, Kindle e-Reader app (includes instant interaction, dictionary and memo), SmartNote productivity application tor HW recording, writing assignments with Pages app and upload to iBook Library  Example of ipod touch introduction in Middle School (TX)  Reasons for device choice: ‘portability, capability to record at home, equip important tools such as translation and dictionaries, portability’  Frequently used applications: Voice Memo app enables student to create voice memo file and reflect/assess their own fluency, share with others in the iTunes library throughout the year (Demski, 201) background 11
  12. 12. Brick-and-mortar ELL education and cell phones Online learning Blended Learning Traditional Instruction Technology-rich Instruction Informal Online Learning Full-time Online Learning PC in class Cell phones in class PC at home Cell phones anywhere (*) Even in situations where access to one PC per learner in class/home or Tablet PC/smartphones are absent, there are ways ELL learners can still benefit from blended learning opportunities via their cell phones. background Improved attention to individual learners (richer and deeper interaction between educator and learner) More opportunities for ELL learners to learn anytime anywhere Greater choices for engaging classroom activities that encourage social interactions among learners 12
  13. 13.  More ELL learners now have cell phones  Lower hardware cost and running cost for usage compared to PC  For example.. 77 percent of 12- to 17-year-olds have cell phones, a major jump from 45 percent in 2004  For example.. In Brazil, 76% of mobile users access internet by feature phone  Its pervasive nature, durability and portability is appropriate as a tool to provide learning experience ‘anywhere anytime’  Cell phone are readily accessible for both learners and educators, makes customized contents delivery and progress checking easier. Learners can also revisit their learning later as many as they want.  “can be spontaneous, personal, informal, contextual, portable, ubiquitous and pervasive (so integrated with daily activities that it is hardly noticed)” (Kukulska-Hulme, 2010)  “enable enhanced connectivity with information and other users, thereby promoting the socio-cultural dimension of learning” (Hoven and Palalas, 2011)  “reinforces oral and aural skills” (Abdous, Camarena, & Facer, 2009) ELL learners and cell phones background 13
  14. 14.  A three-year project on m-learning suggest below observations in 2004. (One of the research was taken in Sweden for students learning English in a City of Stockholm school)  Mobile learning helped:  Learners to improve their literacy and to recognize their existing abilities; identify areas where they need assistance and support  To encourage both independent and collaborative learning experiences  Learners to remain more focused for longer periods  To raise self-esteem and self-confidence  A research project on ELL blended learning in Japan suggest below conclusions in 2005.  Mobile devices can be:  Effective in providing foreign language learning contents to learners  Helpful for new vocabulary acquisition because rich multimedia are effective in capturing their interest and text messages can push study opportunities at students Cell phones (even not smartphone) has merits background (Thornton & Houser, 2005) 14
  15. 15. ELL educators role still very important background  Technology is not always perfect  Some technical concerns  Device battery life  Device screen size  Access to internet influenced by signal availability, monthly plan, etc  Some other concerns  Varying level of digital literacy  Privacy and online security issues  Professional development  …particularly for ELL learners. ELL educators need to make sure that ICT tools are used in a way it is most effective in developing appropriate language skills  To make sure learners acquires correct writing style and grammar since not all of what they see today on the internet encourages the correct way (i.e. Tweets, casual web posts, etc)  To make sure subtle nuances associated with language use are taught in person and through social interactions within the classroom 15
  16. 16. A: Tools focused on reading and vocabulary that are fundamental to other strands of language (listening, speaking, and writing) B: Tools for creation (relevant to all four strands of language) C: Tools for cooperative learning (collaboration among learners) D: Tools to enhance communication between educator and learners E: Tools to support ELL educators on course delivery Tools Web2.0 and mobile tools that are relevant to ELL education identified for this project are categorized as below and presented in the following pages. Many of them are now available so that the purpose could be served even without having PC and most of them are free of charge. For many tools, links to additional resource on how those tools are used are also provided. Tools listed under B could also be used for C and E as well. These tools are expected to serve some of the fundamental needs of the ELL learners; the individualized engaging learning activities, the cooperative experiences with other learners and the means to access resources for learning beyond classroom settings. Tools available for ELL educators/learners 16
