Hk yeditepe university-systemsengg-seminar-102012Presentation Transcript
Enterprise Architecture and BusinessProcess Modeling – Frameworks inPracticeHakan Kıranhakan.firstname.lastname@example.org@hkMind2biz
Abstract 2Many organizations have been in trouble with the complexity and the rate ofchange of business and technology. There is a need for some systematic way tohandle the situation not by chance but by complete control over the issue.Enterprise architecture (EA) is a complete expression of the enterprise; a masterplan which “acts as a collaborative force” between aspects of business planningsuch as goals, visions, strategies and governance principles; aspects of businessoperations such as business terms, organization structures, processes and data;aspects of automation such as information systems and databases; and theenabling technological infrastructure of the business such as computers, operatingsystems and networks. In a large modern enterprise, a rigorously definedframework is necessary to be able to capture a vision of the “entire organization”in all its dimensions and complexity [Jaap Schekkerman]. In this seminar, wepresent the practices behind EA, frameworks, business process modeling andtechniques and the context in which the EA project was carried out andimplications for research and practice.
Contents 3• Enterprise Architecture – Definition• The World Before EA• The Advent of EA• The Extended Enterprise• Summary• Business Process and Modeling• Conceptual Model of the Architecture• Enterprise Architecture Framework• The Zachman Framework• EA Lifecycle – TOGAF example
Enterprise Architecture 4• Enterprise Architecture : The analysis and documentation of an enterprise in its current and future states from an integrated view of strategic direction, business practices and technology resources.• Enterprise Architecture is a strategic information asset base which defines the mission – the information necessary to perform the mission – the technologies necessary to perform the mission and – the transitional processes for implementing new technologies in response to changing needs through a “baseline architecture” (as-is), a “target architecture (to-be)” and a “sequencing plan (migration plan)”
Enterprise Architecture 5
The World Before EA 6• Enterprise architecture is very much a holistic approach to the design of organizations. – The 1980s and 1990s of the last century have seen a focus on changing the way businesses operate. Business process redesign and business process re-engineering were used to rationalize processes and products. – In the past, the industrial revolution automated many production activities in companies. Work shifted from ‘blue- collar work’ to ‘white-collar work’. Improving the performance of white-collar work cannot be achieved by simply automating it, but by working smarter, enabled by information technology.
The World Before EA 7 – As Hammer (1990) stated in the title of his provocative article on business process reengineering: ‘Don’t automate, obliterate’, i.e., radically rethink illogical business activities, which are there because nobody dares to challenge them. – Another reason for changing business processes was customer focus. Companies need to compete and excel to keep and expand their customer base. – Given the complexity and risks involved in changing an organizational way of working, a business process engineering approach is needed. – Architecture is progressively seen not just as a tactical instrument for designing an organizations systems and processes, but as a strategic tool for enterprise governance.
The Advent of EA 8
The Advent of EA 9• To really profit from the strategic potential of enterprise architecture, an organization needs to optimize the skills, methods, and tools of its architects, and give them the right position in the organization. – In many companies, this has resulted in organizational units such as ‘corporate architecture’ or ‘enterprise architecture’ – The acceptance of the role of the enterprise architect depends directly on its perceived added value. – A key element in the recognition of the role of enterprise architecture is that we should be able to quantify the impact of architecture, both financially as well as in terms of the organizational performance.
The Extended Enterprise 10• However, new challenges for enterprise architects are just beyond the horizon. Customers have become increasingly demanding and product innovation rates are high. – Globalization of markets and the availability of new electronic media lead to new players entering existing markets, disintermediation, and an ever higher competitive pressure to work more effectively, reduce costs, and become more flexible. – The advent of e-business and e-government has definitely changed the way organizations and cross-organizational processes function.
The Extended Enterprise 11• The scope of an enterprise architect increasingly includes the extended enterprise, or business network, in which the enterprise operates (Kalakote and Robinson 2001, Hoque 2000).• Business network architecture has become a new playing field, determining the borders of business models and business network design.• Modelling techniques for this type of architecture may change, but more in the sense that different views will be used rather than entirely new concepts.• In this complicated, networked world, the role of the enterprise architect as a ‘great communicator’ needs to grow and even enter the realm of the ‘great negotiator’, as architectural decisions move beyond the reach of a single organizational unit or managerial entity.
The Extended Enterprise 12A strong enterprise architectureprocess helps to answer basicquestions like :Is the current architecturesupporting and adding value to theorganization ?How might an architecture bemodified so that it adds more valueto the organization ?Based on what we know aboutwhat the organization wants toaccomplish in the future, will thecurrent architecture support orhinder that ?
Summary 13• History – Lack of Alignment – IT centric – Siloed initiatives – Lack Cross-functional process owners – Enterprise Optimization focus is in the wrong place – We get lost in the details• Nowadays and Future – Enterprise Architecture is about Business Transformation – Process Modeling is a component of Enterprise Architecture – Cross-functional optimization is the focus – Cross-functional process ownership is obvious and rewarded
Business Process and Modeling 14Business Process :A collection of related,structured activities--a chainof events--that produce aspecific service or product fora particular customer orcustomers.Business Process Modeling :Documentation of a businessprocess using a combinationof text and graphical notation.Defines a process as a specificordering of work activitiesacross time and place with abeginning, an end, and clearlydefined inputs and outputs.
