background # of ELL learners continues to grow3 ELL population is growing quickly According to Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPR), between 1997-1998 to 2008-2009 the number of ELL in public schools (pre-K-12) increased from 3.5mn to 5.3mn. This is a 53% increase during a period in which general student population only grew by 8.5%. According to the National Education Association (NEA), ELL enrollment in US schools are expected to reach 10mn and, by 2025, approximately 25% of public school students will be ELL Who are these ELL students? (by NEA) Native born US citizens account for 76% of elementary school ELLs and 56% of secondary school ELLs. More than 50% of ELLs in public secondary school are second or third generation US citizens 2/3 of ELL come from low-income families and 3/4 are Spanish speaking. There are achievement gaps in academic performance between ELLs and non-ELL students Source: (National Education Association, 2008)
background Two types of English language skill4 BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) Skills necessary for social interactions Often easy to see for others Involves listening comprehension and speaking skills sufficient to understand and respond to social interactions CALP (Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency) Skills necessary for performance in academic situations Skills encompass listening, speaking, reading and writing capabilities Skills in relation to learning academic contents are important Becoming proficient includes both linguistic and concept development Involves problem solving, inferring, analyzing, synthesizing, and predicting Source: (Cummins, 1981)
background Demand for ELL learners are increasing5 Demand from „No Child Left Behind Act‟ (NCLB) provisions Under the law, each district and school needs to show academic performance for subgroups of students, which includes ELL learners. They need to not only show their English proficiency but also meet the same academic standards in reading and math as non-ELL students. Implication of the Common Core Standards “The standards define language as far beyond grammar and vocabulary and require important language functions, such as evaluating complex texts, constructing effective arguments, and conveying intricate and multifaceted information” This implies that ELL learners need to be capable of performing collaborative, inquiry-based, task-based learning in each academic discipline with other non-ELLs. Source: (Hakuta from Stanfords “Understanding Language Initiative”, 2012)
background Key elements in ELL education: 16 Attention to individual learners: Effective ELL educators would be able to monitor and provide feedback to individual learners who are very different from each other. The idea of “Individualized instruction,” which is gaining traction in K- 12 education today, stresses the importance of the following factors: Recognizing each learners‟ zone of capabilities and design activities that push them to be challenged and improve without exceeding their capacity to grow Make various choices available to adapt to individual learners‟ learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic), pace of learning, capability, and appropriate goal This idea is particularly relevant in ELL education whose learners are diverse in various aspects, including below level and needing individual attention and instruction. Prior educational background (explains where learners currently stand in terms of vocabulary level, understanding of language concept/academic contents and cognitive skills)
background Key elements in ELL education: 27 Choices for engaging classroom activities: ELL learners need activities that are engaging, shame-free and appropriate for their respective learning goals. Cooperative learning opportunities are also essential. ELL learners learn from engaging themselves into hands-on experiences that are provided in shame-free environment with appropriate aid: Projects that develop visual-verbal connection by utilizing visual thinking skills Opportunities for expression (i.e. with artifacts that are personally meaningful) ELL learners also learn from interacting with others. Cooperative learning among learners provides a shared learning experience that is purposeful and adaptable: Learners experience the process of clarifying and negotiating meaning, comparing and contrasting views, and jointly synthesizing information together through social interaction During the process, varying level of language would input take place; low level input=„repetition of information‟, middle-level input=„stating of new information‟,
background Key elements in ELL education: 38 Opportunities to learn anytime anywhere: Informal learning experiences of the ELL learners are as important as those in classrooms. Connecting those two effectively enhances the overall effectiveness of ELL education. ELL learners could learn significantly from opportunities beyond ELL classes if they have easy access to resources whenever necessary: Learns could access new contents or contents from previous learning for review at home, in which English might not be a dominant language in use Learners would be able to learn English with their native language (i.e. dictionary) because improvement in native language skills is as important to be proficient in English Educators‟ access to how ELL learners learn informally could enhance the effectiveness of in-class activities: Educators would understand where learners are, which could give guidance on better use of the in-class face-to-face interaction time By capturing both in class and beyond classroom activities of the learners,