  17. 17. A: Tools focused on reading and vocabulary News in Levels News are provided in three different levels of difficulty. Fosters reading/listening skill. (how to use News in Levels in class – Resource) Reading Starfall Free service to teach children to read with phonics. (Resource for Kindergarten educators) Reading Web Web Reading A-Z Thousands of teacher materials for effective reading instruction in various level, genre, etc. Also have Vocabulary A-Z, Writing A-Z. Reading Web$ Textnovel Social network for authors and readers of serial fiction. The first English language cell phone novel website. Can write/read with cell phones too Reading Vocabulary Spelling City Can create an efficient game-based study of literacy skills using any word list (Source on how to use this site) Vocab Web OK Flashcard Stash Can create customized flashcards with images, engaging games, automated quizzes, real example sentences, definitions from dictionaries Vocab Web Martha Speaks Dog Party (created by PBS KIDS and proven by research study to enrich vocabulary) Currently available only in iphone and ipod touch Vocab OK Word Sift Visuwords Can create dynamic graphics with word definition (dictionary) and its connection with other words/concepts (thesaurus). Vocab Web iVocabulary Google Translate Available in apple products. (How to use Google Translate in groups to improve range and depth of vocab – Source). Vocab OK Tools (See also “Reference” for further resources for reading) PaperRater Provides online proofreading, grammar and spelling check for freeGrammar Web 17
  18. 18. B: Tools for creation (blogs, canvas, audio) Blogger by Google Posterous by Twitter WordPress Blogging platform. Non-text contents (such as photos) can also be embedded. Allows multi user blogging as well. Create Blog OK Kidblog Blogging platformCreate Blog Web Edublog Blogging platform powered by WordPress, free trial for 30 days, if up to 32MB free (Edublog Community for educators Create Blog OK$ Yodio Platform for creating graphic rich audio files. Recording, publishing and sharing from phones are possible. Create Audio+Vis ual OK Linoit Open space for sticky notes & canvas (space for personalized creation, videos and photos allowed) that can be personalized and shared. Create Canvas OK Twiddla Wallwisher Open space similar to Linoit for personalized workspaceCreate Canvas Web Voki Create avatars that speak. (more than 150 lessons plans for ESL/ELL available – here) Create Audio+Vis ual Web Blogtalkradio Create original radio showCreate Audio Web IPadio Broadcast live to the web from a phone call (resource on how to use this to create phonecasting channel) Create Audio OK Tools 18
  19. 19. VoiceThread Can record live annotations, collect comments, create online games and activities such as flash cards (educators community of VoiceThread users) (scholarly articles and studies on VoiceThread in Language Learning) (how to use VoiceThread in classroom – wiki#1, wiki#2) Create Audio OK$ Google Voice Record audioCreate Audio Vocaroo Record MP3 Record audioCreate Audio Web OK Jing Screenr ScreenCastle Capture screenshot and audio recording Create Screenshot +Audio Web pixlr Tools to edit photosCreate Photo edit Big Hug eLabs Pic.lits Tools to edit photosCreate Photo edit Web OK Fotobabble Tools to edit photos with voice recording Create Photo +Audio Web Loopster Tools to edit video onlineCreate Video edit Web B: Tools for creation (audio, screenshots, editing) Tools 19
  20. 20. Tools Glogster Edu Platform for creating online multimedia posters, free up to 10 student accounts; cooperates with Wikispaces, Edmodo, and SchoolTube Create multimedia Web Animoto Platform for creating videos from photos, video clips, words and music. Lite plan is free. (sample videos on how educators use Animoto) Create multimedia OK Kerpoof Free platform for children to be creative (by Walt Disney) (how to use Kerpoof in classroom – video and resources) Create multimedia Web Scratch Free platform for design and creation with focus on creative computation skill (by MIT) (educators community site – ScratchEd) Create multimedia Web StoryChasers Create original interview project (Suggested audio interview projects: tutorial) Create multimedia Web Storybird TikaTok Tools for digital storytelling (how to use Storybird class). Other similar tools include: Microsoft’s Photo Story, Tux Paint, Tel.A.Vision, StoryJumper’ (for younger children book) and ‘LittleBirdTales Create Story Web Qwiki Puppet Pals Tool for digital storytelling. (currently available in apple devices) Create Story OK Draw a Stickman Foster reading through simple storytelling by drawing objects suggested by the story Create Story Web xtranormal Turns words into a 3D animated movieCreate multimedia Web B: Tools for creation (multimedia, story) 20
