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Epilepsy & Sickle Cell

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  • 1. Epilepsy & Sickle Cell
    Jaci Ewing & Heather McKnight
  • 2. Epilepsy
  • 3. Definition of Epilepsy
    A disturbance of the electrical activity of the brain that can abruptly interfere with behavior, perception, movement, consciousness, or other brain functions.
  • 4. Rate of Occurrence
    Epilepsy occurs in 1 out of 200 men, women, and children of every culture in the United States.
    According to the Epilepsy Foundation, it is estimated that 2.7 million people including 326,000 school-age children under 14 suffer from this condition.
  • 5. Causes
    Birth asphyxia
    Intrauterine infection
    Metabolic disorders
    Head injury
    Congenital brain malformation
    Cerebral Palsy
    Nervous system infections
  • 6. Behavioral Characteristics
    Staring spells
    Bed wetting
    Memory gaps
    Tongue biting during sleep
    Violent muscle spasms during sleep
    If problems with memory or thinking, personality disorders, or physical handicaps coexist, social adjustment is more difficult.
  • 7. Physical Characteristics
    Seizures-characterized by recurrent seizures or a neurologic syndrome associated with seizures. May occur with little or no provocation. One or multiple seizures types may occur and they may change with age. Defined by seizure types, EEG patterns, and clinical settings.
  • 8. Educational Needs
    Most children who have epilepsy without other diseases, do as well as peers in school.
    Learning and behavior problems most commonly appear when there are other neurologic signs.
  • 9. Resources
    Blood Matters by MashaGessen
    http://epilepsy.emedtv.com/epilepsy/epilepsy.html (article)
  • 10. Organizations
    Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE)730 North Franklin StreetSuite 404Chicago, IL   60654info@CUREepilepsy.orghttp://www.CUREepilepsy.orgTel: 312-255-1801Fax: 312-255-1809
    Epilepsy Foundation8301 Professional PlaceLandover, MD   20785-7223postmaster@efa.orghttp://www.epilepsyfoundation.orgTel: 301-459-3700 800-EFA-1000 (332-1000)Fax: 301-577-2684
    People Against Childhood Epilepsy (PACE)7 East 85th StreetSuite A3New York, NY   10028pacenyemail@aol.comhttp://www.paceusa.orgTel: 212-665-PACE (7223)Fax: 212-327-3075
  • 11. Parent Resources
    Intractable Childhood Epilepsy AlliancePO Box 3656360 Shallowford RoadLewisville, NC   27023info@ice-epilepsy.orghttp://www.ice-epilepsy.orgTel: 336-946-1570Fax: 336-946-1571
  • 12. Strategies to help in a classroom
    Direct instruction
    Constant patterning and interaction
    Predictable routine
    Placement in the front of the classroom for better observation
  • 13. Bibliography
    Epilepsy and the Family by Richard Lechtenberg, M.D.
    First Aid & Family Health by Dr. Peter Fermie, Dr. PippaKeech, and Dr. Stephen Shepard
  • 14. Sickle Cell
  • 15. Definition of Sickle Cell
    A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the furthest reaches of the body.
  • 16. Rate of Occurrence
    Common Among:
    Ancestors from Sub-Saharan Africa
    Spanish speaking regions (S. America, Cuba, and Central America)
    Saudi Arabia
    Mediterranean (Turkey, Greece, and Italy)
    1 in 500 African Americans
    1 in 1,000 to 1,400 Hispanic Americans
  • 17. Causes
    Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to carry oxygen. It is made up of alpha chains and beta chains. A child with sickle cell disease has inherited two defective genes for the beta chain of hemoglobin.
    The hemoglobin can take on an abnormal shape, distorting the shape of RBCs. The cells change from a normal round, doughnut shape to the elongated shape of a sickle, or the shape of the letter "C."
    In order for sickle cell to occur, a sickle cell gene must be inherited from both the mother and the father, so that the child has two sickle cell genes.
  • 18. Behavioral Characteristics
    Possible emotional trauma
  • 19. Physical Characteristics
    Fatigue and Anemia
    Pain Crises
    Dactylitis(swelling and inflammation of the hands and/or feet) and Arthritis
    Bacterial Infections
    Splenic Sequestration (sudden pooling of blood in the spleen) and Liver Congestion
    Lung and Heart Injury
    Leg Ulcers
    Aseptic Necrosis and Bone Infarcts (death of portions of bone)
    Eye Damage
    Other Features
  • 20. Educational Needs
    Like everyone else, children with sickle cell disease will have different abilities. Some will do well and go on to higher education, others will have difficulty with their school work. But as good parents, it is up to you to ensure that each child has the best possible opportunities for learning. If your child is sick and has to be away from school, you can help avoid them falling too far behind by speaking with his/her teacher, and together making a 'catch-up' study plan.
  • 21. Resources
    Future Perfect By: Lori B. Andrews
    http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/sicklecell/articles.html (article)
  • 22. Organizations
    American Society of Hematology
    Genetics Education Center (University of Kansas Medical Center)
    Genetics Home Reference - National Library of Medicine
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH)
    National Marrow Donor Registry
    Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, Inc.
    Sickle Cell Kids.org
  • 23. Parent Resources
  • 24. Strategies that help in a classroom
    Keep hydrated
    Control environmental temperature
    Allow resting periods
  • 25. Bibliography