background Blended learning model as a solution9 Blended Learning Brick-and-mortar Online learning Technology- Informal Full-time Traditional rich Online Online Instruction Instruction Learning Learning Blended learning: A formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path and/or pace particularly important for ELL education and At least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home (Staker & Horn, 2012)
background ELL education and blended learning model10 Blended Learning Brick-and-mortar Online learning Technology- Informal Full-time Traditional rich Online Online Instruction Instruction Learning Learning Cell Cell PC in PC at phones in phones class home class anywhere Improved attention to individual More opportunities for ELL learners (richer and deeper learners to learn anytime interaction between educator and anywhere learner) Greater choices for engaging classroom activities that encourage social interactions among learners
background Examples of ELL with blended learning model11 Examples of extending learning experiences beyond classroom Example of iPad introduction in High School (IL) Reasons for device choice: „mobility, flexibility, screen size, instant boot-up, long battery life, app-based touch screen interface‟ Frequently used application: dictionary, Kindle e-Reader app (includes instant interaction, dictionary and memo), SmartNote productivity application tor HW recording, writing assignments with Pages app and upload to iBook Library Example of iPod touch introduction in Middle School (TX) Reasons for device choice: „portability, capability to record at home, equip important tools such as translation and dictionaries‟ Frequently used applications: Voice Memo app enables students to create voice memo file and reflect/assess their own fluency, share with others in the iTunes library throughout the year (Demski, 201)
background ELL education and cell phones12 Blended Learning Brick-and-mortar Online learning Technology- Informal Full-time Traditional(*) rich Online OnlineEven in Instruction Instruction Learning Learningsituations whereaccess to onePC per learner Cell Cellin class/home PC in PC at phones in phonesor class home class anywhereTabletPC/smartphones Improved attention to individualare absent, More opportunities for ELLthere are ways learners (richer and deeper learners to learn anytimeELL learners interaction between educator and anywherecan still benefit learner)from blended Greater choices for engaginglearning classroom activities thatopportunities encourage social interactionsvia their cell among learners
background ELL learners and cell phones13 More ELL learners now have cell phones Lower hardware cost and running cost for usage compared to PC For example: 77 percent of 12- to 17-year-olds have cell phones, a major jump from 45 percent in 2004 For example: In Brazil, 76% of mobile users access internet by feature phone Its pervasive nature, durability and portability is appropriate as a tool to provide learning experience „anywhere anytime‟ Cell phone are readily accessible for both learners and educators, makes customized contents delivery and progress checking easier. Learners can also revisit their learning later as often as they want. “can be spontaneous, personal, informal, contextual, portable, ubiquitous and pervasive (so integrated with daily activities that it is hardly noticed)” (Kukulska-Hulme, 2010) “enable enhanced connectivity with information and other users, thereby promoting the socio-cultural dimension of learning” (Hoven and Palalas, 2011) “reinforces oral and aural skills” (Abdous, Camarena, & Facer, 2009)
background Cell phones (even if not smartphones) have merits14 A three-year project on m-learning suggest observations below in 2004. (Research of students learning English in a City of Stockholm, Sweden school) Mobile learning helped: Learners to improve their literacy and to recognize their existing abilities; identify areas where they need assistance and support To encourage both independent and collaborative learning experiences Learners to remain more focused for longer periods To raise self-esteem and self-confidence A research project on ELL blended learning in Japan suggest conclusions below in 2005. Mobile devices can be: Effective in providing foreign language learning contents to learners Helpful for new vocabulary acquisition because rich multimedia are effective in capturing their interest and text messages can promote study opportunities to students (Thornton & Houser, 2005)
background ELL educator role still very important15 Technology is not always perfect Some technical concerns Device battery life Device screen size Access to internet influenced by signal availability, monthly plan, etc Some other concerns Varying level of digital literacy Privacy and online security issues Professional development …particularly for ELL learners. ELL educators need to make sure that ICT tools are used in a way most effective in developing appropriate language skills To make sure learners acquires correct writing style and grammar, since not all of what they see today on the internet encourages the correct way (i.e. Tweets, casual web posts, etc) To make sure subtle nuances associated with language use are taught in