  21. 21. Prezi Tool to create visually engaging presentation. Can be used for vocabulary building and concept mapping. Create Presentation Web Comic Life Can create comics (how to use Comic Life in classroom – blog) (scholarly article on how creating comics could be used for learning) Create Comic Web Make Beliefs Comix Can create comics (how to use Make Beliefs Comix in classroom – 21 ways) Create Comic Web $ MindMeister Can create mind maps, collaborate with others by creating brainstorming drawing together (Resource on how to use this in education) Create Mind Map$ OK Tagxedo Wordle Tool to create word cloud (collage) Create Word collage Web Cool Text Tool to create custom logo with creative fonts Create Custom Logo Web Hero Factory Tool to create personalized hero figure Create Custom Hero Web B: Tools for creation (comic, other visual artifacts) Tools 21
  22. 22. SlideShare Tool to share presentation filesShare Presentation Web Diigo Online research tool and collaborative research platform (includes social bookmarking, web annotation, tagging and group based collaboration) (diigo provides resources for educators here) (resources on how to use Diigo in classroom – link) ‘Delicious’ is also social bookmark tool, only available for iphone Share Research OK C: Tools for cooperative learning Tools A.nnotate Tools for sharing and storing annotation notes on documents (including images) online Share Annotation Web Wiggio Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. Available on iPhone. Collabo rate Google Doc Wikispace Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. Google Doc are available on smartphones. Collabo rate Web OK Scribblar, CoSketch, Twiddla, ScRibLink Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. Collabo rate Web LiveMinutes Tool for collaborative conference (with screenshot share) Confere nce Web SCVNGR Learn by playing scavenger hunt games in groups Group Game OK 22
  23. 23. Tools Educators and learners beyond classroom Celly (instant mobile social network) GroupMe (text messaging groups in all device) MailBliss (a mobile email service – provides an email address so that messages are forwarded to phones as text message), Phonevite (mass recorded phone messages) Remind101 (even with parents) StudyBoost (via SMS text) Connect OK Backchannel in class TodaysMeet (free quick way to create a class chatroom)Connect Web Educators and learners within classroom ClassPager’ (SMS classroom clicker) Pigeonhole’ (real-time Q&A tool, visualize the popularity of questions) Polldaddy (free up to 200 survey responses per year) Poll Everywhere (free up to 40 audience) Polltogo SMS poll Tricider (social voting tool, resource on how it is used in class), WebSurveyCreator Collect responses OK D: Communication between educator and ELLs 23
  24. 24. Tools Quizlet Can create online games and activities such as flash cards (available in many subjects in addition to language) (Resource on how to use this) Quiz and Games OK D: Communication between educator and ELLs Socrative Can create a series of educational exercises and games (quick exercises/exit tickets/quizzes/games/polls, etc) Quiz and Games OK BrainPop Can create animated, curricular content and also provide free educational games on its portal (Resource for teacher community) Quiz and Games Web Understoodit Can create a course material that enables to measure students’ understanding in real-time (Resource on how to use this) Quiz and Games OK$ ‘Qupper’ - ESL Provides an iterative e-learning resources in quiz format in various topics, allows users to create their own quiz Quiz and Games OK 24
  25. 25. Google Image Pics4Learning Humanline Free visual aids to useContent Web Gliffy Free diagrams (free up to 5)Content Web KeepVid SaveMedia Allows capturing streaming video, save it.Content Web GoAnimate TubeChop Allows chopping a section from YouTube videoContent Web Tools StumbleUpon Provides sources of ideas from web pages based on your interestContent OK E: Tools for improved course delivery (for educators) Google SMS application Even those learners without smartphone, they can use Google applications for education (SMS Search, Gmail SMS, Calendar SMS, Blogger SMS, Google Voice SMS) via SMS text message App OK 25
  26. 26. Moodle Educators can organize, present and share knowledge through this free platform (Community of educators) CMS Web Educanvas Educators can organize, present and share knowledge through this free platform. CMS Web Always Prepped (Still Beta version) Provides educators a tool to aggregate and analyze student’s classroom performance CMS Web Tools Nearpod Educators can create interactive mobile presentations and engage children (who has ipads) and assess their performance CMS OK E: Tools for improved course delivery (for educators) Web 2.0 tools that are useful Coursesites’ (free online class platform) Doodle’ (scheduling, mobile available) Dropbox (cloud storage) Evernote (web-based note taking) LiveBinders (online digital organizer) PlanBoard (tool for lesson planning) Symbaloo (personalize internet desktop) & (curation tools, could create classroom newspaper) Other Web (CMS=Course Management System) 26
