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Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2
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Osama Nutrition Antioxidant 2

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  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • Transcript

    • 1. Antioxidant What does it do?
        • Provides key nutrients needed by the body to neutralize free radicals.
        • Helps protect against cellular damage. May exhibit anti-aging benefits.
        • Super ORAC (Primary) Antioxidants are the body’s own natural defense against free radicals.
        • They scavenge or ‘mop’ them up before they have a chance to harm cells.
    • 2. What are vitamins?
      • Complex substances that regulate body processes
      • Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in reactions
      • No calories, thus no energy
    • 3. Categories Fat-soluble Dissolve in fat Water-soluble Dissolve in water Carried in bloodstream, A, D, E, K C and B-complex vitamins A and D excess can be harmful E and K usually not Excess amounts may cause extra work on kidneys
    • 4. Vitamin A (and carotenoids)
      • Functions:
        • Normal vision
        • Protects from infections
        • Regulates immune system
        • Antioxidant (carotenoids)
      • Food sources:
        • Liver
        • Fish oil
        • Eggs
        • Fortified milk or other foods
        • Red, yellow, orange, and dark green veggies (carotenoids)
    • 5. Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin)
      • Functions:
        • Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus
        • Helps deposit those in bones/teeth
        • Regulates cell growth
        • Plays role in immunity
      • Sources:
        • Sunlight (10 – 15 mins 2x a week)
        • Salmon with bones
        • Milk
        • Orange juice (fortified)
        • Fortified cereals
    • 6. Vitamin E
      • Functions:
        • Antioxidant, may lower risk for heart disease and stroke, some types of cancers
        • Protects fatty acids and vitamin A
      • Sources:
        • Vegetable oils
        • Foods made from oil (salad dressing, margarine)
        • Nuts
        • Seeds
        • Wheat germ
        • Green, leafy veggies
    • 7. Vitamin K
      • Functions:
        • Helps blood clot
        • Helps body make some other proteins
      • Sources:
        • Body can produce on its own (from bacteria in intestines)
        • Green, leafy veggies
        • Some fruits, other veggies, and nuts
    • 8. Thiamin (B1)
      • Functions:
        • Helps produce energy from carbs
      • Sources:
        • Whole-grain and enriched grain products
        • Pork
        • Liver
    • 9. Riboflavin (B2)
      • Functions:
        • Produce energy
        • Changes tryptophan (amino acid) into niacin
      • Sources:
        • Liver
        • Yogurt and milk
        • Enriched grains
        • Eggs
        • Green, leafy veggies
    • 10. Niacin
      • Functions:
        • Helps body use sugars/fatty acids
        • Helps enzymes function normally
        • Produces energy
      • Sources:
        • Foods high in protein typically (poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes)
        • Enriched and fortified grains
    • 11. Pyridoxine (B6)
      • Functions:
        • Helps body make non-essential amino acids
        • Helps turn tryptophan into niacin and serotonin
        • Help produce body chemicals (insulin, hemoglobin, etc)
      • Sources:
        • Chicken
        • Fish
        • Pork
        • Liver
        • Whole grains
        • Nuts
        • Legumes
    • 12. Folate (folic acid)
      • Functions:
        • Produces DNA and RNA, making new body cells
        • Works with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin
        • May protect against heart disease
        • Lowers risk of neural tube defects in babies
        • Controls plasma homocystine levels (related to heart disease)
      • Sources:
        • Fortified and enriched grains and breakfast cereals
        • Orange juice
        • Legumes
        • Green, leafy veggies
        • Peanuts
        • Avacados
    • 13. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
      • Functions:
        • Works with folate to make RBC’s
        • In many body chemicals and cells
        • Helps body use fatty acids/amino acids
      • Sources:
        • Animal products
        • Meat
        • Fish
        • Poultry
        • Eggs
        • Milk, other dairy
    • 14. Biotin
      • Functions:
        • Produces energy
        • Helps body use proteins, carbs, and fats from foods
      • Sources:
        • Wide variety of foods
        • Eggs
        • Liver
        • Wheat germ
        • Peanuts
        • Cottage cheese
        • Whole grain bread
    • 15. Pantothenic Acid
      • Helps produce energy
      • Helps the body use proteins, fat, and carbs from food
      • Sources:
        • Found in almost all foods
        • Meat, poultry, fish
        • Whole grain cereals
        • Legumes
        • Milk
        • Fruits, veggies
    • 16. Vitamin C
      • Functions:
        • Helps produce collagen (connective tissue in bones, muscles, etc)
        • Keeps capillary walls, blood vessels firm
        • Helps body absorb iron and folate
        • Healthy gums
        • Heals cuts and wounds
        • Protects from infection, boosts immunity
        • Antioxidant
      • Sources
        • Citrus fruits
        • Other fruits, veggies
    • 17. Deficiencies
      • Rickets (children and vitamin D)
      • Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D)
      • Scurvy (vitamin C)
      • Night blindness (vitamin A)
      • Beriberi (thiamin)
    • 18. What are minerals?
