Towards the Automation Cloud: Architectural Challenges for a Novel Smart Ecosystem
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Towards the Automation Cloud: Architectural Challenges for a Novel Smart Ecosystem

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Future industrial automation systems will execute a number of control and monitoring functions in central data centers. The cloud computing paradigm will reduce IT costs and enable small companies to ...

Future industrial automation systems will execute a number of control and monitoring functions in central data centers. The cloud computing paradigm will reduce IT costs and enable small companies to flexibly automate production processes. Centralized control and monitoring across companies and domains will facilitate a novel smart ecosystem for industrial automation connecting both embedded devices and information systems. To realize this vision, a number of technical, economical, and social challenges need to be solved. This talk focuses on software architecture challenges for cloud-connected automation systems. It points out the architectural impact of critical non-functional properties, such as latency, security, and multi-tenancy.

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  • Devices connected to web services (done today in some areas)
  • Internet-of-things, devices talking to each other
  • Higher level MES, SCADA, ERP in the cloud: fleet management, etc.Still most software on premises
  • Partially moving upper levels off premises
  • To realize this vision, a number of technical, economical, and social challenges need to be solved. This talk focuses on software architecture challenges for cloud-connected automation systems. It points out the architectural impact of critical non-functional properties.
  • Stuxnet/Duqu shock: currently lots of emphasis on cyber security„Closed world assumption“ in current system architecturesNo outside network connection from sensitive plantsLimited security measures for Internet-based attacksCustomers afraid/reluctant to store data outside their reach

Towards the Automation Cloud: Architectural Challenges for a Novel Smart Ecosystem Towards the Automation Cloud: Architectural Challenges for a Novel Smart Ecosystem Presentation Transcript