Tools Tools available for ELL educators/learners16 Web2.0 and mobile tools that are relevant to ELL education identified for this project are categorized below and presented in the following pages. Many of them are now available so that the purpose could be served even without having a laptop or other computer. Most of them are free of charge. For many tools, links to additional resources on how the tools are used are also provided. Tools listed under B could also be used for C and E as well. A: Tools focused on reading and vocabulary that are fundamental to other strands of language (listening, speaking, and writing) B: Tools for creation (relevant to all four strands of language) C: Tools for cooperative learning (collaboration among learners) D: Tools to enhance communication between educator and learners E: Tools to support ELL educators on course delivery These tools are expected to serve some of the fundamental needs of the ELL learners; the individualized engaging learning activities, the cooperative experiences with other learners, and the means to access resources for learning beyond classroom
Tools A: Tools focused on reading and vocabulary (See also “Reference” for further resources for reading)17 Readin Free service to teach children to read with phonics. Starfall Web g (Resource for Kindergarten educators) News are provided in three different levels of difficulty. Fosters Readin News in Levels Web reading/listening skill. (how to use News in Levels in class – g Resource) Readin Thousands of teacher materials for effective reading instruction in $ g Reading A-Z Web various level, genre, etc. Also have Vocabulary A-Z, Writing A-Z. Social network for authors and readers of serial fiction. The first Readin Textnovel OK English language cell phone novel website. Can write/read with g cell phones too Vocabulary Can create an efficient game-based study of literacy skills using Vocab Web Spelling City any word list (Source on how to use this site) Can create customized flashcards with images, engaging games, Vocab Flashcard Stash Web automated quizzes, real example sentences, definitions from dictionaries Martha Speaks (created by PBS KIDS and proven by research study to enrich Vocab OK Dog Party vocabulary) Currently available only in iphone and ipod touch iVocabulary Available in apple products. (How to use Google Translate in Vocab Google Translate OK groups to improve range and depth of vocab – Source). Word Sift Can create dynamic graphics with word definition (dictionary) and Vocab Web Visuwords its connection with other words/concepts (thesaurus). Grammar PaperRater Web Provides online proofreading, grammar and spelling check for free
Tools B: Tools for creation (blogs, canvas, audio)18 Blogger by Google Create Blogging platform. Non-text contents (such as photos) can also Posterous by OK Blog be embedded. Allows multi user blogging as well. Twitter WordPress Create Blogging platform powered by WordPress, free trial for 30 days, if $ Blog Edublog OK up to 32MB free (Edublog Community for educators Create Kidblog Web Blogging platform Blog Open space for sticky notes & canvas (space for personalized Create Linoit creation, videos and photos allowed) that can be personalized Canvas OK and shared. Create Twiddla Web Open space similar to Linoit for personalized workspace Canvas Wallwisher Create Create avatars that speak. (more than 150 lessons plans for Audio+Vi Voki Web sual ESL/ELL available – here) Create Platform for creating graphic rich audio files. Recording, Audio+Vi Yodio OK sual publishing and sharing from phones are possible. Create Blogtalkradio Web Create original radio show Audio Create Broadcast live to the web from a phone call IPadio OK Audio (resource on how to use this to create phonecasting channel)
Tools B: Tools for creation (audio, screenshots, editing)19 Can record live annotations, collect comments, create online games and activities such as flash cards (educators community Create of VoiceThread users) $ Audio VoiceThread OK (scholarly articles and studies on VoiceThread in Language Learning) (how to use VoiceThread in classroom – wiki#1, wiki#2) Create Google Voice Record audio Audio OK Create Vocaroo Web Record audio Audio Record MP3 Create Jing Screensh Screenr Web Capture screenshot and audio recording ot+Audio ScreenCastle Create Photo pixlr OK Tools to edit photos edit Create Big Hug eLabs Photo Web Tools to edit photos edit Pic.lits Create Photo Fotobabble Web Tools to edit photos with voice recording +Audio Create Loopster Tools to edit video online Video edit Web
Tools B: Tools for creation (multimedia, story)20 Create Platform for creating videos from photos, video clips, words and multimedi Animoto OK music. Lite plan is free. (sample videos on how educators use a Animoto) Create Platform for creating online multimedia posters, free up to 10 multimedi Glogster Edu Web student accounts; cooperates with Wikispaces, Edmodo, and a SchoolTube Create Free platform for children to be creative (by Walt Disney) multimedi Kerpoof Web a (how to use Kerpoof in classroom – video and resources) Create Free platform for design and creation with focus on creative multimedi Scratch Web computation skill (by MIT) (educators community site – a ScratchEd) Create Create original interview project (Suggested audio interview multimedi StoryChasers Web a projects: tutorial) Create multimedi xtranormal Web Turns words into a 3D animated movie a Create Foster reading through simple storytelling by drawing objects Draw a Stickman Web Story suggested by the story Tools for digital storytelling (how to use Storybird class). Other Create Storybird similar tools include: Microsoft‟s Photo Story, Tux Paint, Web Story TikaTok Tel.A.Vision, StoryJumper‟ (for younger children book) and „LittleBirdTales Create Qwiki Tool for digital storytelling. Story Puppet Pals OK (currently available in apple devices)
