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Definition of Epilepsy A disturbance of the electrical activity of the brain that can abruptly interfere with behavior, perception, movement, consciousness, or other brain functions.
Rate of Occurrence Epilepsy occurs in 1 out of 200 men, women, and children of every culture in the United States. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, it is estimated that 2.7 million people including 326,000 school-age children under 14 suffer from this condition.
Causes Birth asphyxia Intrauterine infection Metabolic disorders Head injury Congenital brain malformation Cerebral Palsy Nervous system infections
Behavioral Characteristics Staring spells Bed wetting Memory gaps Wandering Tongue biting during sleep Violent muscle spasms during sleep If problems with memory or thinking, personality disorders, or physical handicaps coexist, social adjustment is more difficult.
Physical Characteristics Seizures-characterized by recurrent seizures or a neurologic syndrome associated with seizures. May occur with little or no provocation. One or multiple seizures types may occur and they may change with age. Defined by seizure types, EEG patterns, and clinical settings.
Educational Needs Most children who have epilepsy without other diseases, do as well as peers in school. Learning and behavior problems most commonly appear when there are other neurologic signs.
Resources Blood Matters by MashaGessen http://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/toolkit/resource_guide.htm http://www.disabilityresources.org/EPILEPSY.html http://epilepsy.emedtv.com/epilepsy/epilepsy.html (article)
Organizations Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE)730 North Franklin StreetSuite 404Chicago, IL 60654info@CUREepilepsy.orghttp://www.CUREepilepsy.orgTel: 312-255-1801Fax: 312-255-1809 Epilepsy Foundation8301 Professional PlaceLandover, MD email@example.com://www.epilepsyfoundation.orgTel: 301-459-3700 800-EFA-1000 (332-1000)Fax: 301-577-2684 People Against Childhood Epilepsy (PACE)7 East 85th StreetSuite A3New York, NY firstname.lastname@example.org://www.paceusa.orgTel: 212-665-PACE (7223)Fax: 212-327-3075
Strategies to help in a classroom Repetition Direct instruction Constant patterning and interaction Predictable routine Placement in the front of the classroom for better observation
Bibliography Epilepsy and the Family by Richard Lechtenberg, M.D. First Aid & Family Health by Dr. Peter Fermie, Dr. PippaKeech, and Dr. Stephen Shepard www.epilepsy.com http://www.ehow.com/way_5490017_strategies-teachers-children-epilepsy.html
Definition of Sickle Cell A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the furthest reaches of the body.
Rate of Occurrence Common Among: Ancestors from Sub-Saharan Africa Spanish speaking regions (S. America, Cuba, and Central America) Saudi Arabia India Mediterranean (Turkey, Greece, and Italy) USA 1 in 500 African Americans 1 in 1,000 to 1,400 Hispanic Americans
Causes Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to carry oxygen. It is made up of alpha chains and beta chains. A child with sickle cell disease has inherited two defective genes for the beta chain of hemoglobin. The hemoglobin can take on an abnormal shape, distorting the shape of RBCs. The cells change from a normal round, doughnut shape to the elongated shape of a sickle, or the shape of the letter "C." In order for sickle cell to occur, a sickle cell gene must be inherited from both the mother and the father, so that the child has two sickle cell genes.
Behavioral Characteristics Possible emotional trauma
Physical Characteristics Fatigue and Anemia Pain Crises Dactylitis(swelling and inflammation of the hands and/or feet) and Arthritis Bacterial Infections Splenic Sequestration (sudden pooling of blood in the spleen) and Liver Congestion Lung and Heart Injury Leg Ulcers Aseptic Necrosis and Bone Infarcts (death of portions of bone) Eye Damage Other Features
Educational Needs Like everyone else, children with sickle cell disease will have different abilities. Some will do well and go on to higher education, others will have difficulty with their school work. But as good parents, it is up to you to ensure that each child has the best possible opportunities for learning. If your child is sick and has to be away from school, you can help avoid them falling too far behind by speaking with his/her teacher, and together making a 'catch-up' study plan.
Resources Future Perfect By: Lori B. Andrews http://scinfos.hostcentric.com/sickletrait.htm http://www.sicklecelldisease.org/about_scd/glossary.phtml http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/sicklecell/articles.html (article)
Organizations American Society of Hematology Genetics Education Center (University of Kansas Medical Center) Genetics Home Reference - National Library of Medicine National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH) National Marrow Donor Registry Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, Inc. Sickle Cell Kids.org