  • © ABB Group Towards the Automation Cloud Architectural Challenges for a Novel Smart Ecosystem Dr.-Ing. Heiko Koziolek, Principal Scientist, ABB Forschungszentrum, Ladenburg, 2013-07-02 http://www.rcrwireless.com/americas/20110816/featured/cloud-computing-is-in-its-infancy-gartner-vp-says/
  • SCADA Systems ABB SCADAVantage for Oil & Gas Industries © ABB Group
  • SCADA Systems ABB SCADAVantage for Oil & Gas Industries © ABB Group
  • SCADA Systems System Architecture © ABB Group
  • Automation Pyramid Classical Structuring © ABB Group HMI PLC PLC HMI … … …… ERP MES APCSCADA Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing Execution System Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition Advanced Process Control Human-Machine Interface Programmable Logic Controller Data Acquisition Planning Field devices: sensors, actuators...
  • Cloud Computing  “Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on- demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.”  5 essential characteristics  On-demand self-service  Broad network access  Resource pooling  Rapid elasticity or expansion  Measured service NIST Definition © ABB Group [http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/]
  • Cloudification Classical Automation Pyramid (AP) © ABB Group HMI PLC PLC HMI… … …… ERP MES APCSCADA Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Cloudification Step 1 Few Cyber Physical Systems, Independent Clouds HMI PLC PLC HMI… … …… © ABB Group ERP MES APCSCADA Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • HMI PLC PLC HMI… … …… PLC ERP MES APCSCADA HMI PLC PLC HMI… … …… PLC ERP MES APCSCADA Cloudification Step 2 Few Cyber Physical Systems, Connected Cloud © ABB Group … Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Cloudification Step 3 Mainly Cyber Physical Systems on upper AP Levels HMI PLC PLC HMI… … MES… … ERP …… PLC © ABB Group Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Cloudification Step 4 Upper AP Levels partly replaced by Cloud Services © ABB Group … HMI PLC PLC HMI… … MES… ERP …… PLC Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Cloudification Step 5 Cloud Services dominating upper AP levels … HMI PLC PLC HMI… … MES… ERP …… PLC © ABB Group Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • HMI PLC PLC HMI… MES… ERP PLC … … …… Cloudification Step 6 Cloud Services replacing upper AP levels © ABB Group Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Cloudification Step 7 Automation Pyramid replaced by Automation Cloud © ABB Group … … …… Source: „Cyber-Physical Systems: Chancen und Nutzen aus Sicht der Automation“, April 2013, GMA Fachausschuss 7.20 „Cyber Physical Systems“, Gesellschaft Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik im VDI/VDE
  • Automation Cloud Latency Security Multitenancy Availability Elasticity Portability Usability Interoperability Selected Architectural Challenges March 1, 2013 | Slide 15 © ABB Group
  • Criticality Sampling time 1 ms 10 ms 100 ms 1 s 10 s 1 d 30 d 1 y1 min 10 min 1 h 10 h Real-time boiler control Loop auditing HVAC / buildings Chemicals / refining MPC ? Service data Network round-trip time for a cloud data center in Europe (distance < 5000 km, 66 % speed of light) Rolling mills Cement Minerals Power gen. Solar panel / wind turbine Low High Architectural Challenges Latency © ABB Group
  • Architectural Challenges Latency • Characteristics: high latencies (seconds) • Well suited for cloud latency. Future: fleet management, big data intelligence SCADA, MES, PIM S, (ERP) • Characteristics: latencies not critical • Today: VMs with engineering tools • Future: web-based, social design of control applications Engineering (e.g., device configuration) • Characteristics: high latencies, high computational power • Conflicts with a typical cloud business model („low end“) Advanced Process Control (APC) • Characteristics: short latencies, low computational power • Impossible to run many control tasks remotely due to insufficient latencies Basic Process Control © ABB Group
  •  ABB partnered with cloud provider GlobaLogix to provide a hosted version of SCADAVantage (SaaS)  RTUs triggering fast, basic control on-site  High latency SCADA functionality hosted in 53 data centers in North America, regional proximity  But: no horizontal scaling, no elasticity Architecture Challenges Latency [http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/cf46b46446b6f83985257b7a00488357.aspx]
  • Architecture Challenges Security © ABB Group Stuxnet Duqu
  •  GlobaLogix data centers hosting ABB„s SCADAVantage  2048 bit encryption (exceeding DoD standards)  Compliance with the most stringent Tier 4 data center standards from the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  Citrix authentication on client laptops and tables  Password protected web access to read-only data Architecture Challenges Security © ABB Group [http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/cf46b46446b6f83985257b7a00488357.aspx] March 1, 2013 | Slide 20
  • Architecture Challenges Multitenancy © ABB Group [http://goo.gl/FlrES/]
  • Architecture Challenges  Embedded Systems  PLC, RTU, IED (for low-level, fast control)  Cloud-managed firmware updates  Information Systems  SCADA, MES, ERP, etc.  Cloud with comon data storage enables fleet management, social engineering, preventive maintenance  Mobile Systems  Mobile apps for maintenance personal and operators  APIs for third party extensions Automation Cloud as Smart Ecosystem © ABB Group SCADAVantage on the iPhone … … ……
  • Architecture Challenges  Cloud pattern catalogues  Architecture decision sets, ontologies, domain-specific patterns, …  Architecture description languages  Cloud elements as first-class entities, domain-specific abstractions, …  Architecture evaluation  ATAM templates for cloud platforms  Model-based predictions  Cloud benchmarks  Reference workloads, tooling, comparisons, …  Methods for Ultra-large Scale Systems  Smart Grid & Automation Cloud as ULSS  Systems of systems Directions for Academic Research © ABB Group [Koziolek, Proc. WICSA‟11]
  •  Automation Pyramid affected by cloud computing capabilities  Architecture Challenges  What control task can be executed remotely?  How to secure a SCADA system in the Internet?  How to effectively apply multi-tenancy?  Future: emergence of a novel smart ecosystem Conclusions Towards the Automation Cloud © ABB Group … … …… … … ……
  • © ABB Group