Tools B: Tools for creation (comic, other visual artifacts)21 Can create comics (how to use Comic Life in classroom – blog) Create $ Comic Comic Life Web (scholarly article on how creating comics could be used for learning) Create Make Beliefs Can create comics Web Comic Comix (how to use Make Beliefs Comix in classroom – 21 ways) Create Tool to create visually engaging presentation. Can be used for Presentati Prezi Web on vocabulary building and concept mapping. Can create mind maps, collaborate with others by creating Create $ Mind Map MindMeister OK brainstorming drawing together (Resource on how to use this in education) Create Tagxedo Word Web Tool to create word cloud (collage) collage Wordle Create Custom Cool Text Web Tool to create custom logo with creative fonts Logo Create Custom Hero Factory Web Tool to create personalized hero figure Hero
Tools C: Tools for cooperative learning22 Share Tools for sharing and storing annotation notes on documents Annotatio A.nnotate Web n (including images) online Share Presentati SlideShare Web Tool to share presentation files on Online research tool and collaborative research platform (includes social bookmarking, web annotation, tagging and group Share based collaboration) Researc Diigo OK h (diigo provides resources for educators here) (resources on how to use Diigo in classroom – link) „Delicious‟ is also social bookmark tool, only available for iphone Collabo Google Doc Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. Wikispace Web rate Google Doc are available on smartphones. Collabo Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. Wiggio OK rate Available on iPhone. Scribblar, Collabo CoSketch, Twiddla, Web Platform to enhance group collaboration experience online. rate ScRibLink Confer join.me Web Tool for collaborative conference (with screenshot share) ence LiveMinutes Group SCVNGR OK Learn by playing scavenger hunt games in groups Game
Tools D: Communication between educator and ELLs23 Celly (instant mobile social network) Educators and GroupMe (text messaging groups in all device) MailBliss (a mobile email service – provides an email address so Conne learners OK that messages are forwarded to phones as text message), ct beyond Phonevite (mass recorded phone messages) classroom Remind101 (even with parents) StudyBoost (via SMS text) Conne Backchannel in Web TodaysMeet (free quick way to create a class chatroom) ct class ClassPager‟ (SMS classroom clicker) Pigeonhole‟ (real-time Q&A tool, visualize the popularity of questions) Collect Educators and Polldaddy (free up to 200 survey responses per year) respons learners within OK Poll Everywhere (free up to 40 audience) es classroom Polltogo SMS poll Tricider (social voting tool, resource on how it is used in class), WebSurveyCreator
Tools D: Communication between educator and ELLs24 Quiz Can create animated, curricular content and also provide free and BrainPop Web educational games on its portal (Resource for teacher Games community) Quiz Provides an iterative e-learning resources in quiz format in and „Qupper‟ - ESL OK various topics, allows users to create their own quiz Games Quiz Can create online games and activities such as flash cards and Quizlet OK (available in many subjects in addition to language) (Resource on Games how to use this) Quiz Can create a series of educational exercises and games (quick and Socrative OK exercises/exit tickets/quizzes/games/polls, etc) Games Quiz $ Can create a course material that enables to measure students‟ and Understoodit OK understanding in real-time (Resource on how to use this) Games
Tools E: Tools for improved course delivery (for educators)25 Google Image Conten Pics4Learning Web Free visual aids to use t Humanline Conten Gliffy Web Free diagrams (free up to 5) t Conten KeepVid Web Allows capturing streaming video, save it. t SaveMedia Conten GoAnimate Web Allows chopping a section from YouTube video t TubeChop Conten StumbleUpon OK Provides sources of ideas from web pages based on your interest t Even those learners without smartphone, they can use Google Google SMS App OK applications for education (SMS Search, Gmail SMS, Calendar application SMS, Blogger SMS, Google Voice SMS) via SMS text message
Tools E: Tools for improved course delivery (for educators)26 (CMS=Course Management System) (Still Beta version) Provides educators a tool to aggregate and CMS Always Prepped Web analyze student‟s classroom performance Educators can organize, present and share knowledge through CMS Educanvas Web this free platform. Educators can organize, present and share knowledge through CMS Moodle Web this free platform (Community of educators) Educators can create interactive mobile presentations and CMS Nearpod OK engage children (who has ipads) and assess their performance Coursesites‟ (free online class platform) Doodle‟ (scheduling, mobile available) Dropbox (cloud storage) Evernote (web-based note taking) Web 2.0 tools Other Web LiveBinders (online digital organizer) that are useful PlanBoard (tool for lesson planning) Symbaloo (personalize internet desktop) Scoop.it & Paper.li (curation tools, could create classroom newspaper)