  27. 27. Resource for ELL teachers (ELL educators’ communities)  social network for educators interested in web2.0, social media, and participative technologies in the classroom. (For example: ESL and Technology Group  resources including tools, lessons, games, discussion forums. More than 27000 members  eduTecher: a website for educators and school seeking guidance about integrating technology in the classroom (Can filter info by clicking ‘ESL’)  English Attack! :resources for 100% entertainment focused online resources for improving English as a foreign of second language.  ESL Café: one of the most well known online forum sites on ESL, resources for educators available  one stop english (some contents are not free): lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards, ‘the world’s number one resource site for ELL teachers’  TeachingEnglish by British Council/BBC: many free classroom materials, short activities, articles on aspects of teaching, free teacher development and teacher training material  tesol (teachers of english to speakers of other languages) international association: (not free for membership, brings together ELL educators across different countries Resources 27
  28. 28. Resource for ELL teachers (more general educators communities)  British Council: Extensive resources for English learners and English educators. Learn English Kids from BC website also provide games and lesson plans that are ready to use  Edmodo: Social network for education, learning community for educators 7 Brilliant Ways to use Edmodo (by edmodo) and 15 More Brilliant Ways to use Edmodo (by edmodo)  Google in Education: Provides a wealth of knowledge, resources and tools for teachers including PD, Training, Community to share, Classroom tools such as lesson plans, classroom videos and Google Apps for Education. 10 Powerful Ways to Use Google in Education (by Edudemic)  LinkedIn: Social network for professionals. (ESL Teacher Professionals group, English Language Teachers and Trainers of ESL group)  PBS Teachers: resources for teachers by grades, subjects including PD opportunities and community for discussion YouTube: “Web 2.0 Technologies for Educators” (12min)  Scholastic: Global educational materials/book publisher’s flagship internet portal. ‘For Teachers’ portal site include resources tools, strategies ideas, student activities, books, etc. (Whiteboards for Language Arts)  10 PD Resources for ESL Teachers within ‘ESL Daily’ Resources 28
  29. 29.  A blog "Everything ESL" by ESL teacher with 30+ years experience on lesson plans, teaching tips and other resources (Twitter: @judiehaynes)  A blog ‘’English Teaching Tips and Games’’ by experienced teacher with TEFL qualification on game uses in ELL  A blog "ESL Games" by ESL teacher focused on ‘games/fun’ ELL instructions, teaching  A blog “Technology in the ESL Classroom” from Squidoo (collection with articles and opinions related to the theme)  A blog “English Pronunciation Resources for Students and Teachers” (17 links are included) by a EFL teacher interested in the potential of tech for foreign languages learning (Blog home)  A blog “ESL Cyber Listening Lab” with various listening quiz contents  A diigo list “Engligh Resources”  on ‘ESL E-Learning”, “Technology education for ELL students”, “2.0 tools and ESL”  “9 Best Inforgraphics for English Teachers” from Always Prepped Blog  Audio stories (Storyline series), commercials to use in ESL classes (2009 recommendation, 2009 part 2, links)  Audio and video learning resources from  Podcasts on English Language from podomatic Resource for ELL teachers (blogs, articles, infographics) Resources 29
  30. 30. Resource for ELL teachers (education application review/overview)  APPitic: A directory of apps for learning. Categorized in various themes. Approximately 350 entries on Language Arts.  Common Sense Media’s App Reviews: Reviews are searchable by ages, entertainment type, subject, skill, genre (of games), etc  “ICT support for ESL Competencies”: Extensive list and links of available ICT tools that could be used in learning  IEAR (I Education Apps Review): It shows a community effort to grade “educational apps”, have links to diigo group, scoops for news, wiki for tutorials, etc. Resources organized by grade and subject.  “The Best Web 2.0 Tools for Teachers -2012 Edition-” at Dawson College Pedagogical Day – Oct 12, 2012  “35 Digital Tools That Work with Bloom’s Taxonomy” from Edudemic – Nov 28, 2012  "EdTech: 100 Tech Tools for Teachers and Students" from Daily Tekk – Aprils 9, 2012 (helpful 10 categories that include ‘integrate mobile devices’, ‘social learning’, ‘games that tech’, etc)  Twitter Hashtags: #mlearning, #mobilelearning, #edapps, #appsforkids, #slide2learn, #ipaded, #ipadchat Resources 30