      • Regulate body processes
      • Give structure to things in the body
      • No calories (energy)
      • Cannot be destroyed by heat
    • 19. Categories of minerals
      • Major minerals
        • Calcium
        • Phosphorus
        • Magnesium
        • Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium)
      • Trace minerals
        • Chromium
        • Copper
        • Flouride
        • Iodine
        • Iron
        • Manganese
        • Selenium
        • Zinc
    • 20. Calcium
      • Bone building
      • Muscle contraction
      • Heart rate
      • Nerve function
      • Helps blood clot
    • 21. Phosphorus
      • Generates energy
      • Regulate energy metabolism
      • Component of bones, teeth
      • Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair)
      • Almost all foods, especially protein-rich foods, contain phosphorus
    • 22. Magnesium
      • Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions)
      • Maintains cells in nerves, muscles
      • Component of bones
      • Best sources are legumes, nuts, and whole grains
    • 23. Electrolytes
      • Chloride:
        • Fluid balance
        • Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses
      • Potassium
        • Maintains blood pressure
        • Nerve impulses and muscle contraction
      • Sodium
        • Fluid balance
        • Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses
        • Regulates blood pressure
    • 24. Electrolytes
      • Sources:
        • Salt (sodium chloride)
        • Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken, nuts (potassium)
    • 25. Iron
      • Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen
      • Brain development
      • Healthy immune system
      • Sources:
        • Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme)
        • Better absorbed from heme
        • Consume vitamin C with non-heme
        • Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc.
    • 26. Antioxidants
      • Slow or prevent damage to body cells
      • May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer
      • Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar)
      • Vitamin C
      • Vitamin E
      • Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains
    • 27. Stroke Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Macular Degeneration & Cataracts Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Skin Cancer & Melanoma Photo-aging (wrinkles) Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s Periodontitis Emphysema Coronary Heart Disease Alcohol & Viral Liver Diseases Diabetes Hypertension & Chronic Kidney Disease Colo-rectal Cancer Peripheral Vascular Disease Free Radical Diseases
    • 28.
      • The free radical diseases
      • Cancer initiation and promotion is associated with chromosomal defects and oncogene activation. It is possible that endogenous free radical reactions, like those initiated by ionizing radiation, may result in tumour formation.
    • 29.
      • The free radical diseases
      • Atherosclerosis may be due to free radical reactions involving diet-derived lipids in the arterial wall and serum to yield peroxides and other substances. These compounds induce endothelial cell injury and produce changes in the arterial walls .
    • 30.
      • Antioxidants
      • vitamin E
      • vitamin C
      • carotenoids
    • 31.
      • vitamin E
      • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble substance present in all cellular membranes and is mainly stored in adipose tissue, the liver and muscle. Vitamin E is a principal antioxidant in the body and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes from peroxidation.
    • 32.
      • Vitamin E and cancer
      • Besides being a free radical scavenger, vitamin E at high intakes enhances the body's immune responses. Vitamin E also inhibits the conversion of nitrites in the stomach to nitrosamines, which are cancer promoters.