Resources Resources for ELL teachers (ELL educators‟ communities)27 Classroom20.com: social network for educators interested in web2.0, social media, and participative technologies in the classroom. (For example: ESL and Technology Group Community.eflclassroom.com: resources including tools, lessons, games, discussion forums. More than 27000 members eduTecher: a website for educators and school seeking guidance about integrating technology in the classroom (Can filter info by clicking „ESL‟) English Attack! :resources for 100% entertainment focused online resources for improving English as a foreign of second language. ESL Café: one of the most well known online forum sites on ESL, resources for educators available one stop english (some contents are not free): lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards, „the world‟s number one resource site for ELL teachers‟ TeachingEnglish by British Council/BBC: many free classroom materials, short activities, articles on aspects of teaching, free teacher development and teacher training material
Resources Resources for ELL teachers (more general educators communities)28 British Council: Extensive resources for English learners and English educators. Learn English Kids from BC website also provide games and lesson plans that are ready to use Edmodo: Social network for education, learning community for educators 7 Brilliant Ways to use Edmodo (by edmodo) and 15 More Brilliant Ways to use Edmodo (by edmodo) Google in Education: Provides a wealth of knowledge, resources and tools for teachers including PD, Training, Community to share, Classroom tools such as lesson plans, classroom videos and Google Apps for Education. 10 Powerful Ways to Use Google in Education (by Edudemic) LinkedIn: Social network for professionals. (ESL Teacher Professionals group, English Language Teachers and Trainers of ESL group) PBS Teachers: resources for teachers by grades, subjects including PD opportunities and community for discussion YouTube: “Web 2.0 Technologies for Educators” (12min) Scholastic: Global educational materials/book publisher‟s flagship internet portal. „For Teachers‟ portal site include resources tools, strategies ideas, student activities, books, etc. (Whiteboards for Language Arts)
Resources Resources for ELL teachers (blogs, articles, infographics)29 A blog "Everything ESL" by ESL teacher with 30+ years experience on lesson plans, teaching tips and other resources (Twitter: @judiehaynes) A blog „‟English Teaching Tips and Games‟‟ by experienced teacher with TEFL qualification on game uses in ELL A blog "ESL Games" by ESL teacher focused on „games/fun‟ ELL instructions, teaching A blog “Technology in the ESL Classroom” from Squidoo (collection with articles and opinions related to the theme) A blog “English Pronunciation Resources for Students and Teachers” (17 links are included) by a EFL teacher interested in the potential of tech for foreign languages learning (Blog home) A blog “ESL Cyber Listening Lab” with various listening quiz contents A diigo list “Engligh Resources” Scoop.it on „ESL E-Learning”, “Technology education for ELL students”, “2.0 tools and ESL” “9 Best Inforgraphics for English Teachers” from Always Prepped Blog Audio stories (Storyline series), commercials to use in ESL classes (2009 recommendation, 2009 part 2, links)
Resources Resources for ELL teachers (education application review/overview)30 APPitic: A directory of apps for learning. Categorized in various themes. Approximately 350 entries on Language Arts. Common Sense Media‟s App Reviews: Reviews are searchable by ages, entertainment type, subject, skill, genre (of games), etc “ICT support for ESL Competencies”: Extensive list and links of available ICT tools that could be used in learning IEAR (I Education Apps Review): It shows a community effort to grade “educational apps”, have links to diigo group, scoops for news, wiki for tutorials, etc. Resources organized by grade and subject. “The Best Web 2.0 Tools for Teachers -2012 Edition-” at Dawson College Pedagogical Day – Oct 12, 2012 “35 Digital Tools That Work with Bloom‟s Taxonomy” from Edudemic – Nov 28, 2012 "EdTech: 100 Tech Tools for Teachers and Students" from Daily Tekk – Aprils 9, 2012 (helpful 10 categories that include „integrate mobile devices‟, „social learning‟, „games that tech‟, etc) Twitter Hashtags: #mlearning, #mobilelearning, #edapps, #appsforkids, #slide2learn,
Resources Resources for ELL teachers (existent services that are not free but relevant)31 DynEd ($): English language learning software for all ages and levels. Provide various services including academic English, vocational English and business English. Frontrow ($): Provide sound system that improves learning environment from acoustic perspective. Innovate Language.com ($): Video lessons, mobile applications, audio books, etc for business English and academic English learners. It is the world‟s largest language mobile education application developer. Livemocha ($ after 7 day free trial): the world‟s largest online language community, launch 2007, 13million members in 190 countries, unique for their topic focused English instruction (20 learning packages), emphasis on content delivery in the basic and feature phone market rather than smart phone, focus on engagement and collaborative approach, interaction with native language speakers Read Naturally ($): Provide research-based, research-proven reading intervention programs and assessment tools for English learners Rosetta Stone ($): Provide technology-based software solutions for learning languages (not limited to English).
