Nutrient Classes of Food Biology
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Functions (used for) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide fuel for the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are ...
What are some food sources of carbohydrates? <ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>flour  </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits  </li></...
Elements needed to build carbs: <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = Oxygen </li></ul><...
Carbs: Unique Features <ul><li>end in –ose (glucose, sucrose, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>rings of atoms </li></ul>
Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide (mono = one, saccharide = sugar) </li></ul><ul...
Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Fructose found in many fruits & honey </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide (mono = one) </l...
Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>table sugar </li></ul><ul><li>disaccharide (di = 2) </li></ul>
Starches – 3 types
Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><li>polysaccharide (poly = many) </li></ul><ul><li>energy storage ...
Carbs: Specific Examples <ul><li>Glycogen (a polysaccahride) </li></ul><ul><li>AKA animal starch </li></ul><ul><li>Human e...
Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Cellulose (polysaccharide) </li></ul><ul><li>makes cell walls rigid / strong </li></ul>...
Carbohydrates - FIBER <ul><li>What is the role of fiber in health? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb water and toxins </li></ul...
Protein
Proteins <ul><li>Function (used for)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>build tissue – hair, nails, skin, muscle, organs, tendons, lig...
Proteins: What are some food sources? <ul><li>meat (beef, pork, fowl, fish, lamb) </li></ul><ul><li>dairy (milk, cheese, y...
Elements that build Proteins:  <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = oxygen </li></ul><u...
Unique Features of Proteins:  <ul><li>made of chains of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>amino acid chains fold in a specific...
Specific Examples of Proteins:  <ul><li>Enzymes – control chemical reactions (digestion, cell activities) </li></ul>
Specific Examples of Proteins:  <ul><li>Hemoglobin – main component of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds and car...
Specific Examples of Proteins:  <ul><li>Transport Proteins – help molecules move in or out of a cell membrane </li></ul>
Specific Examples of Proteins:  <ul><li>Insulin – a hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signals cells to take glucose out of blo...
Lipids (Fats)
Lipids [AKA fats] (used for) <ul><li>some hormones are lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Building the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><...
What are some food sources of Lipids? <ul><li>Dairy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>milk, cheese, butter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pla...
What elements are involved? <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = oxygen </li></ul>
Unique Features of Lipids <ul><li>Made of fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>stores most energy stored per gram. <...
Specific Examples of Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipid – used to make the cell membrane </li></ul>
Specific Type <ul><li>saturated fats  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically animal...
Specific Type <ul><li>unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid at room temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically plan...
Saturated vs unsaturated fats
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Nutrient classes of_food_12-10

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A description of the features, examples and uses of Carbohydrates Proteins and Lipids. Please complete your macromolecule table as you follow along.

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Nutrient classes of_food_12-10

  1. 1. Nutrient Classes of Food Biology
  2. 2. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Functions (used for) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide fuel for the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are used to build plant cell walls (cellulose) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What are some food sources of carbohydrates? <ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>flour </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>rice </li></ul>
  4. 4. Elements needed to build carbs: <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio in each type is 2 Hydrogen : 1 Oxygen (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Carbs: Unique Features <ul><li>end in –ose (glucose, sucrose, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>rings of atoms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide (mono = one, saccharide = sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>produced by plants by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Is the main short-term fuel for our body </li></ul>
  7. 7. Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Fructose found in many fruits & honey </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide (mono = one) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>table sugar </li></ul><ul><li>disaccharide (di = 2) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Starches – 3 types
  10. 10. Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><li>polysaccharide (poly = many) </li></ul><ul><li>energy storage for humans (medium term) </li></ul><ul><li>Used for carbo loading (pasta party) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Carbs: Specific Examples <ul><li>Glycogen (a polysaccahride) </li></ul><ul><li>AKA animal starch </li></ul><ul><li>Human energy reserves (liver and muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>broken down to release glucose </li></ul>
  12. 12. Specific Examples of Carbs <ul><li>Cellulose (polysaccharide) </li></ul><ul><li>makes cell walls rigid / strong </li></ul><ul><li>humans cannot digest – called fiber in our diet </li></ul>
  13. 13. Carbohydrates - FIBER <ul><li>What is the role of fiber in health? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb water and toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure regular elimination of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease cancer risk </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Protein
  15. 15. Proteins <ul><li>Function (used for) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>build tissue – hair, nails, skin, muscle, organs, tendons, ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repair tissue – after an injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate chemical activity (enzymes) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Proteins: What are some food sources? <ul><li>meat (beef, pork, fowl, fish, lamb) </li></ul><ul><li>dairy (milk, cheese, yogurt) </li></ul><ul><li>nuts </li></ul><ul><li>beans </li></ul><ul><li>eggs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Elements that build Proteins: <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>N = nitrogen </li></ul>
  18. 18. Unique Features of Proteins: <ul><li>made of chains of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>amino acid chains fold in a specific shape </li></ul><ul><li>shape determines function (job) </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes end in -ase </li></ul>
  19. 19. Specific Examples of Proteins: <ul><li>Enzymes – control chemical reactions (digestion, cell activities) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Specific Examples of Proteins: <ul><li>Hemoglobin – main component of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds and carries oxygen from lungs to cells </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Specific Examples of Proteins: <ul><li>Transport Proteins – help molecules move in or out of a cell membrane </li></ul>
  22. 22. Specific Examples of Proteins: <ul><li>Insulin – a hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signals cells to take glucose out of blood and use it. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Lipids (Fats)
  24. 24. Lipids [AKA fats] (used for) <ul><li>some hormones are lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Building the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>long-term energy storage (the fat our body stores) </li></ul>
  25. 25. What are some food sources of Lipids? <ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>milk, cheese, butter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>olive, peanut, corn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meats contain fats </li></ul>
  26. 26. What elements are involved? <ul><li>C = carbon </li></ul><ul><li>H = hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>O = oxygen </li></ul>
  27. 27. Unique Features of Lipids <ul><li>Made of fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>stores most energy stored per gram. </li></ul><ul><li>Very long chains of fatty acids with lots of bonds </li></ul>
  28. 28. Specific Examples of Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipid – used to make the cell membrane </li></ul>
  29. 29. Specific Type <ul><li>saturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically animal fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not healthy for us </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Specific Type <ul><li>unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid at room temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically plant fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>healthy for you </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Saturated vs unsaturated fats
  32. 32. The End

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