    • 33.
      • Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease
      • Vitamin E intakes are associated with lowered risk of angina and mortality from heart disease.
    • 34.
      • Vitamin E and neurological disorders
      • Supplementation with vitamin C and E might be of benefit in slowing the progression of Parkinson's disease.
    • 35.
      • Vitamin C
      • Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. This vitamin is a free radical scavenger, it is considered to be one of the most important antioxidants in extra cellular fluids. Its protective effects extend to cancer, coronary artery disease, arthritis and aging.
    • 36.
      • Vitamin C and cancer
      • Vitamin C is effective in protecting tissues against oxidative damage. It suppresses the formation of carcinogens. Numerous studies have reported the protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on incidence of cancer . This is mainly attributed to the protective effect of vitamin C against cancer.
    • 37.
      • Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease
      • Vitamin C may lower total cholesterol in the blood, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Coronary heart disease mortality is higher in those with blood vitamin C levels that are near or in the deficient range.
    • 38.
      • Vitamin C and cataracts
      • High intake of fruits and vegetables which are rich sources of ascorbic acid appear to be protective too. In several studies, cataract patients were shown to have low vitamin C and E intakes and low plasma vitamin C levels.
    • 39.
      • Carotenoids
      • Carotenoids are a group of red, orange and yellow pigments found in plant foods, particularly fruits and vegetables.
      • Some carotenoids like b-carotene act as a precursor of vitamin A; others do not.
    • 40. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is essential for the body and is: A metalloprotein – containing several sub units organised around a metallic group An enzyme – the antioxidant enzyme SOD eliminates, in a continuous way, superoxide radicals, precursors of other oxygen reactive forms (secondary free radicals) And most importantly
    • 41. Why is SOD necessary? SOD acts at the source. It is the first and one of the major components of the body’s antioxidant system.
      • SOD is a powerful and efficient antioxidant:
        • 1 iu SOD eliminates 1μmol superoxide/min and SOD has an active lifespan of several days!
        • In the end, billions of superoxide molecules destroyed
      SOD is a primary antioxidant and possibly our most important one
    • 42. Reactive oxygen species: formation of secondary free radicals
      • Hydroxyl radical induces the formation of
      • secondary free radicals:
          • Secondary free radicals or organic peroxides are very toxic
          • They increase oxidative reactions which are propagated from one to the next
          • They are directly responsible for cell alterations and destruction
          • They indirectly participate in the inflammation process
    • 43. The BALANCE Between Pro-Oxidants and Antioxidants Pro-Oxidants ( Reactive Oxygen Species Free Radicals) Antioxidants OXIDATIVE STRESS Cell & Tissue Damage Protection / Tissue Repair Antioxidants Cell / Tissue Damage Oxidants
    • 44. Antioxidant systems: the primary antioxidants
      • The primary antioxidants :
          • are endogenous molecules
          • act at the source (where free radicals are created)
          • are enzymes which continuously eliminate the free radicals just formed:
          • - SOD eliminates the superoxide ion
          • - catalase and the glutathione peroxidase eliminate hydrogen peroxide
    • 45. Antioxidant systems: the secondary antioxidants
      • The secondary antioxidants
          • are exogenous molecules , carried by food (vitamins A, C, E, polyphenols…)
          • they scavenge the secondary free radicals
          • one molecule of a secondary antioxidant traps one free radical molecule – a 1:1 relationship
    • 46. Oxidants and antioxidants in the body Under normal circumstances and conditions, the body’s endogenous antioxidant systems are able to neutralize the oxidant (free radical) molecules Therefore -> no oxidative stress means -> no cell damage