Reference References32 Abdous, M., Camarena, M. M., & Facer, B. (2009). MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom. Recall, 21(1), 76-95. Attewell, J. (2004). Mobile technologies and learning. A technology update and m-learning project summary. Retrieved from http://www.m-learning.org/ Brown, C. (2007). Supporting English Language Learners in Content-Reading. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 32-39. Cummins, J. (1981) “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Demski, J. (2011). ELL to Go. T.H.E. Journal, 38(5), 28-32. Facella, M. A., Rampino, K. M., & Shea, E. K. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 209-221. Hoven, D., & Palalas, A. (2011). (Re)Conceptualizing Design Approaches for Mobile Language Learning. CALICO Journal, 28(3), 699-720. Johnson, D. W., Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, A. A., & And, O. (1984). Circles of Learning. Cooperation in the Classroom. Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2010). Mobile learning as a catalyst for change. Open Learning, 25(3), 181-185.
Reference References33 Lundquist, A. M., & Hill, J. (2009). English Language Learning and Leadership: Putting It All Together. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 38-43 Motteram, G., & Sharma, P. (2009). Blended Learning in a Web 2.0 World. International Journal of Emerging Technologies & Society, Vol.7, No.2, 2009, pp: 83-96. Retrieved from http://ictaugustine.pbworks.com/f/Blending+Learning+in+a+Web+2+World.pdf Murphy, A. F. (2009). Tracking the Progress of English Language Learners. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 25. Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & de Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1334-1347. Staker, H., & Horn, M. (2012). Classifying K-12 Blended Learning. Innosight Institute. Retrieved from http://www.innosightinstitute.org/innosight/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Classifying-K-12- blended-learning2.pdf Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(3), 217-228. Tabatabaei, O., & Goojani, A. H. (2012). The impact of text-messaging on vocabulary learning of iranian EFL learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(2), 47-55. Verdugo, R. R., & Flores, B. (2007). English-Language Learners: Key Issues. Education And Urban Society, 39(2), 167-193.
Reference References34 The Connected Learner‟s Guide to Proper Grammar. Retrieved from http://edudemic.com/2012/11/the- connected-learners-guide-to-proper-grammar/ English Language Learners Face Unique Challenges. Retried from http://www.weac.org/Libraries/PDF/ELL.sflb.ashx Four Smart Ways to Use Cell Phones in Class. Retrieved from http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2012/11/four-smart-ways-to-use-cell-phones-in-class/ Mobile Devices for Learning: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/mobile- devices-learning-resource-guide?download=yes The New Teacher Book – Strategies For Improving Instruction For English Language Learners. Retrieved from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/publication/newteacher/NTBilingual.shtml The 4 Big Reasons You Should Try Mobile Learning. Retrieved from http://edudemic.com/2012/08/the- 4-big-reasons-you-should-try-mobile-learning/ Shared Responsibility: Achieving Success with English-Language Learners. Retrieved from http://www.pdkmembers.org/members_online/publications/Archive/pdf/k0706le1.pdf Six Key Strategies for Teachers of English-Language Learners (Alliance for Excellent Education). Retrieved from http://www.all4ed.org/files/archive/publications/SixKeyStrategies.pdf Storyline Approach to Language Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from http://oupeltglobalblog.com/2012/10/17/a-storyline-approach-to-language-teaching-and-learning/ Strategies for ESL Teachers (Tennessee ESL Resource Guide). Retrieved from http://www.eslmonkeys.com/book/teacher/eslstrategies.pdf
Reference References35 Strategies for Teachers of ELL students. Retrieved from http://www.suu.edu/ed/resource/strategiesforteachersofellstudents.pdf Teens, Smartphones & Texting (Pew Internet Project). Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Teens_Smartphones_and_Texting.pdf Tennessee ESL Resource Guide. Retrieved from http://www.eslmonkeys.com/book/teacher/eslstrategies.pdf The Word and the World: Technology Aids English Language Learners. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/technology-software-english-language-learners
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