Conceptual Model of the Architecture 15 Conceptual model of architecture description (based on IEEE Computer Society 2000)
Enterprise Architecture Framework 16• Key elements of any Enterprise Architecture Framework : – Definition of deliverables that should be produced – Description of method by which deliverables are produced• Enterprise Architecture Framework : – Identifies the types of information needed to portray an Enterprise Architecture – Organizes the types of information into a logical structure – Describes the relationships among the information types – Often the information is categorized into architecture models and viewpoints.
Enterprise Architecture Framework 17
Conceptual Description of The Zachman Framework 18Background• 1987 Zachman Framework for Enterprise ArchitectureIntent• Influenced by principles of classical architecture• Establishes a common vocabulary and set of perspectives for describing complex enterprise systems• Provides blueprint, or architecture, for an organization’s information infrastructureScope• Holistic descriptive model of an enterprise’s information infrastructure from six perspectives: planner, owner, designer, builder, subcontractor, and the working system
The Zachman Framework 19
EA Lifecycle 20 Gather Data System & Transition to Technology Implementation Architecture Implementation Data Architecture Plan Technology Application Architecture Architecture
The TOGAF way 21• Reference model – How to do certain tasks. – Not an outcome!• Zachman, DoDAF, TOGAF, other sector oriented.• They’re all adjustable to your needs.
The TOGAF way 22• Never ending organization process which builds upon several stages: – Initiation – Business architecture. – Information architecture – Applications architecture – Infrastructure architecture – Governance – Gap analysis – And again …
Enterprise architecture - TOGAF 23
Steps for each phase 24A. Initiation and Framework: 1. Use Business Scenarios to define relevant business requirements 2. Identify stakeholders / concerns 3. Build consensus with partnersB. Baseline Description 1. Build description of current system 2. Identify “what’s wrong” 3. Inventory of re-usable building blocksC. Target Architecture: 1. Identify all needed services 2. Multiple views to address stakeholder concerns
Steps for each phase 25D. Opportunities and Solutions: 1. Evaluate and select major work packagesE. Migration Planning: 1. Prioritize work 2. Develop outline planF. Implementation: 1. Develop full plan 2. ExecuteG. Architecture Maintenance 1. Establish procedure for maintenance of new baseline
Preliminary Phase: Frameworks & Principles 26• This phase prepares the organization for undertaking Enterprise Architecture successfully – Understand business environment – Commitment of key stakeholders – Agreement on scope – Establish principles – Establish governance structure – Agree method to be adopted
Phase A: Architecture Vision 27• Initiates one iteration of the architecture process – Sets scope, constraints, expectations – Required at the start of every architecture cycle• Validates business context• Creates Statement of Architecture work
Phase B: Business Architecture 28• The fundamental organization of a business, embodied in – its business processes and people, – their relationships to each other and the environment, – and the principles governing its design and evolution• Shows how the organization meets it’s business goals
Phase B: Business Architecture - Contents 29• Organization structure• Business goals and objectives• Business functions• Business Services• Business processes• Business roles• Correlation of organization and functions.
Phase B: Business Architecture - Steps 30• Confirm context• Define baseline• Define target – Views are important• Validate – Requirements – Concerns• Perform Gap analysis• Produce report
Phase C: Information Systems Architectures 31• The fundamental organization of an IT system, embodied in – relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution• Shows how the IT systems meets the business goals of the enterprise Continued
Phase C: Data or Applications first ? 32• It is usually necessary to address both – Not always the case, depending on project scope and constraints• May be developed in either order, or in parallel – Theory suggests Data Architecture comes first – Practical considerations may mean that starting with Application Systems may be more efficient• There will need to be some iteration to ensure consistency
Phase D: Technology Architecture 33• The fundamental organization of an IT system, embodied in – its hardware, software and communications technology – their relationships to each other and the environment, – and the principles governing its design and evolution
Phase E: Opportunities and Solutions 34• Identify the major implementation projects• Decide on approach – Make v Buy v Re-Use – Outsource – COTS – Open Source• Assess priorities• Identify dependencies
Phase F: Migration Planning 35• For projects identified in Phase E perform – Cost/benefit analysis – Risk assessment• Produce an implementation road-map
Phase G: Implementation Governance 36• Defines architecture constraints on implementation projects• Architecture contract• Monitors implementation work for conformance
Phase H: Architecture Change Management 37• Ensures that changes to the architecture are managed in a cohesive and architected way• Establishes and supports the Enterprise Architecture to provide flexibility to evolve rapidly in response to changes in the technology or business environment
Some references 381. Schekkerman Jaap, “How to survive in the jungle of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks”, Trafford, 2004.2. Bernard Scott A., “An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture”, Author House, 2004.3. Weske Mathias, “Business Process Management”, Springer, 20074. Minoli Daniel, “Enterprise Architecture A to Z“, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 20085. Lankhorst Marc, “Enterprise Architecture at Work“, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 20096. Zachman, J., “A framework for information systems architecture“ IBM Syst. J. 26, 19877. Van Den Berg, Martin, Van Steenbergen Marlies, “Building an Enterprise Architecture Practice“, Springer, 20068. Lankhorst Marc, “Enterprise architecture modelling—the issue of integration“, Advanced Engineering Informatics 18 P205–216, 2004