  31. 31. Resource for ELL teachers (existent services that are not free but relevant)  DynEd ($): English language learning software for all ages and levels. Provide various services including academic English, vocational English and business English.  Frontrow ($): Provide sound system that improves learning environment from acoustic perspective.  Innovate ($): Video lessons, mobile applications, audio books, etc for business English and academic English learners. It is the world’s largest language mobile education application developer.  Livemocha ($ after 7 day free trial): the world’s largest online language community, launch 2007, 13million members in 190 countries, unique for their topic focused English instruction (20 learning packages), emphasis on content delivery in the basic and feature phone market rather than smart phone, focus on engagement and collaborative approach, interaction with native language speakers  Read Naturally ($): Provide research-based, research-proven reading intervention programs and assessment tools for English learners  Rosetta Stone ($): Provide technology-based software solutions for learning languages (not limited to English). Resources 31
  32. 32. Reference  Abdous, M., Camarena, M. M., & Facer, B. (2009). MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom. Recall, 21(1), 76-95.  Attewell, J. (2004). Mobile technologies and learning. A technology update and m-learning project summary. Retrieved from  Brown, C. (2007). Supporting English Language Learners in Content-Reading. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 32- 39.  Cummins, J. (1981) “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment  Demski, J. (2011). ELL to Go. T.H.E. Journal, 38(5), 28-32.  Facella, M. A., Rampino, K. M., & Shea, E. K. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 209-221.  Hoven, D., & Palalas, A. (2011). (Re)Conceptualizing Design Approaches for Mobile Language Learning. CALICO Journal, 28(3), 699-720.  Johnson, D. W., Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, A. A., & And, O. (1984). Circles of Learning. Cooperation in the Classroom.  Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2010). Mobile learning as a catalyst for change. Open Learning, 25(3), 181-185. Reference 32
  33. 33. Reference  Lundquist, A. M., & Hill, J. (2009). English Language Learning and Leadership: Putting It All Together. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 38-43  Motteram, G., & Sharma, P. (2009). Blended Learning in a Web 2.0 World. International Journal of Emerging Technologies & Society, Vol.7, No.2, 2009, pp: 83-96. Retrieved from  Murphy, A. F. (2009). Tracking the Progress of English Language Learners. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 25.  Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & de Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1334-1347.  Staker, H., & Horn, M. (2012). Classifying K-12 Blended Learning. Innosight Institute. Retrieved from learning2.pdf  Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(3), 217-228.  Tabatabaei, O., & Goojani, A. H. (2012). The impact of text-messaging on vocabulary learning of iranian EFL learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(2), 47-55.  Verdugo, R. R., & Flores, B. (2007). English-Language Learners: Key Issues. Education And Urban Society, 39(2), 167-193. Reference 33
  34. 34. Reference  The Connected Learner’s Guide to Proper Grammar. Retrieved from connected-learners-guide-to-proper-grammar/  English Language Learners Face Unique Challenges. Retried from  Four Smart Ways to Use Cell Phones in Class. Retrieved from smart-ways-to-use-cell-phones-in-class/  Mobile Devices for Learning: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from learning-resource-guide?download=yes  The New Teacher Book – Strategies For Improving Instruction For English Language Learners. Retrieved from  The 4 Big Reasons You Should Try Mobile Learning. Retrieved from reasons-you-should-try-mobile-learning/  Shared Responsibility: Achieving Success with English-Language Learners. Retrieved from  Six Key Strategies for Teachers of English-Language Learners (Alliance for Excellent Education). Retrieved from  Storyline Approach to Language Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from  Strategies for ESL Teachers (Tennessee ESL Resource Guide). Retrieved from Reference 34
  35. 35. Reference  Strategies for Teachers of ELL students. Retrieved from  Teens, Smartphones & Texting (Pew Internet Project). Retrieved from  Tennessee ESL Resource Guide. Retrieved from  The Word and the World: Technology Aids English Language Learners. Retrieved from Reference 35