    • 47. Oxidative stress… … is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant production increase of free radicals -> antioxidant systems overpowered
    • 48. Oxidative stress: consequences
      • A break in the equilibrium caused by…
              • UVA and B
              • Stress, overwork, diet
              • Pollution, chemicals, cigarettes
              • Chronic inflammation
      … puts the body into oxidative stress: -> attacks on cell constituents (cell membranes, protein, lipids DNA) Only solution: we must combat free radicals
    • 49. O 2 Figure 5. Pathways for the formation of reactive oxygen species  Superoxide dismutase  Haber-Weiss reaction;  Fenton reaction  Singlet oxygen  Superoxide radical anion  Peroxyl radical  lipid radical  lipid peroxyl radical UV light heme Fe CoQ 1 O 2  NADPH or CoQ  O 2 -   H 2 O 2 H +  H + HOO   Lipid (LH) L  H 2 O  O 2 LOO    OH  Fe 2+ H 2 O, H +
    • 50. The fight against secondary free radicals … … occurs with the secondary antioxidants (vitamins A,C, E, polyphenols etc) BUT antioxidants (acting 1 against 1) are quickly outnumbered and cannot eliminate a continuous and strong production of free radicals
    • 51. Secondary antioxidants are vital but just slow down the oxidative stress – we need to do something extra…
    • 52. Functions of Pentose Phosphate Pathway
      • NADPH for biosynthetic pathways (e.g., synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol);
      • 2) NADPH for maintaining glutathione in its reduced state .
      • 3) Pentose sugar for synthesis of nucleic acids
    • 53. Table 1 . Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants that Reduce Them Reactive Species Antioxidant Singlet oxygen 1 O 2 Vitamin A, vitamin E Superoxide radical (O 2 -  ) superoxide dismutase, vitamin C Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) Catalase; glutathione peroxidase Peroxyl radical (ROO  ) Vitamin C, vitamin E Lipid peroxyl radical (LOO  ) Vitamin E Hydroxyl radical (OH  ) Vitamin C
    • 54. Figure 6. Reactions of glutathione reduction and oxidation H 2 O 2 glutathione peroxidase 2 H 2 O 2 GSH GSSG glutathione reductase NADPH + H + NADP + pentose pathway
    • 55. SUMMARY OF ANTI-OXIDANT ENZYMES Glutathione peroxidase: 2 GSH + H 2 O 2  GSSG + 2 H 2 O Uses selenium as a cofactor Catalase : 2 H 2 O 2  H 2 O + O 2 Superoxide dismutase: 2 O 2 -  + 2H +  H 2 O 2 + O 2 Mitochondrial - Mn 2+ cofactor Cytoplasmic – Cu 2+ -Zn 2+ cofactors; mutations associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) Lipid Peroxidase: removes LOOH
    • 56.
      • selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase
      • intake may be related to lower cancer mortality
        • cancer patients have lower plasma Se levels
        • risk may be higher in those with low Se intake
        • AZCC study – reduced incidence of prostate, colon, lung cancers
      • toxicity (> 1 mg/day) results in hair loss, GI upset, nerve damage
      NUTRITIONAL CORRELATE: SELENIUM
    • 57. Figure 7. Antioxidant cascade Reduced forms/reduction Oxidized forms/oxidation rxn 9 rxn 7 rxn 1 rxn 6 rxn 5 rxn 4 Vit E red VIT E ox Vit C red VIT C ox LOOH lipid peroxyl radical LOO  Glutathione red (GSH) NADP + NADPH + H + Glucose-6-P Ribulose-5-P Pentose phosphate pathway (rxn 8) +ROOH rxn 2 Glutathione ox (GSSG) H 2 O 2 2H 2 O hydroxyl radical (OH  ) superoxide radical (O 2 -  ) reduced products
    • 58. Medical Scenario: If the antioxidant protective system in the red blood cell becomes defective, hemolytic anemia occurs; that is red blood cells undergo hemolysis and their concentration in the blood decreases. Such is the case if glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is defective in the pentose phosphate pathway. In individuals whose glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is defective, there is insufficient NADPH produced in red blood cells to maintain the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione at its normal value of well over 100. Hence, peroxides destroy the red cell membrane because of the limited protective mechanism in these cells.

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